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OEMETALO'^V  ^^»  I  TTCTFON 


ALLEN  COUNTY  PUBLIC  LIBRARY 


3  1833  01753  6563 


GENEALOGY 
973.006 
AM3529A 
19?.?. 


AMERICANA 

(AMERICAN  HISTORICAL  MAGAZINE) 


1^ 


XN^C/*^''^^ 


VOLUME  XVII 
January,  1923— December,  192i 


The  American  Historical  Society 
80  East  Eleventh  St., 
New  York 


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[  Copright,   1923,  by 

The  American  Historical  Society 
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All  rights  reser7>ed 


(") 


OLIVER  HAZARD   PERRY 

Statue  erected  at  The  Front.  Buffalo,  by  the  Perry  Centennial  Conimissioi 
1915.     Charles  H.  Xiehaus,  sculptor 


:x- 


PRESIDENT    FILL^[ORE.    AS    CAPTAIX    OF    THE    UXIOX 
COXTIXEXTALS,  A   BUFFALO  HOME  GUARD   UXIT 

From    a   photograph    taken    September,    1862.    now    owned    by    the 
Buffalo   Historical    Society 


^i 

AMERICANA 

JANUARY,    1923 

^^ 

Literature  of  Buffalo 

Authors,  Literary  Societies  axd  Libraries 


I^^^HE  COXDITIOXS  of  pioneer  settlements  ar. 
p^fij^3^|      cive  to  literary  productions.     AVliile  foresi 


•e  not  condu- 
rests  are  being 
felled,  lands  are  being  cleared  and  settlements  are  being 
established,  there  is  little  time  and  less  disposition  on 
the  part  of  settlers  to  engage  in  the  fine  arts.  The  subjugation  of 
territory  and  preparing  it  for  occupancy  are  the  matters  requirng 
the  first  consideration  of  any  new  community,  and  there  is  little  op- 
portunity for  the  exercise  of  the  creative  faculties.  This  condition 
may  be  rendered  still  less  conducive  to  the  cultivation  of  the  fine 
arts  by  such  stress  and  turmoil  of  social  affairs  as  occurred  along  the 
Niagara  frontier  for  a  century  or  longer  prior  to  the  burning  of 
Buffalo  in  1813.  Little  can  be  expected  from  a  community  under 
such  tumultuous  and  war-like  conditions  as  prevailed  in  this  region 
prior  to  the  close  of  the  War  of  1812. 

Aside  from  the  literature  attributable  to  the  Niagara  region 
which  were  the  productions  of  explorers,  travellers  and  visitors,  lit- 
tle was  produced  worthy  of  the  name  of  literature,prior  to  the  advent 
of  Smith  H,  Salisbury  and  Hezekiah  Salisbury  in  1811.  That  year 
they  published  the  first  number  of  ''The  Buffalo  Gazette."  The 
first  book  was  entitled  ''Public  Speeches  delivered  at  the  Village  of 
Buffalo  on  the  Gth  and  8th  days  of  July,  1812,  by  Hon.  Erastus 
Granger  and  Red  Jacket,"  published  by  S.  H.  and  H.  A.  Salisbury, 
1812.  That  book  is  reproduced  in  Volume  IV  of  the  Publications 
of  the  Buffalo  Historical  Society.  Diplomatic  and  temperate  as 
were  the  speeches  of  Erastus  Granger,  and  eloquent  as  were  the 
speeches  of  Red  Jacket,  the  greatest  of  Indian  orators,  all  contained 


t  ..w^^-~This  narrative  relating  to  "Literature  of  Buffalo"  is  from  advance  sheets 
ot^   Alunicipality  of  Buffalo,  New  York— A  History,"  Hon.  Henry  Wavland  Hill,  LL.D., 
(Lewis  Historical  Publishing  Co.,  New  York  and  Chicago). 


Editor-in-Chief. 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

in  that  volume,  they  can  hardly  be  classed  as  the  literature  of  Buf- 
falonians,  though  it  may  be  said  that  Eed  Jacket,  whose  remains- 
now  peacefully  rest  beneath  the  heroic-sized  statue  in  Forest  La"\\ni 
Cemetery,  poured  forth  the  farewell  sentiments  of  his  vanishing  race 
in  words  that  ^\i\\  live  as  long  as  the  words  of  any  language  will  live. 
The  following  excerpts  from  the  utterances  of  Eed  Jacket  show 
the  sweep  of  his  vision,  the  pathos  and  power  of  his  matchless  elo- 
quence : 

"When  I  am  gone  and  my  warnings  are  no  longer  heeded,  the 
craft  and  avarice  of  the  white  man  ^\"ill  prevail.  My  heart  fails  me 
when  I  think  of  my  people  so  soon  to  be  scattered  and  forgotten. 
But  an  evil  day  came  upon  us.  Your  forefathers  crossed  the  great 
waters  and  landed  on  this  island.  Their  numbers  were  smalL  They 
found  friends,  not  eiiemies.  They  told  us  they  had  fled  from  their  o^\ai 
country  for  fear  of  wicked  men,  and  had  come  here  to  enjoy  their 
religion.  They  asked  for  a  small  seat.  We  took  pity  on  them  and 
granted  their  request,  and  they  sat  down  amongst  us.  We  gave 
them  corn  and  meat.  Brothers  of  the  pale  race:  We  crave  now, 
in  our  turn,  but  'a  small  seat'  in  yonder  domain  of  the  dead." 

Hardly  less  touching  and  eloquent  was  the  address  of  Chief  Na- 
thaniel Strong  in  Buffalo,  on  December  29,  1863,  from  which  is  ex- 
cerpted the  following : 

''Thus  perished  the  pride  and  glory  of  my  people.  His  efforts  to 
resist  the  advance  of  civilization  among  the  Iroquois  sprang  from  a 
mistaken  patriotism.  He  knew  not  the  irresistible  power  that  impels 
its  progress.  The  stalwart  oak  with  its  hundred  arms  could  not 
hope  to  beat  back  the  fierce  tempest.  He  lived  to  see  the  power  and 
glory  of  the  confederate  Iroquois  culminate.  He  saw  their  friend- 
ship courted  by  the  French  and  English  monarchies,  when  those 
gigantic  powers  were  grappling  in  a  desperate  struggle  for  suprem- 
acy in  the  new  world.  He  lived  to  see  his  nation  decline ;  its  power, 
its  influence,  its  numbers  wasting  away  like  spring  snows  on  verdant 
hill-sides. 

'*I  stand  before  you  now  in  the  last  hours  of  a  death-stricken 
people.  A  few  summers  ago,  our  council  fires  lighted  up  the  arches, 
of  the  primeval  wood,  which  shadowed  the  spot  where  your  city 
now  stands.  Its  glades  rang  with  the  shouts  of  our  hunters  and  the 
gleeful  laugh  of  our  maidens.  The  surface  of  yonder  bay  and  river 
was  seamed  only  by  the  feathery  wake  of  our  bark  canoes.  The 
smoke  of  our  cabins  curled  skyward  from  slope  to  valley. 

''To-night!  to-night!   I  address  you  as  an  alien  in  the  land  of 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

my  fathers.  I  have  no  nation,  no  country,  and,  I  might  say,  I  have 
no  kindred.  All  that  we  loved,  and  prized,  and  cherished,  is  yours. 
The  land  of  the  rushing  river,  the  thundering  cataract  and  the 
jeweled  lakes,  is  yours.  All  these  broad  blooming  fields,  those  wood- 
ed hills  and  laughing  valleys  are  yours — yours  alone." 

The  foregoing  excerpts  of  Indian  philosophy  and  eloquence^ 
some  of  them  in  English,  illustrate  the  flexibility,  sonorousness  and 
beauty  of  their  language,  as  well  as  something  of  their  command  of 
the  English  language,of  which  they  were  apt  students.  If  Buffalo  had 
no  literature  of  its  o"ssm  prior  to  the  destruction  of  the  village  in  1S13, 
it  had  the  great  background  of  Indian  lore  and  French  records, 
deposited  in  American  and  European  archives,  out  of  which  is  being 
produced  by  the  Buffalo  Historical  Society  such  works  as  ''The  Bed 
Jacket,"  and  other  Indian  papers,  "The  Life  of  General  Ely  S. 
Parker,"  ''An  Old  Frontier  of  France,"  by  Dr.  Frank  H.  Sever- 
ance, and  others  of  j)riceless  historical  value.  There  are  also  being 
collected  papers,  manuscripts  and  books  from  European  as  well  as 
from  American  sources  of  original  material  relating  to  the  Niagara 
region.  All  such  papers,  manuscripts  and  books  constitute  a  rich 
and  copious  collection  in  relation  to  this  territory.  Such  collection  in 
the  Buffalo  Historical  Society  is  voluminous,  as  is  the  collection  in 
the  Grosvenor  Library,  and  though  Buffalonians,  before  the  ^Yar  of 
1812,  did  not  produce  books  or  other  literary  productions  to  any 
great  extent,  since  that  time  they  have  acquired  from  other  sources 
and  also  produced  many  works  of  literary  merit  as  vnW  hereinafter 
appear. 

In  the  development  of  the  literature  of  a  people,  poetry  usually 
precedes  prose.  This  is  true  of  the  development  of  the  Hebraic,  the 
Hellenic,  and  other  early  literatures.  We  might  expect  that  to  be 
the  order  in  the  evolution  of  the  literature  of  modern  nations,  were  it 
not  for  the  fact  that  back  of  them  are  the  productions  of  the  preced- 
ing ages  from  whose  inexhaustible  fountains  they  are  continually 
making  fresh  draughts  to  supply  their  OAvn  educational  require- 
ments. That  was  the  condition  of  the  occupants  of  this  territory 
in  the  first  half  century  after  the  War  of  1812.  There  was  the 
imaginative  aboriginal,  the  polished  French,  and  the  stately  English 
literature,  to  draw  from.  The  territory  was  rich  in  all  essentials 
that  constitute  the  foundation  of  good  literature.     How  skillfully 

3 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

those  essentials  have  been  utilized  by  the  writers  of  Buffalo  appears 
in  their  works. 

Had  this  been  a  sterile  rather  than  a  region  fertile  in  Indian  lore, 
legend  and  song,  as  it  was  fertile  in  the  thrilling  episodes  of  peoples 
which  had  successively  occupied  it  and  whose  adventures,  hostilities 
and  achievements  comprise  much  of  the  history  of  the  region,  its 
literature  might  have  been  far  less  voluminous  and  far  less  illum- 
inating. However,  with  such  abundant  data  and  records  of  the  past, 
constituting  a  priceless  literary  heritage  to  the  writers  in  and  about 
Buffalo,  much  has  been  ex^Dected  of  them,  and  in  that  respect  they 
have  not  fallen  short  of  their  opportunities.  One  of  the  earliest 
poems,  of  twenty-two  stanzas,  was  that  of  Elder  A.  Turner,  on  ''The 
Death  of  Mr.  Job  Hoisington,  who  fell  in  defence  of  Black  Rock  on 
December  30,  1813."     One  stanza  reads  as  follows: 

"British   and   Indians,   all, 

The  massacre  began ; 
Arrows  of  death,  the  leaden  balls, 
Forbid  our  troops  to  stand." 

Such  productions  were  not  uncommon,  and  were  occasionally  re- 
peated at  local  entertainments. 

During  the  early  years  of  Millard  Fillmore,  who  occasionally 
taught  school,  and  was  so  engaged  at  Cold  Springs,  now  a  part  of 
Buffalo,  in  1825,  one  of  his  pupils  produced  eight  verses  on  "The 
Death  of  Calib  Dulittle,"  recently  from  Vermont,  which  were  read 
at  the  New  England  Kitchen — one  of  the  features  of  the  Old  Set- 
tlers' Festival.     The  opening  and  closing  stanzas  read  as  follows: 

"One  Calib  Dulittle  was  his  name, 
Who  lately  to  this  village  came, 
Residing  with  his  brother,  Jeemes, 
Last  Friday  noon  went  out,  it  seems, 

"To  cut  sum  timber  for  a  sled. 
The  sno  being  deep,  he  had  to  wade ; 
Full  40  rod  to  a  ash  tree. 
The  top  being  dry,  as  you  may  see. 

"Now,   Skollars,  all  a  warnin  take, 
How  Calib  Dulittle  met  his  fate. 
And  when  you  have  a  sled  to  make, 
Don't  let  a  tre  fall  on  your  pate." 

To  overcome  such  ignorance  on  the  part  of  the  pupils  then  in  the 
village  schools  was  not  the  least  of  Mr.  Fillmore's  problems. 

Another  effusive  production  of  that  period  was  the  ''Lamenta- 
ble Ballad  of  sixteen  stanzas  on  the  murder  of  John  Love  by  the 

4 


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LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

three  Thayres,"  ^vllicll  appeared  in  1826,  full  of  orthographic  and 
other  errors.  It  is  too  long  to  quote,  and  has  little  or  nothing  of  the 
poetic  spirit.  It  is  printed  in  Volume  I  of  the  Publications  of  the 
Buffalo  Historical  Society. 

At  the  opening  of  the  Grand  Erie  Canal  at  Buffalo  in  1825,  the 
following  anonymous  song  was  distributed  on  a  broad  sheet  of  silk 
and  revealed  something  of  the  enthusiasm  of  the  occasion. 


'Master  Dixon — A  New  Soxg." 


"Ye  brethren  dear,  who  now  unite 
In  this  grand  scene  of  pure  delight, 
\Ye  now  have  reached  the  glorious  height. 
The  level  of  Lake  Erie. 

"The  waters  of  the  east  and  west, 
The  Hudson,  Mohawk,  and  the  rest, 
In  sweet  communion  now  are  blest; 
They  mingle  with  Lake  Erie. 

"This  day  we  all  rejoice  to  meet; 
The  glorious  work  is  now  complete. 
The  mountain's  levelled  at  our  feet, — 
Is  levelled  with  Lake  Erie. 

"Accomplished  is  the  grand  design. 
The  work  of  Level,  Square  and  Line ; 
O  !   Alasonry,  the  art  was  thine, 
To  triumph  o'er  Lake  Erie. 

"Where  is  the  nation  that  can  show 
Such  streams  as  thro'  our  mountains  flow 
To  the  Atlantic,  far  below 
The  level  of  Lake  Erie? 


"The  work  of  many  a  freeman's  hand, 
A  brave,  a  bold,  a  noble  band — 
The  guardians  of  this  happy  land. 
The  conquerers  of  Lake  Erie. 

"Buffalo,  O !  who  can  ever  view 
These  works  so  grand,  these  scenes  so  new, 
And  not  admire,  and  love  thee,  too. 
Thou  child  of   ancient  Erie? 

"Around  thy  paths  I  love  to  roam, 
For  every  house  is  here  a  home ; 
I  bless  the  hour  when  first  I  come 
To  meet  with  thee  and  Erie. 

'O !  who  will  not  this  day  rejoice, 
And  lift  on  high  his  grateful  voice? 
Come,  men  and  women,  girls  and  boys, 
Shout  for  Buffalo  and  Lake  Erie ! 

'This  happy  day  shall  ever  be 
Remembered  as  a  jubilee; 
The  Lakes,  the  Rivers,  join  the  Sea, 
The  Ocean  weds  Lake  Erie." 


There  also  appeared  in  the  "Buffalo  Journal,"  published  by 
David  M.  Day,  in  January,  1826,  a  poem,  of  which  the  six  concluding 
verses  are  the  following : 

"Let  despots  mock  the  joy  with  which  we  met 
Upon  our  shores  our  fathers'  friend  and  son, 
And  greeted  him — the  gallant  Lafayette. 
Dare  they  insult  the  flag  that  bore  him  home? 
No !    Europe  never  will  again  forget 
The  due  respect  and  proper  courtesy 
Columbia's  Banner  claims  upon  the  sea. 

"My  Muse  wants  breathing,  she  is  too  sublime 
For  modern  ears ;  't  were  well  to  take  good  care 
Lest  criticks  ridicule  her  lofty  rh>'Tne, 
Which  would,  indeed,  be  a  most  sad  affair. 
We'll  lower  our  strain  then,  and  devote  a  line 
To  home  concerns.    'Tis  said  that  Buffalo 
Is  soon  to  be  a  city,  and  I  know 

"No  reason  why  she  should  not.    The  foundation 
Of  Ararat  we  lately  helped  to  fix 
And  have  had  other  public  celebrations 
(According  to  my  note-book  sixty-six). 
And  have  a  right  to  make  our  calculations 
Of  future  greatness.     There  is  something  pretty 
And  quite  harmonious  in  the  name  of  'city.' 

5 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

"The  year  hath  been  to  us  a  jubilee, 
A  year  of  great  rejoicing;  we  have  seen 
Lake  Erie's  waters  movine:  to  the  sea 
On  their  element.    The  hark  I  deem 
Which  bore  our  gift,  more  famous  \-et  shall  be 
Than  that  proud  ship  in  which  to  ancient  Greece 
The  intrepid  Jason  bore  the  Golden  Fleece. 

"Yet  boast  we  not  of  mighty  labors  done 
In  our  own  strength  or  wisdom;  we  would  bless 
His  sacred  name  in  morning  orison, 
Who  stamped  his  footstep  on  the  wilderness; 
And  towns  and  cities  rose,  the  busy  hum 
Of  congregated  man,  where  erst  He  viewed 
One  dark  and  boundless  solitude. 

"And  the  white  sail  now  glistens  on  the  Lake, 
Where  late  the  Indian  in  his  bark  canoe. 
Bursting  from  some  low  marsh  or  tangled  brake, 
Shot  forth  upon  the  waters  joyously, 
Perchance  his  annual  hunting  tour  to  make. 
Where  since  the  cultivated  tield,  I  ween, 
That  savage  mariner  himself  hath  seen." 

There  were  various  other  poetic  productions  more  or  less  fugi- 
tive, and  also  such  poems  as  "Invocation  to  Genius,"  ''Saturday 
Evening,"  "The  Hearthstone,"  "Address  Spoken  at  the  Opening 
of  the  Buffalo  Theater,"  on  June  22,  1835,  and  "Tehoseroron," 
all  by  Hon.  Jesse  Walker.  There  have  been  many  other  produc- 
tions, some  of  which  were  occasional  and  others  formal,  by  many 
Buffalo  poets.  Among  such  were  the  following  writers,  namely: 
Bryant  Burwell,  Edward  Christy,  A.  Tracy,  Thomas  D'Arcy  Mc- 
Gee,  Guy  H.  Salisbury,  Mrs.  H.  E.  G.  Arey,  Agues  D.  Emerson,  sup- 
posed to  be  an  assumed  name,  Eachel  Buchanan  Gildersleeve,  Mrs. 
John  A.  Ditto,  John  C.  Lord,  Emily  Bryant  Lord,  David  Went- 
worth,  Matilda  H.  Stewart,  Anson  G.  Chester,  J.  Harrison  Mills, 
Jerome  B.  Stillson,  Charles  D.  Marshall,  Amanda  T.  Jones,  Eliza- 
beth Kellar,  James  Kendall  Hosmer,  Rev.  J.  Hazard  Hartzell,  Jabez 
Loton,  Mary  E.  Mixer,  Clara  A.  Hadley,  Augustus  Radcliffe  Grote, 
Mary  Norton  Thompson,  Elizabeth  M.  Olmsted,  Maiy  A.  Eipley, 
James  N.  Johnson,  David  Gray,  Annie  E.  Annan  (Mrs.  William 
H.  Glenny),  William  B.  Wright,  Anna  Katherine  Green  (Mrs. 
Charles  Rohlfs),  Rev.  A.  Cleveland  Coxe,  Arthur  W.  Austin,  Mary 
E.  Burtis,  Linda  DeK.  Fulton,  Josiah  Letchworth,  M.  J.  Kittinger, 
James  W.  Barker,  Joseph  O'Connor,  Esther  C.  Davenport,  W.  H. 
C.  Hosmer,  Grace  Balfour,  Ellen  M.  Ferris,  Irving  Bro^\^le,  Allen 
Gilman  Bigelow,  John  Charles  Shea,  Mary  Evehm  Austin,  Frederic 
Almy,  Eugene  V.  Chamberlain,  Mary  J.  MacColl,  Agnes  B.  Earl, 

6 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

Minnie  Ferris  Hauenstein,  Josephine  Wilhelm  Wickser,  Kathar- 
ine E.  Conway,  William  Mcintosh,  Eev.  Patrick  Cronin,  Frank  H. 
Severance,  Edmund  J.  Plumley,  Charles  S.  Parke,  Frederick  Peter- 
son, George  Hibbard,  Carrie  Judd  Montgomery,  Ada  Davenport 
Kendall,  Henry  A.  VanFredenberg,  Henry  R.  Howland,  Bessie 
Chandler,  Rowland  B.  Mahany,  Julia  Ditto  Young,  ^Mark  S.  Hub- 
bell,  Walter  Storrs  Bigelow,  Agnes  Shtdloe,  Sophie  Jewett,  Theo- 
dore Francis  MacManus,  Charles  Carroll  Albertson,  Willard  E. 
Keyes,  Charlotte  Eosalys  Martin,  Walter  Clark  Nichols,  Helen 
Thayer  Hutcheson,  Elizabeth  Flint  Wade,  Frances  Hubbard  Larkin, 
Cj-press  Spurge,  Emily  M.  Howard,  David  Gray,  Jr.,  Irving  S. 
Underbill,  Hannah  G.  Fernald,  Jesse  Storrs  Ferris,  Edith  Eaton 
■Cutter,  Arthur  Detmers,  Rev.  Albert  T.  Chester,  Hon.  James  Tor- 
rington  Spencer,  Anne  Murray  Earned,  Rose  Mills  Powers,  Sarah 
Evans  Letchworth,  Emily  Howland  Leeming,  Marrion  Wilcox,  Char- 
lotte Becker,  Richard  Watson  Gilder,  Aline  Glenny,  Caroline  Misch- 
ka  Roberts,  Thekla  Adam,  Jane  F.  Dowling,  S.  Cecilia  Cotter  King 
(Mrs.  William  A.  King),  Philip  Becker  Goetz,  Donald  Bain,  James 
S.  Metcalf,  Carlton  Sprague,  Robert  Cameron  Rogers,  John  D. 
Wells,  George  K.  Staples,  Walter  M.  Zink,  Thomas  S.  Chard,  Wil- 
liam Mcintosh,  Arthur  W.  Austin,  Mary  L.  Hall,  Harriet  E.  Bene- 
dict, Mrs.  Emily  Thatcher  Bennett,  Antoinette  Haven,  Matilda  Stew- 
art, Charlotte  L.  Seaver,  Katharine  E.  Conway,  Mrs.  James  F. 
Gluck  and  others. 

Some  of  the  foregoing  writers  produced  only  occasional  verses, 
and  they  can  hardly  be  said  to  be  entitled  to  the  appellation,  ''poet." 
Some  of  them  were  not  residents  of  Buffalo,  but  wrote  the  poems  to 
be  used  on  some  public  occasion  in  Buffalo.  Others,  while  passing 
through  Buffalo,  wrote  concerning  it,  or  of  Lake  Erie  and  the  Ni- 
-agara  region,  as  did  Thomas  Moore,  who  in  his  poem  from  Buffalo 
upon  Lake  Erie  to  the  Honorable  W.  R.  Spencer  thus  soliloquized: 

"As  far  from  thee  my  lonely  course  I  take, 
No  bright  remembrance  o'er  the  fancy  plays, 
No  classic  dream,  no  star  of  other  days, 
Has  left  that  visionary  glory  here, 
That  relic  of  its  light,  so  soft,  so  dear. 
Which  gilds  and  hallows  even  the  rudest  scene. 
The  humblest  shed,  where  genius  once  has  been ! 

"Even  now,  as,  wandering  upon  Erie's  shore, 
I  hear  Niagara's  distant  cataract  roar." 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

No  part  of  our  fair  domain  has  been  visited  by  more  writers 
from  this  and  other  countries  than  the  Niagara  region,  and  their 
poems  and  other  productions  occasioned  thereby  would  fill  volumes, 
constituting  a  unique  literature  of  Niagara.  It  is  not  our  purpose, 
however,  to  undertake  to  enumerate  all  who,  from  the  visit  of  Father 
Hennepin  in  167S  to  the  present,  have  written  of  Niagara,  Lake  Erie, 
and  the  region  about  Bulfalo.  The  names  of  those  already  given 
will  suffice  to  indicate  something  of  the  extent  of  the  interest  Avhich 
the  people  of  this  city  have  taken  in  poetic  composition,  or  in  that 
which  ''embodies  the  product  of  the  imagination  and  fancy  and 
appeals  to  these  powers  in  others,  as  well  as  to  the  finer  emotions, 
the  sense  of  ideal  beauty  and  the  like." 

Many  Buifalonians  have  drunk  deep  at  the  Pierian  fountain  of 
the  Muses,  and  for  nearly  a  century  have  poured  forth  their  lyrics 
and  other  poetic  compositions  in  continuous  succession.  Many  will 
be  foimd  in  the  anthology  entitled  ''The  Poets  and  Poetry  of  Buf- 
falo," by  James  N.  Johnston,  and  others  are  listed  in  the  paper  en- 
titled "The  Authors  of  Buffalo,"  by  Frank  H.  Severance,  and  still 
others  are  to  be  found  in  miscellaneous  publications. 

In  addition  to  the  poems  already  mentioned,  only  a  few  others 
can  be  particularized.  One  of  Buffalo's  best  knoA\m  poets  in  the 
sixties  was  Guy  H.  Salisbury,  whose  poem  entitled  "Buffalo"  con- 
tains the  f olloA\'ing  stanzas : 

'By  Erie's  blue  and  sparkling  sea  Her  engines  vex  the  tide; 
The  tangled  forest  grew,  And  broad  canals  rich  products  bear 
And  red  men  o'er  the  silver  waves  To  Ocean's  distant  side. 
Paddled  the  light  canoe.  Art  comes  and  rears  the  stately  pile- 
No  pale-face  then  had  sought  its  shore  Temples  of  the  Living  God— 
With  rail,  or  steam,  or  venturous  oar,  And  beauteous  homes  adorn  the  spot 
To  wake  the  echoes  there ;  Where  savage  men  abode. 
The  wild  beast  ranged  the  solemn  wood 

To  find  in  its  dim  solitude  "History  her  classic  store  outspreads, 

His  rude  and  lonely  lair.  And  Genius  wakes  the  lyre, 

And  workers  shape  their  wondrous  things 

"The  white  men  came  to  make  their  homes  By  forge  and  furnace  fire. 

Amid  the  wilderness,  A  leeming  city  stands  to-day 

And  back  the  savage  tribes  recede  Where  once  the  hamlet  stood, 

As  on  the  intruders  press.  And  lofty  spires  their  shafts  uprear 

The  forests  sink,  the  plough's  sharp  edge  Where  waved  the  sylvan  wood. 
Soon  cleaves  the  virgin  soil. 

And  waving  harvest-fields  repay  "No  hoary  seat  of  ancient  lore 

The  thouglitful  sower's  toil.  Hath  here  scholastic  bowers. 

The  village  streets  on  every  side  But  Learning  yet  hath  many  shrines 

Their  lengthened  lines  extend.  In  this  dear  home  of  ours. 

And  dwellings  rise,  whose  circling  smoke  The  people's  sons,  or  rich  or  poor. 

From  household  hearths  ascend.  Her  priceless  boon  may  share, 

And  Wisdom's  mines  reward  but  toil 

"Fair  Commerce  comes  and  spreads  the  sail.  And  earnest  delvers  there." 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 


Another  sliort  production  illustrative  of  Buffalo  poets  is  that 
of  Charles  D.  Marshall,  entitled  ''The  Poet's  Thought:" 

"The  poet  roams  through  flower-strewn  meads 
And  phicks  a  bright  bouquet ; 
He  binds  it  with  a  thread  of  thought; — 
It  lives  its  little  day.  .  %v 

"But  soon  the  chilling  breath  of  Time  .,-      ^^ 

Shall  strew  the  leaves  around; 
The  cold  world  with  its  iron  heel 
Will  crush  them  in  the  ground. 

"But  let  this  truth  his  sad  heart  cheer 
And  soothe  in  hour  of  need ; 
Beneath  the  calyx  of  each  flower 
Lies  hidden  precious  seed, 

"Which  borne  upon  the  changing  wind, 
Wafted  by  every  air, 
Will  find  rich  soil  in  some  fond  heart, 
Take  root,  and  blossom  there." 

Dr.  John  C.  Lord,  ''whose  fancy,"  said  James  0.  Putnam,  "lit- 
erally revelled  in  the  imagery  of  the  Hebrew  melodists,"  contributed 
several  poems  to  the  literature  of  the  region.  The  first  of  these  is 
entitled  "Buffalo,"  and  reads  as  follows: 

"Queen  of  the  lakes,  whose  tributary  seas 

Stretch  from  the  frozen  regions  of  the  North  h'^  lyiic   v ','  '',     • 

To  Southern  climates,  where  the  wanton  breeze  ,     . « .* 

O'er  field  and  forest  goes  rejoicing  forth:  '*'• 


"As  Venice,  to  the  Adriatic  Sea  lend 

Was  wedded,  in  her  brief,  but  glorious  day; 
So  broader,  purer  waters  are  to  thee, 
•    To  whom  a  thousand  streams  a  dowry  pay. 

"What  tho'  the  wild  winds  o'er  thy  waters  sweep. 
While  lingering  Winter  howls  along  thy  shore, 
And  solemnly  'deep  calleth  unto  deep,' 
While  storm  and  cataract  responsive  roar — 

"'Tis  music  fitting  for  the  brave  and  free. 
Where  Enterprise  and  Commerce  vex  the  waves; 
The  soft  voluptuous  airs  of  Italy 
Breathe  among  ruins  and  are  wooed  by  slaves. 

"Thou  art  the  Sovereign  City  of  the  Lakes, 
Crowned  and  acknowledged ;  may  thy  fortune  be 
Vast  as  the  domain  which  thy  empire  takes, 
And  Onward  as  the  waters  to  the  sea." 

Dr.  John  C.  Lord  dedicated  an  ode  to  the  Union  Continentals,  en- 
titled "Forward!  March,"  which  opened  and  closed  mth  the  fol- 
lowing stanza : 

9 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

"For  altars  and  for  firesides, 
For  the  Country  and  for  God, 
For  the  State  our  fathers  founded, 
For  the  soil  on  which  they  trod, 
For  loyal  brethren  trembling 
Beneath  a  traitor's  nod — 
Forward!     March!" 

One  of  the  best  poems  of  the  late  Robert  Cameron  Eogers  was 
that  delivered  at  the  dedication  of  the  Pan- American  Exposition  in 
May,  1901.     Its  second  stanza  reads  as  follows : 

"Enchanted  city  where  the  dreaming  soul 
Conjures  the  minarets  of  far  Cathay — 
And  half  expects  along  some  waterway 
To  hear  all  Venice  in  a  barcarole; 
Mistress  of  moods,  across  whose  changing  face 
Half  of  old  Spain  and  half  of  Greece  we  trace; 
Hither  the  nations  of  the  West  have  brought 
Fruit  of  their  labour,  flower  of  their  thought; 
Best  of  their  best  besides  our  best  finds  place : 
The  Saxon  vigor  vies  with  Latin  grace ; 
And  tithes  are  paid  in  product  and  in  art. 
But  in  all  this  the  past  as  v/ell  has  part. 
The  imperial  cities  of  the  world  have  shov.-n 
Tributes  as  beautiful  at  worthy  shrines; 
Something  is  here  that  moves  on  different  lines ; 
A  master-thought  that  we  would  claim  our  own ; 
A  magic  word — a  dominant  that  cries 
Insistent  through  this  fugue  of  industries." 

The  follomng  are  the  conclnding  stanzas  of  the  lyric  poem  of 
Frank  H.  Severance,  entitled  "This  Greater  Buffalo:" 

"The  New  World's  grandest  marvel,  this :  to  blend 
In  one  new  type  the  sons  of  divers  strain. 
Begetting  here  a  brotherhood 

Of  purer  blood 

And  stronger  brain, 
Of  loftier  thought  and  broader  view, 
Of  clearer  vision  for  the  true. 

"Cities  are  built  on  ashes,  and  on  lives 
Without  fruition,  save  that  this  survives : 
A  field  more  fallow  for  the  common  good, 
A  higher  level  of  true  brotherhood. 
We  Babel-builders  with  our  cry  of  'great' 
Should  sanctify  instead 
This  dowry  of  the  dead. 
That  city  only  is  of  high  estate 
Whose  sons  and  daughters  in  themselves  are  great. 

"Art,  Science,  Letters, — lo, 
Handmaidens  of  the  Worthier  BuflFalo. 
Theirs  still  the  ministering  part — 
The  end  and  mission  of  all  art — 
To  wake  to  new  life,  and  control 
The  latent  forces  of  the  soul." 

10 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

In  186S,  William  B.  Wright  brought  out  his  ''Highland  Ram- 
blers,' and  in  1873  "The  Brook  and  Other  Poems."  The  fading 
year  is  beautifully  portrayed  by  William  B.  Wright  in  the  follo^ving 
lines : 

"The  year  moves  to  its  sad  decline, 
A  dull  gray  mist  enfolds  the  hills, 
The  flowers  are  dead,  the  thickets  pine, 
In  other  lands  the  swallow  trills; 
For  since  they  stole  his  Summer  flute 
The  moping  Pan  sits  stark  and  mute : 
The  slow  hooves  of  the  feeding  kine 
Crack  the  herbage  as  they  pass ; 
The  apples  glimmer  in  the  grass. 
And  woods  are  yellow,  woods  are  brown, 
The  vine  about  the  elm  is  red, 
Crow  and  hawk  fly  up  and  down. 
But  for  the  wood-thrush,  he  is  dead; 
The  ox  forsakes  the  chilly  shadow, 
Only  the  cricket  haunts  the  meadow.        ,^^ 

"The  feast  is  ending,  the  guests  are  going, 
In  bands  or  singly  they  quit  the  board ; 
The  torch  is  paling,  the  flutes  stop  blowing. 
The  meat  is  eaten,  the  wine  is  poured." 

Bishop  Arthur  Cleveland  Coxe  was  a  learned,  vigorous  and 
voluminous  writer  in  prose,  as  well  as  a  gifted  poet.  He  brought  out 
his  "Athvrold,"  his  first  collection  of  poems,  in  1838.  His  ''Christian 
Ballads"  appeared  in  1840,  his  "Athanasian  and  Other  Poems"  in 
1845,  and  his  "Pascal,  a  Collection  of  Easter  Poems,"  in  1889.  His 
poems  were  popular  in  England  as  well  as  in  America,  as  may  be 
assumed  from  such  as  the  following  stanza : 

"Now  pray  we  for  our  country  '•'     •'* 

That  England  long  may  be  bf.WC"-  '. 
The  holy  and  the  happy 

And  the  gloriously  free."  •  ^  '^1'  *^   ' 

The  follo^dng  are  from  his  "Carol"  and  show  something  of  his 
power  as  a  poet : 

"I  know — I  know  where  the  green  leaves  grow. 
When  the  woods  without  are  bare; 
Where  a  sweet  perfume  of  the  woodland's  bloom 
Is  afloat  on  the  winter  air ! 
When  tempest  strong  hath  howled  along, 
With  his  war-whoop  wild  and  loud. 
Till  the  broad  ribs  broke  of  the  forest  oak, 
And  his  crown  of  glory  bowed ; 
I  know —  I  know  where  the  green  leaves  grow, 
Though  the  groves  without  are  bare. 
Where  the  branches  nod  of  the  trees  of  God, 
And  the  wild  vines  flourish  fair. 

II 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

"I  know — I  know  where  blossoms  blow 
The  earliest  of  the  year ; 

Where  the  passion-flower,  with  a  mystic  power, 
Its  thorny  crown  doth  rear ; 
Where  crocus  breathes  and  fragrant  wreaths 
Like  a  censer  fill  the  gale; 
Where  cow-slips  burst  to  beauty  first, 
And  the  lily  of  the  vale ; 

And  snow-drops  white  and  pansies  bright  • 

As  Joseph's  colored  vest ; 
And  laurel-tod  from  the  woods  of  God, 
Where  the  wild-bird  builds  her  nest. 

"I  know — I  know  where  the  waters  flow 
In  a  marble  font  and  nook. 
When  the  frosty  sprite  in  his  strange  delight 
Hath  fettered  the  brav.ding  brook, 
When  the  dancing  stream,  with  its  broken  gleara. 
Is  locked  in  its  rocky  bed ; 
And  the  sing-song  fret  of  the  rivulet 
Is  hush  as  the  melted  lead ; 

Oh,  then  I  know  wiiere  the  waters  flow       cir.i--  ^ 

As  fresh  as  the  spring-time  flood, 
When  the  spongy  sod  of  the  fields  of  God 
And  the  hedges  are  all  in  bud. 

"I  know — I  know  no  place  below, 
Like  the  home  I  fear  and  love ; 
Like  the  stilly  spot  where  the  world  is  not 
But  the  nest  of  the  Holy  Dove. 
For  there  broods  He  'mid  every  tree 
That  grows  at  the  Christmas-tide, 
And  there,  all  year,  o'er  the  font  so  clear. 
His  hovering  wings  abide ! 
And  so,  I  know  no  place  below 
So  meet  for  the  bard's  true  lay, 
As  the  alleys  broad  of  the  Church  of  God, 
Where  Nature  is  green  for  aye." 

The  literature  of  Buffalo  has  been  enriched  by  the  productions 
of  many  other  gifted  poets,  none  of  whom,  however,  has  sung 
more  sweetly  nor  more  ideally  than  David  Gray,  for  a  long  time  on 
the  editorial  staff  of  "The  Courier."  His  immortal  epic,  ''The  Last 
of  the  Kah-Kwahs,"  is  a  gem  of  such  rare  beauty  that  it  vnl\  be 
treasured  as  long  as  the  English  language  continues  to  be  the 
vehicle  for  the  transmission  of  sublime  thoughts.  The  Kah-Kwahs 
were  supposed  to  be  the  Neutral  Nation  of  Indians  who  occupied 
the  site  of  Buffalo  previous  to  its  conquest  by  the  Senecas.  In  the 
year  1647  it  is  said  that  the  Neutral  Nation  was  destroyed  by  the 
Iroquois,  as  the  result  of  a  relentless  war  arising  from  a  quarrel 
which  occurred  at  a  place  kno^vn  as  Tu-shu-way,  the  Indian  village, 
located  in  the  place  of  the  linden  or  bass-wood  trees  on  the  Buffalo 
river.     The  following  stanzas  are  from  that  celebrated  poem  of 

12 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

David  Gray,  which  is  founded  upon  the  foregoing  legendary  Indian 
history: 

"The  city  sleeps ;  its  changing  features  fade 
In  the  green  depths  of  many  a  rustling  glade; 
The  wind  of  summer  whispers  sweet  and  low 
'Mong  trees  that  waved  three  hundred  years  ago. 
The  streamlet  seeks  the  path  it  knew  of  yore, 
And  Erie  murmurs  to  a  lonely  shore; 
The  birds  are  busy  in  their  leafy  towers 
The  trampled  earth  is  wild  again  with  flowers ; 
And  the  same  River  rolls  in  changeless  state, 
Eternal,  solemn,  deep  and  strong  as  fate.  i.ivc». 

It  is  the  time  when  still  the  forest  made 
For  its  dusk  children  a  protecting  shade; 
And  by  these  else  untrodden  sh.ores  they  stood. 
Embodied  spirits  of  the  solitude ! 
When  still  at  dawn,  or  day's  serener  close, 
The  smoke-wreaths  of  the  Kah-Kwah  lodges  rose. 

"No  hoary  legend  of  their  past  declares 
Through  what  uncounted  years  our  home  was  theirs — 
How  oft  they  hailed,  new-glittering  in  the  West, 
The  moon,  a  phantom-white  canoe,  at  rest 
In  deeps  of  purple  twilight — this  alone 
Of  all  their  vanished  story  has  not  flown; 
That,  through  unnumbered  summers'  long  increase, 
The  Neutral  Nation  was  the  home  of  peace. 
Far  to  the  north  the  Huron  war-w-hoop  rang. 
And  eastward,  on  the  stealthy  war-path,  sprang 
The  wary  Iroquois:  but  like  the  isle 
That,  locked  in  wild  Niagara's  fierce  embrace, 
Still  wears  the  smile  of  summer  on  its  face — 
(Love  in  the  clasp  of  Gladness) — so  the  while 
With  peace  the  Kah-Kwah  villages  were  filled. 
And,  as  the  Lake's  dark  heart  of  storm  is  stilled, 
The  fur}'  of  its  surge  constrained  to  calm 
Beneath  the  touch  of  winter's  marble  palm. 
So,  when  the  braves  of  warring  nations  met. 
They  changed  the  hatchet  for  the  calumet, 
And  hid  with  stolid  face  their  mounting  ire 
From  the  bright  glimmer  of  the  Kah-Kwah  fire.      ■— 

"Year  followed  year,  and  peaceful  Time  had  cast 
A  misty  autumn  stinshine  o'er  the  past. 
And,  to  the  hearts  that  calmly  summered  there, 
The  forehead  of  the  future  shone  as  fair ; 
Save  that  perchance  some  wise  and  wakeful  ear 
In  the  great  River's  ceaseless  song  could  hear. 
Through  the  mirk  midnight,  when  the  wind  was  still, 
The  murmured  presage  of  approaching  ill. 

"It  came  at  last — the  nation's  evil  day, 
Whose  rayless  night  should  never  pass  away. 
A  calm  foreran  the  tempest,  and,  a  space. 
Fate  wore  the  mask  of  joy  upon  his  face. 
It  was  a  day  of  revel,  feast  and  game, 
When  from  the  far-off  Iroquois  there  came 
A  hundred  plumed  and  painted  warriors,  sent 
To  meet  the  Kah-Kwah  youth  in  tournament. 
And  legend  tells  how  sped  the  mimic  fight; 

13 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

And  how  the  festal   fire  blazed  high  at  night 

And  laugh  and  shout  through  all  the  greenwood  rang; 

Till,  at  the  last,  a  deadly  quarrel  sprang. 

Whose  shadow,  as  the   frowning  guests  withdrew, 

Deepened,  and  to  a  boding  war-cloud  grew. 

And  not  for  long  tlie  sudden  storm  was  stayed; 

It  burst  in  battie,  and  in  many  a  glade 

Were  leaves  of  green  with  crimson  crost, 

As  if  by  finger  of  untimely  frost. 

Fighting  they  held  the  stubborn  pathway  back, 

The  foe  relentless  on  their  homeward  track ; 

Till  the  thinned  remnant  of  the  Kah-Kwah  braves 

Chose,  where  their  homes  had  been,  to  make  their  graves. 

And  rallied   for  the  last  and  hopeless  fight. 

With  the  blue  ripples  of  the  lake  in  sight. 

"Could  wand  of  magic  bring  that  scene  again 
Back,  with  its  terrors,  to  the  battle-plain, 
Into  these  silent  streets  the  wind  would  bear. 
Its  mingled  cry  of  triumph  and  despair; 
And  all  the  nameless  horror  of  the  strife. 
That  only  ended  with  a  nation's  life, 
Would  pass  before  our  startled  eyes,  and  seem 
The  feverish  fancy  of  an  evil  dream.  • , 

For  in  the  tumult  of  that  fearful  rout 

The  watch-light  of  the  Kah-Kwah  camp  went  out.  ''•• 

And,  thenceforth,  in  the  pleasant  linden  shade,  -^  . 

Seneca  children,  only,  laughed  and  played. 
And  still  the  River  rolled  in  changeless  state, 
Eternal,  solemn,  deep  and  strong  as  fate. 

"A  few  strange  words  of  a  forgotten  tongue 
That  still  by  Lake  and  River's  marge  have  clung, 
Are  all  that  linger,  of  the  Past,  to  tell, 
With  their  weird-sounding  music,  how  it  fell 
That  here  the  people  of  that  elder  day 
Sinned,  suffered,  loved,  hoped,  hated,  passed  awav. 
*********** 

"So  History's  dream  is  told,  and  fading,  fleet 
The  shadows  of  the  forest  from  the  street; 
But  is  it  much  to  ask,  if  it  were  sought, 
That  it  return  at  times  to  tinge  our  thoughts? — 
To  tell  us,  when  the  winter-fires  are  lit. 
And  in  the  happy  heart  of  home  we  sit. 
That  other  fires  were  here,  ere  ours  had  shone, 
And  sank  to  ashes  years  and  years  agone ; — 
That  where  we  stand,  and.  watching,  see  the  West 
Ebb  till  the  stars  lie  stranded  on  its  breast. 
Or  homeward  ships,  more  blest  than  they  of  Greece, 
Returning  with  the  prairie's  Golden  Fleece, 
To  other  eyes  long  since  perchance  was  given. 
Through  the  same  sapphire  arch,  a  glimpse  of  Heaven. 
And  haply  not  in  vain  the  thought  shall  rise 
To  sadden,  it  may  be.  our  reveries. 
That  here  have  throbbed,  with  all  the  bliss  of  ours. 
Hearts   that  have  mouldered  upward   into  flowers !" 

The  foregoing  are  fairly  representative  of  the  poets  and  poetry 
of  Buffalo.  In  1904  James  N.  Johnston,  a  Buffalo  poet,  edited  a 
book,  entitled  ''The  Poets  and  Poetry  of  Buffalo."     Since  its  puh- 

14 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

lication  other  stars  have  arisen  in  the  literary  firmament  that  are 
shining  ^vith  increasing  splendor.  Among  them  is  Minnie  Ferris 
Ilauenstein  (Mrs.  Alfred  G.  Hauenstein),  whose  collection  of  verse 
will  soon  appear  as  ''Sonnets  From  the  Silence."  Many  of  Buf- 
falo's poets,  prose  writers  and  authors  generally,  including  editorial 
writers  and  publishers,  are  reviewed  in  the  paper  of  Frank  H.  Sever- 
ance, entitled  ''Random  Notes  on  the  Authors  of  Buffalo,"  pub- 
lished in  Volume  IV  of  the  Butfalo  Historical  Society's  publica- 
tions.^ The  names  of  many  Buffalo  authors  also  appear  from  time  to 
time  in  the  papers  and  periodicals  published  in  Buifalo  and  else- 
where. 

In  addition  there  are  several  groups  of  prose  writers  in  Buffalo. 
These  include  Judge    Samuel    Wilkeson,  who    himself    made    im- 
portant history  for  Buffalo;  Orsamus  H.  Marshall,  who  was  a  thor- 
ough student  of  Indian  history  and  well  versed  in  Indian  lore ;  Wil- 
Ham  Ketchum,  Rev.  Dr.  John  C.  Lord,  W.L. G.Smith,  Jesse  Clement, 
Crisfield  Johnson,  General  A.  W.  Bishop,  John  Harrison  Mills, 
Orton  S.  Clark,  George  H.  Stowits,  Daniel  G.  Kelly,  Ivory  Chamber- 
lain, C.  W.  Boyce,  Frank  Wilkeson,  General  James  S.  Strong,  El- 
bridge  Gerry  Spaulding,  William  Dorsheimer,  Charles  C.  Deuther, 
Bishop  John  Timon,  Eben  Carlton  Sprague,  Henry  Tanner,  James 
Fraser  Gluck,  Rev.  Thomas  Donohoe,  Rev.  Sanf  ord  Hunt,  Rev.  Pro- 
fessor Guggenberger,  John  L.  Romer,  Dr.  Frank  H.   Severance, 
George  S.  Potter,  Rev.  William  B.  Wright,  Frederick  J.  Shepard, 
Samuel  M.  Welsh,  Jr.,  Lars  G.  Sellsted,  Judge  Truman  C.  ^\Tiite, 
Rev.  Albert  T.  Chester,  J.  Stanley  Grimes,  R.  W.  Haskins,  Albert 
Brisbane,  Oliver  G.  Steele,  Robert  Davis,  A.  W.  W'ilgus,  W.  L.  G. 
Smith,  Robert  Pennel,  D.  S.  Alexander,  Henry  Wayland  Hill,  H. 
Perry  Smith,  Dr.   Julian  Park,   Josephus   Nelson  Larned.      The 
principal  work  of  Mr.  Larned  was  his  "History  for  Ready  Refer- 
ence," comprising  with  its  supplement  eight  volumes.     It  gave  Mr. 
Larned  a  national  reputation  as   an  historical  writer.     No   Buf- 
falonian  has  delved  deeper  into  regional  history  than  Dr.  Frank  H. 
Severance,  secretary  of  the  Buffalo  Historical  Society,  and  autlior 
of  many  works  bearing  on  the  French  period  of  Niagara  history, 
as  well  as  on  other  periods  of  such  history.     His  most  masterful 
work  is  that  entitled  "An  Old  Frontier  of  France,"  consisting  of 
two  volumes,  and  ranking  with  any  of  Parkman's  works  on  Cana- 
dian frontier  history.     Henry  Wayland  Hill,  president  of  the  Buf- 

15 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

falo  Historical  Society,  lias  done  research  work  in  Lake  Clianiplain 
regional  history  and  in  the  French  colonial  period.  He  compiled 
the  two  volumes  of  the  "Champlain  Tercentenary  Celebration," 
which  gained  for  him  the  appreciation  of  the  French  nation  and  the 
decoration  as  a  Chevalier  of  the  National  Legion  of  Honor,  Mr. 
Hill  is  also  the  author  of  "Waterways  and  Canal  Construction  in 
New  York,"  as  well  as  of  various  historical  papers,  encyclopedic 
articles  and  miscellaneous  pamphlets.  Arthur  L.  Parker's  contri- 
butions to  Lidian  history  and  biography  include  his  "Life  of  Gen- 
eral Ely  S.  Parker"  and  his  "History  of  Archaeology  of  the  State  of 
New  York,"  recently  published  by  the  State  of  New  York.  Fred- 
erick Houghton's  "History  of  the  Buffalo  Creek  Reservation"  is  an 
addition  to  local  records.  The  writers  of  comprehensive  general 
histories  of  Buffalo  include  Crisiield  Johnson  (1S73),  H.  Perry 
Smith  (1884),  Truman  C.  White  (1S97),  John  Devoy  (1896),  and 
Josephus  Nelson  Larned  (1911).  That  by  Mr.  Johnson  is,  in  the 
opinion  of  Dr.  Severance,  "unsurpassed  in  its  class  of  histories." 
Turner's  "Pioneer  History  of  the  Holland  Purchase"  (1849)  is  a 
valuable  reference  work  for  students  of  settlement  history  of  this 
region.  William  Ketchum  began  a  "History  of  Buffalo,"  but  found 
that  what  he  had  written  of  Indian  history  would  almost  fill  tw^o 
volumes,  so  that  his  work  was  published  in  1864  as  the  "History  of 
Buffalo  and  the  Senecas,"  and  is  generally  know^n  as  "Buffalo  and 
the  Senecas,"  for  it  deals  with  only  the  first  decade  of  Buft'alo.  vil- 
lage history.  Rev.  Thomas  Donohoe's  "The  Iroquois  and  the 
Jesuits"  (1895)  is  a  review  of  the  early  records  of  that  religious 
order  in  America. 

Books  of  travel  have  been  written  by  Horace  Briggs,  Bishop 
Coxe,  F.  S.  Dellenbaugh,  Henry  P.  Emerson,  Mrs.  E.  A.  Forbes, 
Josiah  Letchworth,  Charles  Linden,  James  N.  Matthews,  Oliver  G. 
Steele,  Charles  Wood  and  others. 

Medical  and  surgical  works  of  more  than  pamphlet  publication 
have  included  those  written  by  Drs.  A.  L.  Benedict,  F.  E.  Campbell, 
Austin  Flint,  F.  E.  Fronczak,  Charles.  C.  F.  Gay,  F.  H.  Hamilton, 
Lucien  Howe,  F.  Park  Lewis,  M.  D.  Mann,  Herman  Mynter,  Ros- 
■well  Park,  R.  V.  Pierce,  James  P.  White.  Local  writers  who  have 
dealt  with  other  scientific  subjects  have  included  Le^vis  F.  Allen,  Al- 
bert H.  Chester,  E.  E.  Fish,  Roswell  ^Y.  Haskins,  D.  S.  Kellicott, 
Henry  Wayland  Hill,  Charles  Linden,  A.  R.  Grote. 

i6 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

The  published  books  on  Politics,  Sociology,  Law  and  Education 
inchide  those  by  the  following  Buffalonians :  Albert  Brisbane,  James 
O.  l*utnara,  Grover  Cleveland,  AVilliam  P.  Letchwoith,  Irving 
lirowne,  Mrs.  II.  E.  G.  Arey,  Rev.  S.  H.  Gurteen,  Charles  Ferguson, 
Henry  W.  Hill,  E.  C.  Mason,  E.  C.  Townsend,  Charles  P.  Norton, 
W.  H.  Ilotchkiss,  W.  C.  Cornell,  Leroy  Parker,  James  F.  Gluck, 
Robert  Schweckerath,  Charles  E.  Rhodes,  Frederick  A.  Wood,  H. 
K.  ^lontgomery,  Henry  P.  Emerson,  C.  N,  Millard. 

Religious  works  have  been  written  by  very  many  of  the  gifted 
ministers  of  religion  who  have  held  pastorates  in  Buffalo.  Some 
reached  distinction  as  writers  before  taking  up  ministerial  charge 
in  Buffalo;  some  did  not  come  into  particular  notice  in  literature 
until  after  leaving  Buffalo;  but  among  those  who  are  remembered 
in  the  city  for  their  literary  products  as  well  as  pastoral  excellence 
are  Bishops  Timon,  Ryan,  and  Coxe,  Reverends  Henry  A.  Adams, 
C.  C.  Albertson,  G.  H.  Ball,  Gottfried  Berner,  J.  L.  Corning,  J.  P. 
Egbert,  W.  F.  Faber,  R.  S.  Green,  C.  E.  Locke,  John  C.  Lord,  S.  S. 
Mitchell,  J.  A.  Regester,  Montgomery  Schuyler,  Thomas  S.  Slicer, 
Stephen  R.  Smith,  Henry  Smith,  J.  Hyatt  Smith,  ]\r.  L.  R.  P.  Thomp- 
son, J.  B.  Wentworth,  William  B.  Wright,  and  George  Zurcher.  Oth- 
er writers  on  religious  subjects  include  James  H.  Fisher,  E.  C. 
Randall,  Mrs.  C.  H.  Woodruff,  Mary  Martha  Sherwood. 

In  fiction,  several  Buffalonians  have  attained  distinct  national 
success  by  their  works.  In  this  department  of  literature  the  fol- 
lowing Buffalonians  have  produced  books  of  high  standard :  George 
Berner,  Allen  G.  Bigelow,  J.  E.  Brady,  Bessie  Chandler  (Mrs.  Leroy 
Parker),  Jane  G.  Cooke,  H.  L.  Everett,  Mrs.  Gildersleeve-Long- 
street,  David  Gray,  Jr.,  George  A.  Hibbard,  W.  T.  Hornaday,  El- 
bert Hubbard,  James  H.  W.  Howard,  Carrie  F.  Judd,  William  F. 
Kip,  H.  T.  Koerner,  J.  H.  Langille,  Mrs.  E.  B.  Perkins  (Susan 
Chc'stnutwood),  Mrs.  Charles  Rohlfs  (Anna  Katherine  Green),  Rob- 
ert Cameron  Rogers,  W.  G.  L.  Smith,  G.  A.  Stringer,  Jane  D.  Abbott 
(Mrs.  Frank  Abbott),  Dorothy  Tanner  (Mrs.  Montgomery),  D.  E. 
Wade,  Ida  Worden  ^Vlieeler,  0.  Witherspoon,  Marion  DeForrest, 
George  A.  Woodward,  Julia  Ditto  Young.  George  A.  Hibbard  for 
many  years  was  a  frequent  contributor  to  the  pages  of  the  *' Satur- 
day Evening  Post,"  ''Atlantic  Monthly,"  and  other  leading  Ameri- 
can magazines.  Elbert  Hubbard,  ''the  Sage  of  East  Aurora," 
reached  a  literary  fame  which  was  worldwide ;  bis  pen  was  sharp, 

17 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

his  lines  clear,  his  sentences  masterpieces  of  forceful  constinictive 
English.  He  was  at  the  height  of  his  fame  in  May,  1915,  when, 
upon  a  fateful  May  afternoon,  he  and  a  hundred  other  American 
citizens  of  peaceful  occupations,  and  nine  or  ten  times  that  number 
of  men,  women  and  children  of  other  nationalities,  found  that  the 
ship  on  which  they  were  nearing  Ireland  was  rapidly  sinking  as  the 
result  of  a  well-nigh  inconceivable  attack  upon  it — ^upon  the  lives  of 
a  thousand  private  citizens  who  were  in  no  way  connected  with  the 
armed  forces  of  Britain — by  a  German  submarine  boat.  Elbert 
Hubbard,  with  the  thousand,  sank  beneath  the  waves  with  the  **Lu- 
sitania,"  but  who  can  maintain  that  that  act  by  the  German  militar- 
istic administration  was  not  the  cause  of  the  United  States'  ultimate 
entry  into  the  war  with  that  power  which  ignored  the  fundamental 
laws  of  honor  and  mercy  and  flouted  the  rights  of  neutrals?  For 
such  diversion  from  the  subject  of  this  chapter,  the  writer  may  be 
pardoned,  prompted  as  the  diversion  was  by  the  thought  of  how 
great  was  America's  literary  loss  when  Elbert  Hubbard  met  ^s4th 
such  a  tragic  death.  His  ** Eminent  Painters"  is  a  masterpiece; 
his  ''Message  to  Garcia"  is  an  inspiration  and  help  to  all  who  set 
out  to  accomplish  anything. 

Among  the  writers  and  publications  of  Buffalonians  on  miscel- 
laneous subjects  and  books  published  in  Buffalo,  were  the  follow- 
ing: Frederick  Butler's  "History  of  the  United  States,"  Rev. 
Miles  P.  Squire's  contributions  to  Biblical  and  Theological  Reviews, 
his  book  published  in  1855,  entitled  ''The  Problem  Solved,  or  Sin 
Not  of  God,"  his  other  book  entitled  "Reason  and  the  Bible,  or  the 
Truth  of  Revelation,"  published  in  1S60,  and  his  "Ten  Lectures  on 
European  Topics,  and  Lectures  at  Beloit  College." 

After  the  death  of  Rev.  George  "Washington  Hosmer  in  1881,  a 
collection  was  made  of  his  sermons  and  miscellaneous  writings.  In 
1886  Rev.  John  B.  Wentworth,  D.  D.,  brought  out  his  work  entitled 
"The  Logic  of  Introspection."  The  sermons  of  Rev.  Montgomery 
Schuyler  were  published  under  the  title  of  "The  Church,  Its  Min- 
istry and  Worship."  In  1839  J.  Stanley  Grimes  published  his 
"New  System  of  Phrenology."  In  1840  Albert  Brisbane  published 
his  "Social  Destiny  of  Man,  or  Association  and  Reorganization  of 
Industry."  In  1843  Albert  Brisbane  published  his  work  entitled 
"Association,  or  a  Concise  Exposition  of  the  Practical  Part  of 
Fourier's  Social  Science."     In  1837  appeared  Robert  Davis'  book 

i8 


THE   ACADP:MY    of    music,    as    RFXOXSTRUCTED,    1893 
For  many  years  Buttalos  1  t<t  tlicatre.     Still  standing,  much  altered 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

entitled  '*A  Canadian  Farmer's  Travels  in  the  United  States."  In 
lS-13  appeared  Benjamin  Wait's  ''Letters  From  Van  Dieman's- 
Land,  written  during  five  years'  imprisonment  for  political  offenses- 
committed  in  Upper  Canada."  In  1839  Samuel  Wilkeson  published 
•*A  Concise  History  of  the  Commencement,  Progress  and  Present 
Condition  of  the  American  Colonies  in  Liberia."  In  1852  W.  L.  G. 
Smith  published  "Life  at  the  South,  or  Uncle  Tom's  Cabin  as  it  is, 
being  Narratives,  Scenes  and  Incidents  in  the  Real  Life  of  the 
Lowly."  William  Ketchum  brought  out  his  two-volume  "History 
of  Buffalo  and  the  Senecas"  in  1864:.  In  187G  Crisfield  Johnson 
completed  his  "Centennial  History  of  Erie  County."  Hon.  Lewis 
F.  Allen  wrote  on  agriculture,  drainage  and  other  subjects.  General 
James  C.  Strong  was  the  author  of  "  Wah-kee-nah  and  Her  People," 
a  study  of  North  American  Indians,  customs  and  traditions.  Rev^ 
Thomas  Donohoe  v\'as  the  author  of  "The  Iroquois  and  the  Jesuits." 
General  A.  W.  Bishop  was  the  author  of  books  entitled  "Loyalty 
on  the  Frontier,"  "What  is  the  Situation  Now,  and  Why  the  Solid- 
South." 

From  time  to  time  there  have  appeared  many  military  records, 
including  "A  Record  of  Battery  I,  otherwise  known  as  Wiedrick's 
Battery,"  and  "The  Ship  Yard  of  the  Griffin,"  both  by  Cyrus  K. 
Remington.  "Shakespeare's  Draught  From  Living  Water"  and 
"Leisure  Moments  in  Gough  Square"  were  written  by  George  Alfred 
Stringer.  "The  Life  and  Times  of  the  Rt.  Rev.  John  Timon,  D.  D.,, 
the  First  Roman  Catholic  Bishop  of  the  Diocese  of  Buffalo,"  by 
Charles  G.  Deuther,  appeared  in  1870.  George  J.  Bryan  contributed 
his  "Biographies  and  Journalism"  in  1886.  "The  Story  of  the 
Hutchinsons,"  by  Mrs.  C.  H.  Gildersleeve,  was  a  notable  contribu- 
tion to  the  literature  of  the  musical  activities  of  the  pre-war  period. 
Charles  E.  Morse,  John  Harrison  and  others  wrote  songs  that  were 
popular.  In  1884  Rev.  J.  Hazard  Hartzell  published  his  collected 
poems  entitled  "Wanderings  on  Parnassus,"  and  there  also  ap- 
peared a  volume  of  verse  by  Thomas  S.  Chard,  the  author  of 
"Across  the  Sea."  From  time  to  time  there  w^re  published  in  the 
' '  Catholic  Union ' '  the  poems  of  Patrick  Cronin.  In  ' '  The  Courier '  ^ 
appeared  the  poems  of  Joseph  O'Connor,  and  in  "The  New^s"  form- 
erly appeared  the  poems  of  John  D.  Wells  and  in  "The  Times"  now 
appear  the  poems  of  John  D.  Wells.  Anna  Katherine  Green's 
novel,  "The  Leavenworth  Case,"  appeared  in  1878,  "A  Strange 

19 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

Disappearance"  in  1879,  ''The  Sword  of  Damocles"  in  ISSl,  and  a 
volume  of  her  poems  in  1882.  Mrs.  E.  B.  Perkins'  '*]\ralbrook"  ap- 
peared in  1871,  and  her  "Honor  Bright"  in  1883.  While  pastor  of 
St.  Mark's  M.  E.  Church,  Kev.  George  E.  Ackerman  wrote  his  "Re- 
searches in  Philosophy"  and  "Man  a  Revelation  of  God."  While 
resident  in  Buffalo,  Bishop  John  F.  Hurst,  of  the  M.  E.  Church, 
translated  several  standard  works  on  church  history,  and  he  also 
contributed  several  original  works.  He  w*as  a  voluminous  and 
scholarly  writer,  and  his  contributions  to  literature  in  number  and 
scholarship  approach  those  of  Bishop  Arthur  Cleveland  Coxe.  Not 
all  the  works  of  the  two  Bishops,  however,  appeared  while  they  were 
residents  of  Buffalo.  The  contributions  of  other  clergymen,  as 
stated  in  "The  Authors  of  Buffalo,"  by  Frank  H.  Severance,  in- 
clude "Historical  Sketches  and  Licidents  Illustrative  of  the  Estab- 
lishment and  Progress  of  Universalism  in  the  State  of  New  York," 
by  the  Rev.  Stephen  R.  Smith;  "Some  Lessons  From  the  Parable 
of  the  Sower,"  by  the  Rev.  J.  P.  Egbert;  "The  True  Man  and 
Other  Practical  Sermons,"  by  the  Rev.  S.  S.  Mitchell;  "Dogma  no 
Andidote  for  Doubt,"  by  James  H.  Fisher;  "Both  Sides,  or  Jon- 
athan and  Absalom,"  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Rufus  S.  Green;  "Handbook 
of  Charity  Organization,"  by  the  Rev.  S.  Humphreys  Gourteen; 
"Complete  System  of  Sunday-school  Instruction,"  by  the  Rev.  Or- 
lando Witherspoon ;  various  writings  by  the  Rev.  A.  T.  Chester,  and 
two  works  by  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Langille,  one  on  ornithology,  "Our 
Birds  in  Their  Haunts,"  the  other  entitled  "Snail-shell  Harbor,  a 
Picture  of  Life  on  the  Northwest  Coast  of  Lake  Michigan." 

Among  the  contributors  to  the  literature  of  science,  in  addition 
to  those  already  stated,  were  Dr.  Julius  Pohlman  on  geology  and  oth- 
er specialties,  Edward  P.  Van  Duzee  on  entomology,  Hon.  David  F. 
Daj  on  botany,  Hon.  George  W.  Clinton  also  on  botany,  fishing  and 
hunting  and  on  animals,  Henry  W.  Hill  on  "Rainfall  and  Water 
Supply"  in  the   "Americana  Encyclopedia"    (1920   edition)    and 

many  others. 

*  •  *'*  *  *.,•  •  • 

Even  before  Buffalo  had  been  incorporated,  an  effort  was  made 
by  some  of  the  more  cultured  settlers  to  establish  a  library.  Many 
of  the  pioneers  had  had  little  schooling;  some  had  had  no  schooling 
at  all,  for  the  day  of  the  compulsory  and  free  school  had  not  yet 
come.     Some  would  welcome  the  facilities  of  a  library  for  their 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

educational  value,  while  others  would  appreciate  the  means  it  af- 
forded them  of  literary  diversion  at  little  or  no  cost,  for  books  were 
beyond  the  purchasing  ability  of  most  men  in  those  days  of  poorly- 
paid  labor.  A  library  of  seven  hundred  volumes  instituted  in  1816 
was  appreciated.  A  small  company  was  formed,  and  that  company 
maintained  what  was  styled  ''The  Buffalo  Library"  from  1816  to 
1832.  It  seems  to  have  passed  away  at  about  the  time  that  Buffalo 
expanded  its  civic  status  to  that  of  a  city.  Another  library  and 
literary  society  came  into  existence  in  1S30;  it  was  kno^^^l  as  the 
Buifalo  Lyceum,  but  its  life  was  short.  Both  libraries  were  eventu- 
ally transferred  to  another,  that  of  the  Young  Men's  Association. 

On  FebiTiary  20,  1836,  the  local  newspapers  carried  a  notice  re- 
questing "the  young  men  of  Buffalo,  friendly  to  the  founding  of  a 
Young  Men's  Association,  for  a  mutual  improvement  in  literature 
and  science,"  to  meet  at  the  court  house  on  Monday,  the  22nd  day 
of  February,  at  7  p.  m.  The  meeting  was  held,  a  constitution 
adopted,  based  upon  that  of  the  Albany  Young  Men's  Association, 
and  a  week  later  organization  was  completed  by  the  election  of  the 
following  officers :  Setli  C.  Hawley,  president ;  Dr.  Charles  Winne, 
Samuel  N.  Callender  and  George  Bro^\^l,  vice-presidents ;  Frederick 
P.  Stevens  and  A.  G.  C.  Cochrane,  corresponding  and  recording 
secretaries;  John  H.  Lee,  treasurer;  Oliver  G.  Steele,  Henry  K. 
Smith,  William  H.  Lacy,  George  W.  Allen,  Charles  H.  Raymond, 
Henry  E.  "Williams,  George  E.  Hayes,  Halsey  E.  Wing,  Eushmore 
Poole,  and  Hunting  S.  Chamberlain,  managers. 

Before  the  end  of  the  first  year  (1836)  the  Young  Men's  Associa- 
tion had  a  library  of  2,700  volumes,  including  the  collections  of  the 
old  Buffalo  Library  and  the  Lyceum ;  and  in  its  reading  room  were 
forty-four  weekly,  ten  monthly  and  six  quarterly  publications,  "mak- 
ing it  the  completest  of  any  west  of  Xew  York  City."  It  was  for- 
tunate, probably,  that  the  Association  was  organized  in  1836  and 
not  in  the  next  year;  the  monetary  panic  of  1837  would  probably 
have  stopped  its  organization  altogether,  whereas  in  1836  the 
projectors  had  comparatively  little  difficulty  in  raising  a  fund  of 
$6,700  for  the  purchase  of  books,  and  other  essentials  of  a  library. 
And  even  though  so  fortunately  founded,  the  Association  had  great 
difficulty  in  survi^dng  the  period  of  depression  that  followed  the 
disturbance  of  the  nation's  finances  in  1837.  The  Young  Men's 
Association  "carried  a  burden  of  debt  for  many  years,  and  lived 

21 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

pinchingly,  but  it  lived."  Its  first  rooms  were  on  the  upper  floors  of 
a  building  throe  doors  below  Seneca  street,  on  Main;  and, 
xintil  a  regular  librarian  was  appointed,  Mr.  B.  W.  Jenks,  a  portrait 
painter  whose  studio  adjoined,  saw  that  the  property  of  the  As- 
sociation was  not  misused.  The  first  regular  librarian  was  Charles 
H.  Eajanond;  he  '* persisted  in  his  unrewarded  toil"  until  1839, 
when  Mr.  Phineas  Sargent  relieved  him.  In  1841  removal  was 
made  to  South  Division  street,  near  Main,  and  there  a  small  lecture- 
room  was  fitted  up.  The  quarters  were  small,  and  in  1848  an  un- 
successful attempt  was  made  to  establish  a  building  fund.  In  1852 
larger  quarters  were  leased  in  the  American  Block,  on  the  west 
side  of  Main  street,  between  Eagle  and  Court;  there  the  Association 
had  the  use  of  the  fairly  large  and  excellent  American  Hall,  on  the 
third  floor,  with  the  library  placed  underneath.  Annual  courses  of 
lectures  by  famous  men  brought  much  income  to  the  Associa- 
tion, which  soon  became  "distinctly  at  the  front  of  the  intellectual 
life  of  the  town."  Mr.  Sargent  was  succeeded  as  librarian  in 
1850  by  Lewis  Jenkins,  who  withdrew  two  years  later.  Then  be- 
gan the  connection  of  William  Ives  with  the  Library,  a  connection 
destined  to  cover  more  than  fifty  years.  It  was  not  until  1905  that 
Mr.  Ives  retired  from  service;  though  still  in  good  health,  he  was 
then  nearly  ninety  years  old,  and  had  served  the  Library  for  fifty- 
three  years. 

In  1856,  encouraged  to  the  effort  by  Mr.  George  Palmer,  who  had 
provisionally  offered  the  association  a  building  site  valued  at  $12,- 
000,  with  $10,000  additional  in  money,  the  library  managers  sought 
to  raise  $90,000  for  building  purposes.  They  were  not  so  fortunate 
as  before  the  previous  monetary  panic;  that  of  1857  was  upon 
them  before  they  could  raise  the  stipulated  sum. 

In  1861,  "near  the  eve  of  the  outbreak  of  our  dreadful  Civil 
War,  the  Association  celebrated  its  twenty-fifth  anniversary,  with. 
notable  public  exercises,  distinguished  by  one  of  the  finest  of  the 
poems  of  the  late  David  Gray."  Not^^ithstanding  the  extraordinary 
demands  in  men  and  money  of  the  Union,  for  the  purpose  of  the 
war,  the  Young  Men's  Association  acquired  a  building  fund  of 
$81,655  during  the  war  period.  The  acquirement  came  at  the  end 
of  an  effort  prolonged  through  two  years,  to  unite  the  Young 
lien's  Association,  the  Grosvenor  Library,  the  Fine  Arts  Academy, 
the  Buffalo  Historical  Society,  and  the  Society  of  Natural  Sciences, 

22 


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LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

in  the  erection  of  a  building  for  their  common  use.  In  the  spring 
of  18G4  the  Association  purchased  from  Messrs.  Albert  and  George 
Brisbane  the  St.  James  Hotel  and  St.  James  Hall,  on  Main,  Eagle, 
and  Washington  streets,  ''under  conditions  which  provided  quar- 
ters in  the  hotel  building,  when  reconstructed,  for  all  of  the  institu- 
tions named  above,  and  temporarily  for  some  others  as  well."  The 
Association  five  years  later  established  a  special  fund  for  large  pur- 
chases of  books,  and  within  two  years  increased  its  total  from  16,000 
to  25,000  volumes.  The  office  of  superintendent  w^as  created  in  1877, 
and  Josephus  Nelson  Larned  was  appointed  to  that  office.  Reclassi- 
fications of  the  books  followed,  the  Dewey  system  of  cataloging  be- 
ing adopted. 

In  1882,  long  before  which  the  library  quarters  had  become  in- 
adequate, the  court  house  site,  bounded  by  Washington,  Broadway, 
EUicott  and  Clinton  streets,  was  acquired  by  some  public-spirited 
gentlemen,  "to  save  it  from  being  sold  for  commercial  uses,"  it  is 
stated,  but  apparently  Vv'itli  the  view  of  transferring  it  to  the  Young 
;Men's  Association  and  affiliated  societies  of  liberal  culture.  The 
citizens  associated  in  this  action  were  Sherman  S.  Rogers,  James 
M.  Smith,  Sherman  S.  Jewett,  Francis  H.  Root,  Charles  Berrick, 
O.  P.  Ramsdell,  Dexter  P.  Rumsey,  Pascal  P.  Pratt  and  George 
Howard;  and  they  planned  to  consolidate  the  Young  Men's  and 
Grosvenor  libraries,  ''with  the  Fine  Arts  Academy,  the  Society  of 
Natural  Sciences  and  the  Historical  Society  grouped  around  them." 
The  two  libraries  could  not  be  brought  together,  though  the  other 
■features  of  the  scheme  were  consummated.  The  Young  Men's 
Association  raised  a  building  fund  of  $117,000,  and  soon  George 
Esenwein,  of  Buffalo,  was  superintending  the  erection  of  a  building, 
to  the  plans  of  C.  L.  W.  Eidlitz,  of  New  York.  Ground  was  broken 
on  October  8,  1884,  and  within  less  than  two  years,  on  September 
13,  1886,  the  removal  of  the  library  began,  though  the  formal  open- 
ing of  the  building,  with  the  Art,  the  Science,  and  History  collections 
in  place  did  not  occur  until  February  7,  1887.  The  Young  Men's 
Association  had  before  that  time  been  authorized  to  change  its 
name  to  The  Buffalo  Library. 

Providence  seemed  to  guard  the  priceless  treasures  of  the  Li- 
brary and  other  societies,  for  within  six  weeks  of  the  formal  opening 
-of  the  new  building,  the  vacated  quarters  were  destroyed  by  fire.  The 
Iroquois  Hotel  soon  rose,  an  enterprise  of  the  Buffalo  Library,  and 

23 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

it  was  favorably  leased.  Financial  embarrassment  eventually 
brought  help  from  the  city,  later  by  act  of  the  State  Legislature 
secured  through  the  efforts  of  Assemblyman  Henry  W.  Hill  and 
others,  being  authorized  to  contract  with  the  two  libraries  for  the 
establishment  of  free  public  service.  Formerly  the  Buffalo  Library 
had  been  able  to  admit  to  the  privilege  of  borrowing  books  for 
home  use  only  its  members,  who  subscribed  three  dollars  a  year. 
By  the  contract  entered  into  on  February  2-i,  1S97,  between  the  Buf- 
falo Library  and  the  City  of  Buffalo :  ,.  ,  '     •• 

''The  Buffalo  Library  conveyed  to  the  City  of  Buffalo  its  books 
and  pamphlets  in  trust  for  a  period  of  99  years,  together  with  the 
net  annual  income  from  the  Library  property.  The  city  accepted 
the  trust,  and  bound  itself  to  maintain  the  Library  (  by  annual  appro- 
priation of  a  sum  of  not  less  than  four-fifths  of  three  one-hundredths 
of  one  per  centum  of  the  total  assessed  valuation  of  taxable  prop- 
erty in  the  city  (appropriating,  also,  not  less  than  one-fifth  of  three 
one-hundredths  of  one  per  centum  of  such  assessed  valuation  to 
the  maintenance  of  the  Grosvenor  Library  each  year).  The  Library 
to  be  known  as  the  Buffalo  Public  Library,  and  to  be  free  to  the 
residents  of  the  city  for  all  of  its  uses ;  to  be  open  every  day,  during 
stipulated  hours;  to  be  under  the  control  and  management  of  a 
board  of  ten  directors,  five  of  them  representing  the  city  and  five 
the  life  members  of  the  Buffalo  Library,  as  preWously  constituted ; 
these  latter  having  been  incorporated  mth  the  power  of  perpetual 
succession,  and  having  the  control  and  management  of  the  Library 
real  estate. 

"On  the  9th  of  March  this  corporation  of  life  members  of  the 
Buffalo  Library  was  organized  by  the  election  of  Nathaniel  W.  Nor- 
ton, president ;  George  L.  AVilliams,  vice-president ;  Joseph  P.  Dud- 
ley, James  Frazier  Gluck  and  Charles  P.  Wilson,  managers.  These, 
with  the  Mayor  of  Buffalo,  the  Corporation  Counsel,  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Education,  and  two  citizens,  John  D.  Bogardus  and  Ma- 
thias  Rohr,  appointed  by  the  Mayor,  formed  the  first  board  of  di- 
rectors of  the  Buffalo  Public  Library,  with  Mr.  Norton  to  pre- 
side." 

No  man  strove  harder  to  consummate  this  improvement  in 
library  affairs  than  Mr.  Josephus  N.  Larned,  who  for  twenty 
years  had  been  its  superintendent;  and  he  anticipated  eagerly  the 
reorganiaztion  of  the  Library,  ^\dth  a  view  to  the  institution  of  a  bet- 
ter service  to  the  reading  public;  "but  a  few  weeks  of  experience 
convinced  him  that  he  could  not  work  in  harmony  with  the  presiding 
officer  of  the  new  board  of  directors,  and  in  April  he  resigned."    Mr. 

24 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

Henry  L.  Elmendorf  was  appointed  in  his  pL^ce.  Mr.  Elmendorf 
died  in  July,  1906,  and  bis  assistant,  Walter  L.  Brown,  became  cbief 
librarian.  He  still  is  at  the  head  of  the  Bnffalo  Public  Library, 
wliich  has  consistently  continued  to  expand  its  scope  of  public  use- 
fulness, as  will  be  realized  by  the  following  comparisons.  AVhen 
the  Buffalo  Library  became  *'a  free  institution"  in  1897,  it  had 
upon  its  shelves  about  90,000  volumes;  at  the  end  of  1919  it  pos- 
sessed more  than  -400,000  volumes.  Li  1896,  the  last  year  under  the 
old  system  of  permitting  books  to  be  borrowed  only  by  those  who 
paid  membership  fees,  the  Library  had  1,592  paying  members;  in 
1919,  130,000  individual  borrowers  made  use  of  the  books  of  the  Buf- 
falo Public  Library.  There  has  been  a  notable  extension  in  the 
work,  for  there  are  now  seven  other  branch  libraries  open  to  the 
general  public,  and  directed  by  the  staff  of  the  Buffalo  Public 
Library;   and  in  addition  an  original  plan  of  school  libraries. 

Merged  in  the  Buffalo  Public  Library  is  another  historic  literary 
society  of  Buffalo.  The  German  Young  Men's  Association  was  or- 
ganized on  May  10,  1841.  Its  main  purpose  is  clearly  stated  in  its 
original  name,  which  was  the  German-English  Literature  Society. 
F.  A.  Georger  was  first  president,  John  Hauenstein,  vice-president, 
Carl  Neidhardt,  secretary;  Jacob  Beyer,  George  Beyer,  George  F. 
Pfeiffer,  AYilliam  Eudolf  and  Adam  Schlagder  founding  members. 
Its  full  stated  purj^oses  were  ^'mutual  education  in  the  dift'erent 
branches  of  German  and  English  literature,  science  and  art,  the  gen- 
eral spreading  of  useful  knowledge,  and  the  providing  of  a  good 
library."  The  first  meetings  were  held  weekly,  on  Monday  nights, 
*4n  a  very  plain  room  in  the  rear  of  Dr.  Dellenbaugh's  drug  store, 
on  Main  near  Court  street."  The  room  was  used  until  1843.  On 
September  11,  1841,  the  name  of  the  society  was  changed  to  the 
German  Young  Men's  Association,  and  in  some  of  its  social  activi- 
ties it  followed  the  plan  of  the  Young  Men's  Association.  The 
German  Young  Men's  Association  had  a  library  of  750  volumes  in 
1846,  when  the  first  catalogue  w^as  printed.  For  a  time  after  leav- 
ing Dr.  Dellenbaugh's  room  the  quarters  of  the  German  Society 
were  in  the  Eagle  Tavern,  but  in  the  winter  of  1843-44  rooms  in  the 
Kremlin  Block  were  rented.  There  the  library  was  maintained 
until  J854. 

The  first  published  report  of  the  German  Young  Men's  Associa- 
tion was  that  issued  in  January,  1851.     It  showed  a  membership  of 

25 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

120,  and  a  libraiy  of  1,090  volumes,  890  of  which  were  printed  in 
German.  The  German  Colony  of  Buffalo  had  become  the  refuge  of 
political  exiles  from  Germany  since  1848,  and  the  German  Young 
Men's  Association  quarters  constituted  a  rendezvous  for  these  dem- 
ocratic Teutons.  Kinkel  was  given  a  reception  in  1851,  and  Kos- 
suth in  1852.  In  1857  the  membership  was  a  very  large  one,  but 
the  monetary  panic  of  Seijtember  of  that  year  had  as  disastrous  an 
effect  upon  that  society  as  upon  others.  In  1861  the  German  Young 
Men's  Association  had  only  54  members.  During  the  next  two  dec- 
ades it  recovered,  however,  and  brought  many  notable  lecturers  to 
Buffalo. 

In  1882  the  Society  engaged  in  a  great  undertaking.  It  agreed 
to  provide  a  hall  suitable  for  the  accommodation  of  the  Twenty- 
third  Saengerfest  of  the  German  Saengerbund  of  North  America, 
appointed  to  be  held  in  Buffalo  in  1883.  Ground  on  Main,  Franklin 
and  Edward  streets  was  purchased  from  the  Walden  estate,  a  build- 
ing fund  was  raised,  and  the  project  carried  through  \dt]i  success. 
The  hall  was  thereafter  the  headquarters  of  the  Association,  but  not 
for  long.  On  March  25,  1885,  fire  destroyed  it,  and  with  the  build- 
ing, all  but  384  of  the  7,451  volumes  which  had  constituted  the 
library  of  the  German  Young  Men's  Association.  Two  days  later, 
it  was  resolved  to  rebuild,  and  the  cornerstone  of  the  new  Music  Hall 
was  laid  in  May,  1886.  It  was  opened  in  November,  1887.  Its 
cost  was  $246,600,  an  outlay  which  heavily  burdened  the  Association 
with  debt  for  some  years,  though  the  debt  was  reduced  by  more  than 
$43,000  vnthin  a  year.  In  1891,  the  fiftieth  of  the  Association's 
existence,  occurred  an  especially  noteworthy  feature  of  its  history. 
Its  original  president  and  vice-president,  F.  A.  Georger  and  Dr. 
John  Hauenstein,  were  in  the  same  places  of  honor  again.  When 
after  1897  it  was  demonstrated  that  such  collections  of  books  as 
that  of  the  German  Young  Men's  Association  could  be  used  to 
greater  advantage  by  the  people  of  Buffalo  if  transferred  to  the 
''free  public  institution,"  the  Buffalo  Public  Library,  the  subject 
was  given  due  consideration  by  the  directors  of  the  German  society, 
and  the  transfer  duly  followed.  The  Association  thereafter  di- 
rected its  efforts  to  other  functions  of  social  service,  in  the  depart- 
ment of  higher  culture. 

In  the  fifth  volume  of  the  ''Publications  of  the  Buffalo  Historical 
Society"  are  some  interesting  "Notes  on  the  Earlier  Years"  of  that 

26 


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BUFFALO  PUBLIC  LIBRARY 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

S-'cIetv.  They  were  compiled  by  its  secretary,  Frank  H.  Severance, 
L.  II.  l^v  editor  of  its  "Publications,"  which  have  reached  such 
liiudi  standing  in  historical  societies,  a  standing,  by  the  way,  created 
for  it  mainly  by  the  excellence  of  Dr.  Severance's  own  contributions, 
which  have  since  1S96  been  part  of  these  "Publications."  Dr.  Sev- 
erance, in  the  notes  referred  to,  put  into  record  the  facts  related  to 
liim  by  the  Hon.  Lewis  F.  Allen  as  to  "how  the  Historical  vSociety 
v\-as  started."     Mr.  Allen  in  that  conversation  said: 

"I  was  coming  up  Court  Street  one  day  when  I  met  Orsamus  H. 
^Marshall.  I  kncAv  him  well — knew  that  he  was  one  of  the  few  men 
in  Buffalo  who  gave  any  thought  to  the  preservation  of  the  records 
or  relics  of  our  history.  Marshall,  you  know,  was  a  scholar.  Put 
him  on  anything  relating  to  our  Lidians,  and  off  he'd  go  as  long  as 
lie  could  follow  the  trail.  He  spoke  of  something  that  he  wanted  to 
get,  or  that  had  been  destroyed,  I  don't  remember  now  just  what. 
'Marshall,'  I  said,  'we  ought  to  do  something  about  these  things. 
Somebody  should  take  care  of  them.'  It  was  a  raw  mndy  day 
early  in  the  spring,  along  in  March,  1862.  He  said:  'Come  up  to 
my  office  and  we'll  talk  it  over.' 

"The  result  of  that  talk  was  that  we  got  a  few  others  interested, 
and  .published  a  call  for  another  meeting  to  be  held  at  Mr.  Mar- 
shall's office.  'The  rest  of  it,'  said  Mr.  Allen,  'is  matter  of  record.' 
AVe  named  a  committee  to  draw  up  a  constitution  and  by-laws, 
wliich  were  submitted  to  a  meeting  of  citizens  held  in  the  rooms 
of  the  old  Medical  Association  on  South  Division  street.  Millard 
Fillmore  was  made  chairman  of  that  meeting,  and  a  little  later,  at 
our  first  election,  he  was  chosen  the  first  president  of  the  So- 
ciety." 

The  first  meeting  at  which  Mr.  Fillmore  presided  was  that  held 
on  April  15,  1862.  The  earlier  meeting,  that  held  in  Mr.  Marshall's 
office,  was  under  the  chairmanship  of  Mr.  Lewis  F.  Allen,  who  be- 
came the  first  vice-president  of  the  society. 

Li  1873,  Oliver  Gray  Steele  reviewed  the  early  history  of  the 
Bufl'alo  Historical  Society  in  an  "entirely  adequate  sketch"  which  is 
preserved  in  the  first  volume  of  the  society's  publications.  Dr. 
St'vorance,  in  volume  V,  picks  out  leading  facts  from  that  sketch, 
and  adds  an  interesting  memoir  of  particular  outstanding  transac- 
tions of  the  Buffalo  Historical  Society  to  1902,  in  which  year  the 
society  was  installed  in  its  new  home  in  Delaware  Park.  Mr.  Sev- 
erance found  that  Mr.  Steele's  sketch  told  "of  the  awakening  of  in- 
toro.st  on  the  part  of  many  of  the  older  citizens,  in  matters  pertain- 

27 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

ing  to  the  history  of  Buffalo  and  Western  New  York;  and  of  the  or- 
ganization of  the  society,  the  first  election  of  officers  being  held  on 
the  first  Tuesday  in  May  (1S62),  Hon.  Millard  Fillmore  being  chosen 
president,  and  Hon.  Le\\as  F.  Allen  chosen  vice-president,"  Mr. 
Severance  continued : 

** Oddly  enough — when  we  note  his  zeal  in  the  formation  of  the 
society — Mr.  Allen  was  never  its  president,  though  he  continued  de- 
voted to  its  welfare  throughout  his  long  life  (which  did  not  end 
until  May  2,  1S90,  his  91st  year).  Mr.  Steele  has  related  how  at 
the  suggestion  of  Mr.  Fillmore,  50  gentlemen  bound  themselves  to 
pay  $20  each  per  year  for  five  years,  as  a  maintenance  fund  for  the 
society.  This  plan  was  later  modified  by  the  creation  of  a  life-mem- 
bership class,  the  pavment  therefor  being  $50,  increased  in  1897  to 
$100. 

''For  some  time  after  its  organization  in  1862,  the  society  had 
no  home.  Its  record  books  and  first  collections — the  nucleus  of  its 
present  museum — were  deposited  in  the  office  of  Flon.  William 
Dorshseimer,  Xo.  7  Court  street,  and  there,  too,  its  early  meetings 
were  held.  From  1865  until  January,  1873,  the  society  occupied 
rooms,  rent  free,  in  the  Young  Men's  Association  building,  south- 
east corner  of  Main  and  Eagle  streets.  That  building  was  far  from 
fire-proof;  but  the  new  building  of  the  Western  Savings  Bank, 
northwest  corner  of  Main  and  Court  streets,  constructed  in  1871-2, 
did  appear  to  offer  the  security  sought  for  its  possessions.  The  an- 
nual income  of  the  society  at  that  time  was  between  $500  and  $600, 
not  enough  to  pay  the  salary  of  the  secretary,  and  it  is  not  strange 
that  there  was  hesitancy  about  moving  to  quarters  for  which  a  con- 
siderable rent  must  be  paid.  The  matter  was  placed  in  the  hands 
of  Orlando  Allen,  Orsamus  H.  Marshall  and  Gibson  T.  Williams; 
and  this  committee  reported,  December  10,  1872,  that  the  Young 
Men's  Association,  in  consideration  of  the  surrender  of  the  His- 
torical Society  lease,  v/ould  pay  to  it  $1,600  in  four  years,  in  quar- 
terly instalments.  The  Historical  Society  accepted  the  terms, 
named  *  *  *  a  committee  to  circulate  subscription  papers  * 
*  *  ;  and  in  January,  1873,  feeling  warranted  in  assuming  the 
expense,  moved  to  its  new  quarters. 

"Here  the  society's  home  continued  to  be  until  January,  1887, 
when  it  took  possession  of  the  more  ample  rooms — though  again  on 
the  third  floor,  reached  only  for  many  years  by  wearying  stairs — 
in  the  new  building  of  the  Young  Men's  Association,  now  Buffalo 
Library  building;  from  which  it  migrated  in  April,  1902,  to  take 
possession,  for  the  first  time  in  its  history  and  just  forty  years  after 
its  organization,  of  a  home  of  its  own.     *     *     * 

"A  word  of  appreciation  may     *     *     *     fittingly  be  written  of 

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BUFFALO   HISTORICAL    SOCIETY    BUILDIXG 
From    Delaware   Park    Bridge 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

the  men  who,  through  many  years  of  cramped  resources  and  the  in- 
difference of  a  large  i^art  of  the  community,  kept  the  society  not 
only  alive  but  progressive.  The  decade  following  the  Civil  War 
was  not  a  propitious  period  for  such  an  institution.  There  were 
times  *  *  *  when  very  few  men  kept  up  the  organization  and 
carried  on  a  work  in  which  they  would  gladly  have  had  the  coop- 
eration of  very  many  of  their  fellow-citizens.  In  this  category  of 
the  faithful  were  Hon.  James  Sheldon,  AVilliam  Clement  Brvant, 
Capt.  E.  P.  Dorr,  Hon.  William  P.  Letchworth,  William  H.  H.  New- 
man, Hon.  Elias  S.  Hawley,  Hon.  James  M.  Smith,  William  Hodge, 
William  Dana  Fobes,  Emmor  Haines,  James  Tillinghast,  William 
K.  Allen,  George  S.  Hazard,  Dr.  Joseph  C.  Green,  Julius  H.  Dawes, 
and  others.  *  *  *  After  the  death  of  Millard  Fillmore  and  oth- 
ers who  had  shared  in  the  founding  of  the  society,  its  interests  suf- 
fered a  decline  for  a  period.  A  more  vigorous  era  was  begun  under 
the  presidency  of  William  D.  Fobes  in  1884,  who,  *  *  *  retired 
from  office  'leaving  the  society  20  per  cent,  better  than  he  found 
it.'  *  *  *  It  was  during  Mr.  Fobes 's  presidency  that  the  Fill- 
more family  library  *  *  *  passed  into  the  possession  of  the 
society.  The  arrangement  which  was  made  in  April,  1884,  with  the 
Young  Men's  Association  for  free  occupancy  of  the  third  floor  of  its 
projected  building,  was  a  great  financial  help.  Prior  to  its  removal 
to  what  is  now  the  Library  building,  the  society  had  been  paying, 
since  1873,  $-100  a  year  rent  for  its  quarters  in  the  Western  Sav- 
ings Bank  building. 

*'The  board  meeting  of  January  4,  1887,  was  the  first  which  the 
society  held  in  the  new  Young  Men's  Association  building.  It  was 
at  this  meeting  that  Judge  Sheldon,  then  completing  his  last  term 
as  president,  proposed  the  name  of  Andrew  Langdon  for  life  mem- 
bership. Mr.  Langdon  was  dul}^  elected,  and  at  the  annual  meet- 
ing held  on  January  11th  was  chosen  one  of  the  board  of  council- 
lors (now  called  board  of  managers).  In  1894,  Mr.  Langdon  was 
elected  president,  and  he  has  been  reelected  to  that  office — more  than 
once  in  opposition  to  his  expressed  wish — every  year  since.  Mr. 
Langdon 's  presidency  marks  a  distinct  era  in  the  fortunes  of  the 
society.  From  the  first,  he  took  an  active  interest  in  its  affairs, 
and  worked  with  untiring  zeal  to  promote  its  prosperity.  Its  need 
of  a  building  of  its  own  was  early  apparent  to  him,  as  indeed  it 
long  had  been  to  others;  but  none  other  was  so  constant  in  the 
effort  to  find  a  way — or  if  none  could  be  found  to  make  a  vray — 
towards  the  desired'  consummation.  *  *  *  In  his  efforts  he  was 
ably  helped  by  others,  who  shall  be  duly  named. 

''The  building  idea  was  an  old  one,  and  had  many  forms  even 
before  Mr.  Langdon 's  day.  In  his  address  on  retiring  from  the 
presidency  in  1883,  William  Hodge  offered  as  '  a  sugestion : '  '  Would 
it  not  be  pleasing  to  many  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  relatives 

29 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

and  friends  *  *  *  |3y  giving  some  amonnt  towards  our  building 
fund,  or  better  still  to  purchase  or  erect  a  suitable  building  for  the 
Buffalo  Historical  Society.  Such  noble  deeds,'  he  added,  4iave 
often  been  done. '  He  had  long  thought,  he  said,  that  the  old  Wal- 
don  homestead,  at  Main,  Edward  and  Franklin  streets,  was  a  suit- 
able house  for  the  Historical  and  other  societies  of  the  city.  'The 
location  may  be  considered  by  some  to  be  too  far  up  town,  but  to 
me  it  certainly  seems  not. '  How  great  would  have  been  his  wonder 
could  he  have  been  told  that  the  society's  first  building  of  its  o\\ai 
— and  a  marble  palace  at  that — would  be  beyond  the  far  Scajaquada. 
''The  suggestion  bore  no  fruit ;  nor  was  there  any  tangible  build- 
ing fund  until  on  ]\Iarch  4,  1894,  Judge  James  M.  Smith  *  *  * 
gave  to  it  five  bonds  of  the  Crosstown  Street  Railroad,  Nos.  19-23, 
valued  at  $5,000,  'as  a  nucleus  for  a  building  fund.'  This  was  a 
profit-earning  property.  To  it  was  added  $3,000  received  by  be- 
quest from  Mrs.  C.  L.  Fobes,  on  October  6,  1898.  These  sums, 
with  acci-ued  interest,  amounted  to  $11,064.39  on  May  1,  1899,  -when 
the  account  was  closed.  Prior  to  this  time  the  society  had  begun 
to  direct  its  efforts  in  a  new  channel." 

Hon.  Henry  W.  Hill  introduced  at  the  1897  session  of  the  State 
Legislature,  of  which  he  was  then  a  member,  representing  the  Sec- 
ond District  of  Erie  county,  two  measures  which  sought  power  to 
construct  a  building  for  the  Historical  Society  on  park  lands.  Both 
bills  became  laws  in  that  year.  The  first  is  Chapter  329  and  the 
second  is  Chapter  310  of  the  Laws  of  1897.  Other  relative  acts 
were  passed,  and  inspection  of  park  sites  followed.  The  board  of 
managers  of  the  Historical  Society  favored  a  site  then  kno^vTi  as  the 
Concourse,  and  now  occupied  by  the  Albright  Art  Gallery.  The 
Board  of  Park  Commissioners  could  not,  however,  reach  a  like 
unanimity  of  opinion,  whereupon  Mr.  Bronson  C.  Rumsey  offered 
to  give  the  society  a  site  for  its  building  on  land  0A\med  by  him, 
adjoining  the  south  side  of  the  park,  on  the  east  side  of  Elmwood 
avenue.  On  May  8,  1897,  the  board  o^  managers  met  in  Delaware 
Park,  and  decided  to  reject  the  offer,  for  munificent  though  it  un- 
doubtedly was,  the  representatives  of  the  Historical  Society  felt 
that  by  adhering  to  its  purpose  of  seeking  a  site  on  park  lands  the 
future  maintenance  of  the  building  would  be  upon  a  sounder  basis. 
For  a  while,  however,  it  seemed  that  the  project  would  fail  alto- 
gether, because  of  the  disfavor  w^th  which  the  Park  Board  viewed 
the  proposal  to  build  on  the  Concourse.  An  opportunity  to  accom- 
plish the  aims  of  the  society,  despite  the  opposition  of  the  Park 

30 


LITERATURE  OF  BUFFALO 

Commissioners,  was  found  in  1S9S.     It  had  been  planned  to  hold  a 
Pan-American  Exposition  in  Buffalo  in  1899,  but  the  political  situa- 
tion since  the  outbreaking  of  war  with  Spain  had  made  a  postpone- 
nient  of  the  Exposition  advisable.     On  March  14,  1898,  Assembly- 
man Henry  W.  Hill  introduced  a  concurrent  resolution  in  the  State 
Assembly  which  sought  not  only  to  secure  from  the  State  Govern- 
ment, and  through  it  from  the  Federal  Government,  approval  of 
the  postponement  and  promise  of  substantial  aid  in  the  project,  but 
also  that  the  moneys  appropriated  by  the  national,  state,  and  city 
governments  might  be  added  to  the  building  fund  of  the  Buffalo 
Historical  Society,  and  the  whole  used  in  the  erection  of  a  fireproof 
building,  instead  of  a  temporary  exhibition  building,  with  the  view 
to  the  transference  to  the  Historical  Society  of  the  said  fire-proof 
building  after  it  had  served  the  purposes  of  the  Pan-American  Ex- 
position.    The  whole  of  this  plan  did  not  at  once  develop,  but  it  is 
clear  that  such  was  the  plan  Mr.  Hill  and  others  sought  to  consum- 
mate when  the  concurrent  resolution  was  moved  in  the  Assembly  by 
him.     The  plan  was  carried  through,  and  eventually  brought  into 
the  possession  of  the  Buffalo  Historical  Society  a  magnificent  build- 
ing of  Greek  Doric  architecture  and  constructed  of  white  Vermont 
marble,  at  a  cost  of  $175,000,  only  $45,000  of  which  the  Historical 
Society  M-as  called  upon  to  provide.     The  State  appropriated  $100,- 
000  toward  the  cost,  and  the  city  supplied  the  other  $30,000.     The 
building  is  still  the  home  of  the  Buffalo  Historical  Society,  is  kno\vn 
as  the  Historical  Building,  and  is  deservedly  classed  among  the 
more  beautiful  of  the  public  buildings  of  Buff'alo.     It  stands  on 
sloping  land  on  the  axis  of  a  semi-circle,  in  the  northwest  corner  of 
Delaware  Park,  adjacent  to  Elmwood  avenue.     It  houses  the  valu- 
able museum  of  the  Society,  and  also  its  library,  which  exceeds 
40,000  volumes. 


31 


Connecticut  College 

By  Eev,  Bex  jam  IX  T.  Marshall,  D.  D.,  Presidext  of  College 

^^  HE  foundations  of  Connecticut  College  were  laid,  not  only 
in  the  fine  purposes  and  industry  of  the  incorporators, 
but  also  in  the  faith  they  held  in  women,  and  in  their 
conviction  that  within  the  State  of  Connecticut  there 
should  be  a  modern,  progressive  college  for  women  that  should 
provide  these  forms  of  higher  education  for  women  to  which  in  re- 
cent years  they  have  aspired  in  increasing  numbers,  and  for  the 
privileges  of  which  they  have  now  for  many  years  demonstrated 
their  indisputable  qualification. 

But  there  is  also  the  glow  and  ardor  of  romance  in  the  story  of 
the  college,  for  how  else  shall  we  describe  the  experience  of  the  young 
institution  whose  hand  was  sought  by  a  score  or  more  to^\ms  and 
cities  who  also  promised  lavish  gifts.  "Was  it  not  romance,  and  was 
it  not  high  gallantry,  that  moved  New  London  to  sue  so  ardently 
for  the  hand  of  the  college  and  to  present  so  promptly  the  gifts 
it  promised,  in  the  form  of  lands  and  funds  ? 

The  college  will  never  forget  the  splendid  enthusiasm  of  New 
London,  its  corporate  bod}',  and  its  citizens,  nor  their  significant 
and  munificent  gifts.  The  coming  of  the  college  afforded  New  Lon- 
don a  chance  to  demonstrate  a  spirit  of  unity  and  of  devotion  to 
education  which  became  in  a  real  way  the  revival  of  a  civic  pride 
and  spirit  which  has  characterized  the  city  unmistakably  in  these 
recent  years. 

To  serve  and  honor  the  city  which  has  served  and  honored  it, 
will  be  always  a  dominant  factor  in  the  purpose  and  life  of  the  col- 
lege ;  for  it  recognizes  that  by  virtue  of  its  character  and  purpose  it 
should  be  the  purveyor  to  the  city  of  opportunities  for  culture 
through  lectures,  exhibitions,  musical  programs  and  conferences  of 
various  kinds,  and  seek  to  encourage  the  people  of  the  city  to  avail 
themselves  of  its  ever-^\idening  and  increasing  privileges. 

The  relations  of  city  and  college  each  to  the  other  were  begun 
under  happiest  auspices.     May  they  never  cease  to  be  reciprocally 

32 


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LIBRARY,  COXXECTICUT  COLLEGE  FOR  WOMEX 


CONNECTICUT   COLLEGE,   NEW   LONDON 

iovoiis  and  profitable.  While  the  city  goes  about  its  daily  business, 
the  "College  on  the  Hill"  moves  faithfully  and  eagerly  forward  in 
tlie  prosecution  of  its  program,  in  devotion  to  its  distinctive  ideal. 

"What  the  college  is  and  what  it  aims  for,  how  it  does  its  work, 
and  in  what  spirit  and  with  what  results,  the  following  paragraphs 
aim  clearly  to  state.  They  are  presented  as  the  official  statement 
of  the  college  through  its  president. 

1.  The  need  for  more  women's  colleges.  For  many  years  there 
had  been  among  educators  and  all  persons  interested  in  the  higher 
education  of  women  a  recognition  that  more  women's  colleges  of 
high  grade  were  greatly  needed,  since  the  women's  colleges  already 
existing  were  either  filled  to  capacity  or  over-crowded. 

Connecticut  College  came  into  existence  to  meet,  so  far  as  it  was 
able,  that  well-defined  need  of  more  high-grade  centrally  located 
colleges  for  women.  It  became,  in  fact,  a  necessity  in  this  new  era 
for  women,  which  has  given  them  the  full  rights  of  suffrage.  With- 
in the  State  the  need  was  accentuated  by  the  fact  that  AVesleyan 
had  determined  to  be  solely  a  man's  college;  and  in  the  mind  of 
Wesleyan  Alumna,  and  in  the  minds  of  friends  whom  she  had  gath- 
ered about  her,  the  idea  and  purpose  to  have  a  woman's  college 
within  the  State  of  Connecticut  took  root,  assumed  form,  and  be- 
came an  established  fact. 

2.  The  Specific  Need.  There  was  further  recognized  the  need  of 
colleges  specifically  for  women,  which  should  definitely  contemplate 
the  tastes,  talents,  aptitudes,  ambitions,  potential  service  and  pos- 
sibilities of  women  in  social,  literary,  educational,  secretarial,  busi- 
ness, professional  and  administrative  positions ;  and  should,  coupled 
with  the  cultural  and  literary  and  scientific  studies  which  serve  as 
backgrounds  and  resources,  those  subjects  and  that  training  in  them 
which  give  a  vocational  emphasis,  and  stimulate  and  equip  the  stu- 
dent to  become  in  a  sane,  balanced  and  concrete  fashion,  both  socially 
minded  and  socially  efficient. 

Courses  coming  under  this  description  may  be  cited  as  those  of 
home  economics,  fine  arts,  music,  economics  and  sociology,  secre- 
tarial studies  and  office  practice,  library  science,  physical  education. 

3.  The  Purpose  and  Ideal  of  the  CoUege.  The  effort  to  meet 
these  needs  generally  and  specifically  is  expressed  in  the  purpose 
of  Connecticut  College,  namely: 

To  offer  college  work  of  grade  and  value  second  to  none;  to 

33 


COxXNECTICUT  COLLEGE,   NEW  LONDON 

offer  tecliiiical  work  worthy  of  college  credit ;  to  prepare  for  profes- 
sional work  in  all  branches  where  women  are  needed. 

In  short,  to  maintain,  with  high  standards,  and  to  conduct  with 
highest  efficiency,  a  curriculum  prepared  to  develop  each  woman's 
peculiar  talents  toward  her  most  effective  life-work. 

4.  The  Practical  Fulfillmont  of  Purpose.  The  practical  operation 
and  demonstration  of  this  purpose  and  ideal  is  seen  in  the  inclusion 
in  the  curriculum  of  the  familiar  college  subjects— the  ancient  and 
modern  languages  and  literatures,  mathematics,  chemistry,  physics, 
botany,  zoology,  history,  political  science,  economics,  sociology, 
philosophy,  psychology,  education,  biblical  history,  and  literature ; 
and,  with  their  specific  technical,  vocational,  artistic,  domestic  and 
social  values,  the  following:  Music,  fine  arts  (including  dra^Wng, 
painting,  design,  interior  decoration,  mechanical  dra^ving  and  cer- 
amics) ;  home  economics  (including  foods,  nutrition,  household  man- 
agement, institutional  management) ;  library,  science,  secretarial 
studies  and  office  practice,  physical  education  (required  of  all  stu- 
dents throughout  their  course). 

It  should  be  noted  that  there  are  courses,  in  their  respective  de- 
partments, for  the  training  of  teachers  in  Latin,  English,  French, 
music,  physical  education,  besides  the  courses  in  education ;  courses 
in  chemistry  are,  some  of  them,  conducted  with  reference  to  their 
applications  of  that  science,  and  a  course  in  psychological  chemistry, 
in  its  relation  to  home  economics,  is  a  particularly  progressive  and 
timely  piece  of  work;  that  courses  in  mathematics,  such  as  the 
theory  of  investment  and  statistics,  have  a  direct  practical  value ; 
that  courses  in  economics  and  sociology  are  presented  and  prose- 
cuted mth  sympathy  toward  and  understanding  of  the  instincts, 
interest  and  aptitudes  and  specific  adaptability  of  women  to  social 
problems  and  social  work. 

The  work  in  fine  arts  and  in  music  is  not  merely  theoretical,  which 
method  would  tend  to  superficiality,  but  is  also  technical,  coodinated, 
expressional,  creative.  Thus  action  and  accomplishment  are  ele- 
vated to  their  rightful  place  in  granting  full  credit  to  studio  work ; 
and  action  (creative  work)  is  seen  to  be  as  essential  to  any  worthy 
sort  of  appreciation  in  the  realm  of  art  as  laboratory  work  is  essen- 
tial for  the  correct  evaluation  and  esteem  of  any  science.  In  this 
policy  certain  results  are  already  unmistakably  evident.  There  has 
come  to  be :  (a)  a  respect  for  the  use  of  the  hand ;   (b)  a  higher  grade 

34 


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BRANFORD  HOUSE 


CONNECTICUT   COLLEGE,   NEW   LONDON 

of  work  in  tlie  studio;  (c)  greater  eiijo}Tiient  and  satisfaction  in 
liie  work;  (d)  a  realization  that  education  does  not  mean  cessation 
from  all  work  of  the  hand. 

5.  Broad  and  Balanced  Curriculum,  Values  and  Eesults.  Because 
of  the  breadth  of  opportunity  in  major  subjects  offered  in  the  pre- 
ceding list,  the  regularly  accepted  academic  majors,  complemented 
by  the  number  of  majors  in  technical  courses  we  can  demonstrate 
that: 

(a)  There  is  a  much  larger  percentage  of  students  who  find 
courses  that  lead  to  direct  activity  and  expression,  than  in  other 
colleges. 

(b)  There  is  an  appreciable  increase  in  the  educational  value  of 
the  institution  from  the  very  distinct  and  varied  types  of  mind  and 
of  personality  that  are  attracted  by  a  diversity  of  courses. 

(c)  There  is  a  more  liberal  and  appreciative  academic  student, 
who  has  learned  that  arts  are  not  superficial,  but  fundamental ;  and 
a  more  cultured  and  better  technical  student,  by  reason  of  required 
courses  in  foreign  language,  English  literature,  science,  history  and 
social  science. 

The  trustees  and  faculty  are  united  and  enthusiastic  in  the  loyal 
undertaking  of  this  program.  They  are  convinced  of  its  soundness, 
practicability,  and  high  value.  Their  confidence  and  enthusiasm 
are  justified  by  the  suj^erior  quality  and  large  number  of  students 
who  have  sought  admission,  a  number  which  every  year  has  ex- 
ceeded the  capacity  of  the  college. 

6.  The  college  has  attracted  superior  students  in  large  numbers 
from  several  States.  Students  now  enrolled  in  the  college  number 
approximately  3S0,  the  largest  number,  we  believe,  ever  kno^\Ti  in 
an  American  College  in  its  seventh  year.  Students  come  from 
twenty-one  different  States.  Several  students  have  transferred 
from  other  colleges,  to  find  in  Connecticut  College  more  nearly  what 
they  wanted  and  needed,  than  they  could  find  elsewhere,  and  several 
girls  have  entered  Connecticut  College  attracted  by  its  offerings, 
who,  from  their  early  years,  had  fully  purposed  to  enter  other  and 
older  women's  colleges.  The  college  has  graduated  three  classes, 
the  class  of  1919  with  sixty-eight  who  received  degrees,  and  the 
class  of  1920  with  sixty-nine  who  received  degrees,  and  the  class  of 
1921.  AVe  believe  that  no  other  college  in  America  can  cite  such 
large  figures  for  its  first  three  classes. 

35 


CONNECTICUT   COLLEGE,   NEW   LONDON 

7.  Complete  Student  Self-government.  Xo  argument  attempting 
to  justify  the  existence  and  service  of  the  college  would  be  com- 
plete that  did  not  stress  the  value  and  signij&cance  of  the  system 
of  full  student  self-government,  granted  by  the  faculty  to  the  stu- 
dent body  from  the  lirst.  The  system  provides  for  a  complete  con- 
trol of  all  the  life  and  activity  of  the  students,  except  in  strictly  aca- 
demic matters.  It  is  organized  as  a  representative  democracy,  and 
functions  with  reality,  efficiency,  good  judgment,  and,  we  believe, 
^vit]l  increasing  success. 

The  counsel,  suggestion,  and  experience  of  faculty  and  adminis- 
tration is  always  available,  and  is  frequently  sought,  and  in  all  more 
vital  matters  is  always  requested. 

In  managing  their  o^oi  affairs  as  a  real  democracy,  students  are 
trained  in  responsibility,  cooperation,  initiative,  in  forming  judg- 
ments, in  making  choices,  in  creating  policies,  in  establishing  tradi- 
tion, and  maintaining  college  morale,  and  in  official  duties  and  com- 
mittee work  learn  valuable  lessons  in  tact,  appreciation,  discrimi- 
nation and  in  administration  and  execution. 

8.  The  Spirit  of  the  College — Loyalty,  Enthusiasm,  Coopera- 
tion, Confidence.  The  undoubted  effect  of  this  organization  of  the 
students  has  been  to  develop  a  spirit  of  true  democracy,  ^^dthout  re- 
ligious or  social  or  class  prejudices ;  to  stimulate  respect  for  work 
in  all  its  forms,  i^articularly  ^ith  reference  to  students  working 
their  way  through ;  there  is  tolerance  and  good  will  and  sympathy ; 
the  bases  of  the  organization  are  work,  responsibility,  liberty, 
solidarity,  and  a  type  of  girl  is  being  developed  who  is  entirely 
free  from  pedantry  and  cant ;  she  is  open,  sincere,  unselfish  and  of 
sound  judgment  and  initiative,  able  to  deal  with  people  and  with 
situations,  yet  Avithout  conceit  or  assumption. 

Through  all  the  activities  of  the  college,  both  in  its  academic  and 
social  side,  there  breathes  an  intense  spirit  of  loyalty  and  of  enthu- 
siasm. From  the  beginning  the  students  were  made,  by  the  admin- 
istration and  the  faculty,  to  realize  how  much  the  morale  and  spirit 
of  the  college  were  in  their  keeping,  and  they  have  gro^vn  in  inten- 
sitj  of  appreciation  and  responsibility  for  the  highest  character  in 
college  life. 

The  spirit  of  cooperation  is  cultivated  in  the  fact  that  the  college 
does  things  together.  It  meets  every  day  for  Chapel,  every  Sunday 
for  Vespers,  every  Tuesday  for  Convocation,  as  a  college  body,  fac- 

36 


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PLAXT  HOUSE 


CONNECTICUT  COLLEGE,  NEW  LONDON 

ulty  and  students  merging;  and  it  undertakes  an  interest  and  a 
support  of  outside  activities  in  college-wide  fashion.  When  called 
upon  to  give,  as  for  instance  during  the  war,  to  the  Students'  Friend- 
si)  ip  War  Fund,  to  the  United  War  Campaign,  and  more  recently  in 
aid  of  the  students  and  professors  of  the  colleges  in  Central  Europe, 
it  organizes  its  efforts  as  a)i  all-college  affair,  pours  its  energy,  its 
enthusiasm,  its  zeal,  its  gifts,  into  one  common  effort,  and  the  result 
is  issued  with  the  seal  and  endorsement  of  the  entire  college  upon  it. 

There  is  in  all  the  life  of  the  college  great  confidence  in  the  insti- 
tution, a  splendid  satisfaction  in  its  work,  great  happiness  in  its 
fellowship,  and  a  fme  sense  of  challenge  in  the  richness,  variety 
and  wholesomeness  "of  its  entire  comradeship,  student  and  faculty 
alike. 

The  spirit  of  cooperation,  understanding,  unanimity,  ^vhicli  pre- 
vails, may  be  expressed  when  we  say  that  in  the  four  years  of  the 
present  administration  there  has  not  been  in  the  board  of  trustees 
a  single  divided  vote;  and  in  the  faculty,  on  no  vital  point,  any- 
thing but  practical  unanimity. 

9.  Favorable  and  appreciative  attitude  of  educators  and  institu- 
tions toward  Connecticut  College.  The  attitude  and  favor  and  good- 
will, confidence  and  commendation  on  the  part  of  educators  and  of 
presidents  of  other  women's  colleges  has  been  very  cheering.  With- 
out exception,  the  older  colleges  have  welcomed  Connecticut  College 
into  the  sisterhood,  have  declared  that  it  was  greatly  needed ;  that 
the  kind  of  work  it  is  doing  is  essential  and  is  well  done,  and  that 
its  future  is  bright  and  challenging.  The  comment  of  President 
^LacCracken  of  Vassar  is  perhaps  as  significant  as  any,  when,  after 
speaking  of  several  forward  steps  in  the  education  of  women  in 
America  in  recent  years,  he  says : 

Among  these  steps  the  most  important  is  undoubtedly  the  found- 
ing of  Connecticut  College  at  New  London,  and  all  friends  of  higher 
education  for  women  have  welcomed  its  entrance  into  the  field, 
because  it  is  clear  from  the  general  trend  of  registration  that  women 
will  in  increasing  numbers  seek  the  college  degree. 

Visitors  to  the  campus,  representing  other  colleges,  presidents, 
deans,  registrars,  official  committees  of  visitation  with  specific  er- 
rands, have  spoken  uniformly  of  their  pleasure  in  the  visit,  of  the 
distinct  impression  of  industry,  vigor  and  worth  in  which  the  col- 

37 


CONNECTICUT   COLLEGE,   NEW  LONDON 

lege  work  is  done,  and  congratulated  the  college  on  its  site,  on  its 
work,  and  on  its  prospects.  Organizations,  whose  representatives 
have  come  to  give  counsel  to  the  students  with  reference  to  future  oc- 
cupation, representatives  of  social  organizations  seeking  superior 
material  for  graduate  study  in  schools  of  social  service,  have  ex- 
pressed themselves  in  such  language  as  this : 

"In  conference,  the  students  ask  most  intelligent  questions." 
"Know  what  they  want." 

"Have  a  knowledge  of  the  factors  in  social  and  industrial  situa- 
tions more  than  students  of  other  colleges  visited." 

The  college  has  freely  been  granted  the  counsel  of  the  Russell 
Sage  Foundation,  whose  aid  in  planning  various  lines  of  community 
work  under  the  auspices  of  the  sociology  department  has  been  of- 
fered. 

Graduates  of  the  college  have  gone  forth  to  social  work  or  to 
advanced  study  on  the  basis  of  the  work  done  here,  and  have  been 
given  practically  a  year's  credit  in  advance  over  the  graduates  of 
other  institutions,  whether  in  graduate  study  or  in  active  positions 
on  the  staff  of  charity  or  social  organizations. 

10.  Record  of  Graduates.  Variety  in  activity  and  service,  and 
gratifying  success.  All  that  precedes,  which  is  an  effort  to  justify 
the  existence  of  the  college,  finds  its  concrete  and  we  believe  unan- 
swerable justification  in  the  quality  of  the  product  of  the  college  in 
its  graduates  and  in  the  nature  and  quality  of  the  service  they  are 
rendering  in  their  present  fields. 

There  are  180  alumnae  of  the  college,  graduates  in  the  first  three 
classes,  1919,  1920  and  1921.  The  director  of  the  college  appoint- 
ment bureau  reports  that  these  graduates  are  largely  engaged  in  the 
work  toward  which  their  major  work  in  college  particularly  fitted 
them. 

The  success  and  gratifying  service  of  such  graduates,  from  whom 
we  have  received  definite  returns,  is  due  not  alone  to  the  careful  and 
able  training  by  a  competent  faculty,  but  also  to  that  spirit  of  enthu- 
siasm, of  loyalty  and  cooperation  which  has  characterized  the  college 
since  its  inception,  a  passion  to  do  whatever  they  do  worthily,  and  to 
count  constructively  by  rendering  a  specific  service  to  society. 

There  is  a  profound  confidence  in  the  college  on  the  part  of  the 
trustees,  faculty,  students  and  friends  of  the  college  alike.     They 

38 


CONNECTICUT  COLLEGE,   NEW  LONDON 

take  pride  in  its  genuine  though  modest  accomplishment,  and  they 
fct'l  confident  of  its  future  and  hopeful  and  zealous  of  its  mainten- 
ance and  expansion  along  the  lines  projected  from  the  beginning  and 
faithfully  followed  to  this  moment,  so  far  as  years  of  war  and  rela- 
tively unincreased  endowment  have  permitted. 

The  preceding  paragraphs,  we  trust,  constitute  a  sufficient  and 
genuine  justification  of  the  existence  of  the  college.  Our  conviction 
is  that  the  college  was  opened  to  meet  both  a  general  and  a  specific 
need,  that  it  established  for  itself  a  splendid  purpose  and  a  high 
ideal,  and  it  set  itself  vigorously  and  conscientiously  to  the  practical 
fulfillment  of  that  purpose.  It  has  ottered  a  broad  and  balanced 
curriculum  of  soundness,  practicability,  undoubted  values  and  of 
high  promise.  It  has  summoned  to  itself  superior  students  in  large 
numbers  from  a  wide  area.  It  has  cultivated  in  them  a  passion  to 
do  whatever  they  do  worthily,  and  to  count  constructively,  whether 
by  helping  to  brighten  a  home  and  elevate  the  life  of  a  family,  or  by 
rendering  some  more  specific  service  to  society  at  large. 

It  has  already  developed  a  peculiar,  significant  and  exalted  spir- 
it, which  is  recognized  as  distinctive,  strong  and  exceptional.  It  has 
won  from  the  beginning  and  in  increasing  measure  the  welcome, 
the  appreciation,  the  regard  and  commendation  of  its  sister  col- 
leges, their  leaders  and  all  educators  who  have  come  to  know  it ;  and 
chiefly,  and  above  all,  it  has  contributed  in  its  graduates  a  group  of 
women  who  are  undertaking  specific  tasks  toward  which  the  college 
unmistakably  directed  them,  follo^ving  their  natural  bent,  ambition 
and  equipment,  and  they  are  doing,  each  in  her  ovra  place,  the 
world's  work  in  a  way  that  is  worthy,  noble  and  commendable,  to  the 
credit  of  the  college  they  love,  to  the  honor  of  their  ovm.  lives,  and  as 
-a  rare  and  distinctive  contribution  to  the  life  of  America. 


39 


The  Narragansett  Trail 

By  Thomas  "\V.  Bickxell,  Ppiovidexce,  Rhode  Island 

^A|^  S  THIS  article  relates  to  a  celebrated  New  England  In- 
RMt\:4;'<^fe  dian  Trail,  I  ^ill  introduce  it  by  saying  that  we  know  lit- 
tle of  the  tribes  of  this  section  of  Xew  England  prior 
to  the  arrival  of  the  Mayfloiver,  in  1620. 

The  only  reliable  historic  story  prior  to  that  date,  is  the  ac- 
count of  the  Indians  on  the  shores  of  Narragansett  Bay,  given  by 
Giovanni  de  Verrazzano,  who,  under  French  patronage,  explored  the 
harbors  of  New  York  and  Narragansett  Bay  in  1524,  and  wrote  con- 
cerning the  natives,  with  whom  he  had  most  friendly  intercourse. 
He  calls  them  hospitable;  handsome,  both  men  and  women;  well 
dressed  and  ornamented;  generous,  affectionate  and  charitable. 
''As  to  the  religious  faith  of  these  tribes,  not  understanding  their 
language,  we  could  not  learn  by  signs  or  gestures,  anj^thing  certain. 
It  seemed  to  us  that  they  had  no  religion,  nor  laws,  nor  any  knowl- 
edge of  a  first  cause  or  mover, — that  they  worshipped  neither  the 
heavens,  stars,  sun,  moon,  nor  the  planets." 

In  Southern  New  England, — the  location  of  the  Narragansett 
Trail, — the  Mohegans  and  other  small  families  occupied  the  Con- 
necticut Valley,  and  west  to  New  York.  The  Pequod  tribe,  wdth  its 
capital  at  Pequod,  now  New  London,  was  a  savage,  mischief-mak- 
ing people,  in  Eastern  Connecticut,  on  Long  Island  Sound.  East 
of  the  Pawcatuck  river,  on  the  Sound,  in  Southern  Rhode  Island, 
were  the  Niantics,  under  the  sachemship  of  the  Ninigrets. 

The  Narragansetts,  the  most  powerful,  w^ealthiest,  the  most  in- 
dependent Indian  nation  of  all  New  England,  dwelt  on  the  western 
bank  of  Narragansett  Bay,  occupj^ing  the  lands,  shores,  bays  and 
rivers  from  Point  Judith  on  the  south  to  Quinsniket  and  Woon- 
socket  on  the  north,  including  the  PaA\i;ucket  or  Blackstone  river 
section  of  Rhode  Island.  The  name  of  the  tribe  is  from  the  Indian 
word  "Naiaganset,"  ''at  the  point,"  referring  to  the  Point  now- 
known  as  Judith,  named  for  Judith  Hull,  a  later  owner. 

Trumbull  is  good  authority  for  the  meaning  of  Narragansett. 

40 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

He  says  **Narragansett,"  as  applied  to  country,  bay  and  tribe, 
means  "At  the  point."  Koger  Williams,  on  June  ISth,  1682,  wrote 
as  follows  as  to  the  origin  of  the  name  "Narragansett." 

*'I  also  profess  that  being  inquisitive  of  what  roots  the  title 
or  denominative  Nahigonset  should  come,  I  heard  that  Nahigonset 
was  so  named  from  a  little  island  between  Pittaquomscut  and  Mish- 
quomack,  (Westerly)  on  the  sea  and  fresh  water  side.  I  went  on 
purpose  to  see  it,  and  about  the  place  called  Sugar  Loaf  Hill,  I  saw 
it  and  was  within  a  pole  of  it,  but  could  not  learn  why  it  was  called 
Nanhigonset. ' ' 

The  present  accepted  spelling  of  the  name  has  been  anglicized 
for  nearly  three  centuries, — Narragansett.  As  to  Mr.  Williams'  or- 
thography, it  is  seldom  that  the  same  Indian  word,  in  his  writings, 
was  spelled  twice  alike,  so  that  he  is  not  an  authority  in  the  spelling 
or  meaning  of  Indian  proper  names.  In  the  initial  deed  of  the  great 
sachem  in  1638,  Mr.  Williams  wrote  the  name  of  Canonicus,  the 
great  sachem,  ''Cannaunicusse,"  and  his  associate  Miantinomi, 
* '  Mianantunnomu. ' ' 

This  Narragansett  nation  included  the  Niantics,  the  Potowo- 
muts,  the  Pa\\i;uxets,  and  a  part  of  the  Nipmucky,  while  the  Wam- 
panoags,  with  the  Massachusetts  and  some  scattering  bands  in  Cen- 
tral New  England  were  in  some  sense  tributary  to  the  government 
of  the  Narragansetts,  whose  chief  sachem  in  1620  was  Canonicus, 
assisted  by  his  nephew,  Miantinomi.  Canonicus  vras  the  ruler  who 
sent  a  messenger  to  Plymouth,  with  a  rattlesnake  skin  filled  with 
Indian  arrows,  thereby  showing  his  hostility  to  the  white  colonists 
and  a  challenge  to  battle.  Governor  Bradford's  reply  was  brave 
and  ^\'ise,  when  he  returned  the  skin,  filled  with  bullets.  The  strate- 
gy of  Captain  Mjdes  Standish  is  seen  in  his  curt  and  courteous  re- 
ply. It  was  the  same  Canonicus  and  Miantinomi  who  deeded  the 
Island  of  Aquidneck  to  William  Coddington  and  his  associates  in 
1638,  and  at  the  same  time  gave  to  Roger  Williams  a  life  estate  in 
the  Providence  plantations.  At  this  later  date,  the  Narragansetts 
had  been  converted  to  a  friendly  spirit  towards  the  whites,  and  a 
generous  attitude  towards  the  Providence  settlers. 

Godkin  estimates  the  Indian  population  of  New  England  after 
the  great  plague,  to  have  been  about  forty  thousand,  of  whom  the 
great  tribes  of  the  Narragansetts  constituted  about  one-third.  This 
figure,  however,  is  probably  much  too  large. 

41 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  Narragansetts  occupied  the  center  of  the 
coast  line  between  the  Abenakis  of  the  Penobscot  and  the  Mohawks 
of  New  York,  and  that  their  commercial  and  tribal  relations  led 
them  in  both  directions.  Then  again,  Ehode  Island  territory  had  no 
large  rivers,  and  hence  the  great  trails  lay  near  the  shore  of  their 
home  territory.  Their  whole  life  interests  lay  within  fifty  miles  of 
salt-waters.  The  lands  they  cultivated  were  near  the  sea,  while 
their  game  lands  included  the  hill  country  in  the  rear,  and  their 
rich  and  abundant  fisheries  were  close  at  hand  to  their  village  life 
along  the  coast  of  Rhode  Island  and  Massachusetts.  It  may  be  safe- 
ly stated  that  the  Narragansetts  had  the  most  interesting  and  at- 
tractive home-land  of  any  of  the  North  American  tribes.  The 
sea  and  ocean,  \\ith  their  wealth,  were  in  front  of  them  and  near  at 
hand,  while  in  the  rear  of  their  teepees  the  hills  rose  in  ascending 
series  to  nearly  thousand-feet  heights,  and  the  forests  that  cro^vned 
them  were  full  of  game  food.  It  was,  indeed,  an  Indian  paradise  for 
the  noblest,  the  strongest,  the  richest,  of  the  red  race.  It  is  a  won- 
der that  no  Parkman  has  studied  the  history  and  legends  of  this 
New  England  tribe ;  that  no  Cooper  has  woven  the  loves  and  hates, 
the  human  tragedies,  of  this  throng  of  lovers,  patriots,  warriors; 
that  no  Whittier  has  written  the  bride  of  Aspanansuck,  Wawaloam, 
and  that  no  Longfellow  has  immortalized  King  Tom  Ninigret,  or 
portrayed  drama  of  Miantinomi  and  his  Nipmuc  bride. 

"Still  stands  the  forest  primeval,  but  under  the  shade  of  the  branches, 
Dwells  another  race,  with  other  customs  and  language." 

The  Narragansetts  were  great  travellers  by  land  and  by  sea. 
While  they  traversed  the  coast  from  Narragansett,  their  capital, 
iK.  the  Hudson  -on  the  West,  over  Long  Island  Sound,  their  birch 
canoes  or  dugouts  could  also  be  seen  at  the  mouths  of  the  Merrimac, 
the  Androscoggin  and  the  Kennebec,  even  as  far  east  as  Mohegan 
Isle  and  the  Penobscot.  They  were  bold  navigators,  and  defiant 
warriors  when  war  was  in  the  ascendant. 

Their  land  travels  were  as  extended  as  their  sea  voyages,  reach- 
ing to  the  Mohawks  on  the  west  on  Lake  Erie,  to  St.  Johns  on  the 
east,  and  to  Champlain  and  Montreal  on  the  north.  They  were 
great  land  voyageurs,  along  the  foot-paths  on  trails  which  their 
revered  but  long-forgotten  ancestors  had  made  and  used  ages  be- 
fore the  generations  of  Canonicus,  Sassacus  and  Chickataubut.    It 

42 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

is  worth  remembrance  that  the  lines  of  our  State,  interstate  and 
other  American  routes  of  travel  were  laid  out  by  Indian  engi- 
neers, in  the  earliest  occupation  of  the  territory  by  the  aboriginal 
people.  The  skill  of  woodcraft,  the  routing,  crossing  of  streams  at 
fordable  points,  avoidance  of  hill  climbing,  avoidance  of  sands  and 
boggy  lands,  the  use  of  moraines,  the  establishment  of  guides,  the 
study  of  customs,  all  these  and  more  made  the  ancient  Indian  races 
our  teachers  in  the  art  of  road  structure.  The  American  red-man 
was  the  first  American  road-man — the  great  American  traveller,  the 
pioneer  footman  of  the  world.  The  Narragansett  Indian  was  the 
superior  walker,  climber,  runner  of  his  age — and  why? 

The  chief  seat  and  centre  of  the  Narragansett  nation  was  on 
the  west  shore  of  Narragansett  Bay.  Their  capital  town  was  Nar- 
ragansett, near  or  at  Wickford,  on  the  bay.  A  careful  study  of  the 
geology  of  this  west  shore  shows  the  entrance  of  many  fresh  water 
brooks  and  rivers  flomng  from  the  high  lands  on  the  west  into  inlets 
and  coves  along  the  sandy  shore.  The  shores  of  the  bay  at  low  water 
expose  a  large  area  of  sand,  the  home  and  breeding  places  of  shell- 
fish, especially  the  soft-clam,  mya  ahrenaria;  the  hard  or  round 
clam,  Venus  mercenarla;  periwinkles,  littorina;  mussels,  nytilus 
edulis;  scallops,  P.  irradians;  and  oysters,  ostrea  virgimca.  These 
shellfish  were  most  abundant  in  the  Indian  and  Pilgrim  periods,  and 
in  some  parts  of  the  bay  are  still  plentiful.  Boiled,  stew^ed,  fried  or 
baked,  or  raw,  the  Indian  found  his  most  valuable  food  at  no  cost 
save  the  labor  of  digging  from  the  sand.  While  the  food  was  rich 
and  sustaining,  the  Narragansetts  turned  the  clam  and  other  shells 
to  their  use  in  the  manufacture  of  peag,  a  sort  of  money  consisting 
of  beads  made  from  the  ends  of  shells,  rubbed  do\\Ti,  polished,  and 
struiij,  into  belts  on  necklaces.  Black  or  purple  peag  was  worth 
iwiQQ  as  much  as  white.  The  peag  was  so  large  and  so  well  made 
that  the  Narragansett  peag  or  wampum  excelled  in  the  coin  realm  of 
the  natives,  and  gave  the  Narragansetts  first  place  as  manufactur- 
ers, financiers,  and  merchants.  Narragansett  (Wickford)  was  the 
mint  for  the  making  of  Indian  coin  for  the  Algonquin  tribes  of  New 
England,  but  for  many  years  it  was  the  currency  of  the  white  set- 
tlers in  the  Eastern  colonies. 

Peag  made  trade  and  travel  lively,  and  as  all  Indians  were  nat- 
urally on  the  go,  the  Narragansett  Trail  and  its  cross  trails  were  in 
daily  use  by  the  male  members  of  the  various  tribes  on  business  or 

43 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

pleasure  trips  of  longer  or  shorter  extent.  It  is  easy  to  see  how  a 
tribe  Yrith  such  a  wealth  producing  business  would  easily  outstrip  I 

all  the  other  neighboring  tribes,  making  all  tributary  to  it  in  secur-  t 

ing  what  to  the  Indian  were  the  luxuries  of  savage  life.    Wigwams,  I 

utensils,  tools,  implements   of  warfare,  foods,   dress,   ornaments,  | 

festivals,  banquets,  were  common  to  all  the  nation,  and  it  is  said  that  | 

among  this  people  all  were  superior  in  their  condition,  and  not  a  i 

pauper  was  kno\\'n  in  their  borders.    To  carry  on  trade  relations  | 

with  other  nations,  to  minister  to  tribal  needs,  to  cultivate  friend-  l 

shijDs,  to  establish  and  maintain  social  relations,  to  administer  jus-  f 

tice,  to  hold  councils  and  execute-  laws, — all  these  and  other  func-  * 

tions  made  the  Narragansett  Trail  a  primitive  Broadway  where  bus-  j 

iness,  fashion  and  folly  found  daily  companionship.    If  New  Eng-  \ 

land  had  an  estimated  population  of  one  hundred  thousand  Algon-  1 

quin  Indians  before  the  plague  of  161S,  the  Narragansett  Trail  must  \ 

have  been  a  densely  travelled  highway  for  its  own  people  and  visit-  \ 

ing  tribes.  j 

The  Indian  was  the  first  New  England  road-builder,  at  which  ) 

business  he  was  an  expert.     At  road-making  he   outrivalled  the  j 

elephant  and  the  buffalo.    The  Indian  roads  or  trails  were  varied  in  \ 

extent  and  purpose,  and  their  routes  were  chosen  with  great  skill  and  \ 

knowledge  of  the  laws  of  locomotion.    The  first  law  of  a  great  trail  ' 

was  to  follow  a  straight  line.    A  second  was  to  go  around  rather  '\ 

than  over  hills  and  down  valleys.  On  the  long  tribal  and  intertribal 
trails,  rivers  were  crossed  in  their  upper  courses,  where  they  could 
be  forded  at  high  or  low  waters.  Water,  sand  and  rocks  were  avoid- 
ed by  circuitous  detours,  as  the  Indian  was  careful  of  his  foot-gear 
and  when  running  barefooted  wanted  a  smooth  hard  path  for  speed 
and  comfort.  Cleared  lands  were  preferred  to  woods  for  long 
trails. 

The  long  trails  were  for  tribal  and  inter-tribal  uses.  These 
trails  extended  across  the  continent  from  north  to  south  and  east  to 
west.  "Well  known  and  well-worn  paths  extended  from  the  Penob- 
scot to  the  Missouri,  the  Mississippi  and  the  Columbia  rivers.  Trails 
are  still  traceable  from  Canada  and  the  Great  Lakes  to  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico.  Sectional  trails  intersected  the  long  avenues  of  travel,  and 
served  individual,  village  and  tribal  necessities.  A  well-traveled 
Indian  courier  was  the  guide,  even  to  remote  parts  of  our  Western 
Continent.    The  old  trails  were  as  familiar  to  the  Indian  trader  and 

44 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

}iu liter  as  are  the  railroad  and  auto  routes  to  the  twentieth  century 
traveller.  An  Indian  news  runner  could  make  a  hundred  miles  a 
day,  after  long  training  and  anointing  the  limbs  with  oil. 

The  sections  of  the  long  inter-tribal  trails  were  known  by  the 
names  of  the  provincial  tribe  in  which  they  were  located,  as  the 
Penobscot,  Wampanoag,  the  Narragansett,  the  Pequot,  the  Mohawk, 
trails.  As  the  Narragansetts  were  the  chief  New  England  tribe,  we 
may  assume  that  the  termini  of  the  Narragansett  trail  were  at  Bos- 
ton, on  the  northeast,  and  New  York  on  the  southwest.  Later,  the 
prominence  of  the  Pequot  tribe,  with  its  capital  at  Pequot  (now  New 
London)  led  to  the  appropriation  of  the  name  Pequot  to  that  portion 
between  Stonington  and  New  York,  the  name  it  now  holds.  The  old 
Indian  trail  from  Stonington,  Connecticut,  east  to  Narragansett 
Pier,  north  to  Providence  and  northeast  to  Boston,  may  now  prop- 
erly be  called  the  Narragansett  Trail,  as  the  Wampanoags  and  Mas- 
sachusetts Indians  were  subject  tribes  of  the  Narragansetts  from  a 
time  far  beyond  the  knowledge  of  the  first  white  settlers  of  New 
England. 

A  trail  was  a  well-beaten  path  or  road,  its  surface  usually  a 
few  inches  below  the  level  of  the  ground  it  traversed.  As  the  In- 
dians travelled  single  file,  the  trail  never  exceeded  twenty-four 
inches  in  width.  There  is  the  remnant  of  an  Indian  trail  in  South 
Kingsto-^TU,  from  the  Chepuxet  river,  leading  towards  the  Indian 
fort  in  the  Narragansett  swamp,  a  half  mile  in  length,  which  was 
built  up  about  two  feet  above  the  surface  of  the  land  across  which  it 
passed.  So  far  as  kno\vn  to  the  writer,  this  is  the  only  existing  trace 
of  a  real  Indian  trail  in  Khode  Island. 

"When  the  Pilgrims  landed  in  New  England  in  1620,  they  tra- 
versed the  country  along  the  Indian  trails  leading  out  from  Ply- 
mouth, on  foot.  With  the  introduction  of  neat  cattle,  the  men  and 
women  would  ride  on  the  backs  of  heifers,  steers,  cows  and  bulls. 
The  poet  Longfellow,  in  ''The  Courtship  of  Myles  Standish,"  tells 
us  that  after  the  wedding  of  John  Alden  and  Priscilla,  the  groom 

"Brought  out  his  snow-white  steer,  obeying  the  hand  of  its  master, 
Led  by  a  cord  that  was  tied  to  an  iron  ring  in  its  nostrils, 
Covered  with  crimson  cloth,  and  a  cushion  placed  for  a  saddle. 

Gayly,  with  joyous  laugh,  Priscilla  motmted  her  palfrey." 

William  Blackstone,  who  died  in  1675,  when  too  old  to  walk  to 
Cocnmscussuc  to  preach  on  the  Sabbath,  rode  on  a  trained  white 

45 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

bull  along  the  trail  from  Wawaypoonseag  to  the  Richard  Smith 
trading  house,  a  distance  of  about  sixteen  miles,  over  the  old  Narra- 
gansett  trail.  After  the  introduction  of  horses,  the  trails  were  fol- 
lowed on  horseback.  On  Aquidneck,  highways  and  bridges  were 
built  at  the  outset  of  the  settlement,  in  1638,  but  the  other  to\vns  did 
not  construct  roads  and  introduce  carts,  oxen  and  horses,  until  twen- 
ty-five or  thirty  years  later.  Prior  to  that  time,  all  travel  and  traffic 
was  along  the  narrow  Indian  trails,  of  undated  lay-out  and  use. 

The  Narragansett  Trail  began  at  the  Pawcatuck  river  at 
Westerly,  the  stream  which  separates  Rhode  Island  from  Connecti- 
cut, and  the  western  bound  of  the  Niantic  lands.  The  Pequots  oc- 
cupied the  territory  west  of  the  Pawcatuck  towards  the  Connecticut 
river,  including  the  South  Valley  of  the  Thames  or  Pequot  river. 
Near  the  passage  of  this  river,  the  trail  divided  into  three — one 
trail  going  south  to  the  shore  of  the  sound  at  Watch  Hill ;  one  going 
north  over  the  high  lands  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Pawcatuck  towards 
the  Nipmuck  lands  north  of  Hope  Valley.  The  other,  the  main  trail 
through  the  Niantic  country,  continued  on  a  direct  easterly  course, 
along  the  sandy  bottom  of  the  morain  uplands,  on  the  north  as  far 
as  Matunuck.  Side  trails  ran  to  Weekapaug,  Quonochontaug  and 
the  several  ponds  on  the  south  shore,  adjacent  to  the  waters  of  the 
Atlantic.    The  main  trail  was  about  two  miles  from  the  ocean. 

The  Indian  name  for  the  western  section  of  the  Niantic  lands 
was  Misquamicut, — "a  place  for  catching  salmon," — and  was  pur- 
chased and  settled  by  a  colony  of  Baptists  from  Ne\vport,  in  1661, 
forming  the  towns  of  Westerly,  Hopkinton,  Richmond,  and  a  part 
of  Charlestown. 

At  Matunuck  the  main  trail  took  a  northeasterly  direction 
towards  the  head  of  Point  Judith  Pond,  passing  through  the  present 
village  of  Wakefield,  in  South  Kingsto^vn;  it  then  turned  easterly 
along  the  south  end  of  Tower  Hill,  till  it  reached  the  Pettaquamscutt 
river,  when  it  turned  north,  following  the  west  bank  of  that  river 
to  its  head,  near  the  foot  of  Hammond  Hill.  Here,  at  the  Gilbert 
Stuart  house,  the  trail  divided,  one  of  the  two  trails  going  east  to 
join  a  trail  at  the  north  end  of  Boston  Neck,  above  Barber's 
Heights.  This  East  or  main  trail  continued  north,  crossing  the 
Annaquatuckct  river  near  its  mouth,  and  entered  the  capital  town, 
Narragansett,  now  Wickford,  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  the  bay. 
The  western  section  of  the  trail,  from  the  Gilbert  Stuart  house  at 

46 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

the  liead  of  Pettaqiiamscutt  river,  ran  northwest  over  Hammond 
Hill,  and  at  the  northern  base  of  the  hill  ran  straightway  to  the 
north  and  joined  the  easterly  section  at  Narragansett-Wickford. 

From  Narragansett,  the  main  trail  ran  north  in  a  direct  course 
from  a  half  mile  to  two  miles  from  salt  water,  till  it  reached  Hunt's 
river,  at  the  head  of  Potowomut  peninsula.  The  ford  at  this  river 
was  near  the  present  bridges  south  of  the  Nathanael  Greene  birth- 
place. The  Great  Trail  here  turned  to  the  northwest,  to  the  south 
end  of  Greenwich  Gove,  where  it  turned  to  the  north,  running  in  a 
direct  course  to  Apponaug,  passing  through  Chepiwanoxet  and 
Coweset,  both  Indian  villages. 

At  Apponaug  the  trail  again  divided,  one  trail  running  nearly 
north  through  Hill's  Grove  to  the  Pawtuxet  river  ford,  whence  it 
continued  along  the  line  of  the  present  Elmwood  avenue  to  Broad 
street.  Providence.  Here  it  was  united  with  an  East  trail  from  Ap- 
ponaug, which  ran  to  the  head  of  Warwick  Cove,  thence  north  by 
Posnaganset  Pond  to  Pawtuxet.  Here,  the  Pawiuxet  was  forded  at 
the  Falls,  and  the  route  continued  on  the  old  lines  of  Broad  street 
to  its  union  with  the  North  trail  at  the  junction  of  Broad  street  and 
Elmwood  avenue.  The  Trail  then  followed  Broad  and  AVeybossett 
streets,  swinging  to  the  south  of  Weybosset  Hill,  w^here  the  Arcade 
now  stands.  The  ford  across  the  head  of  Providence  river  was  be- 
tween Turk's  Head,  Providence,  and  the  foot  of  Steeple  street. 
When  the  tide  was  high,  the  Woonasquatucket  was  forded,  west  of 
the  present  site  of  Brown  and  Sharpe  shops,  and  the  Moshassuck 
was  forded  at  Wapwayset,  under  the  hill  at  the  foot  of  Olney  street. 

At  Providence  the  Trail  followed  the  present  line  of  North 
Main  street,  along  the  site  of  the  old  Sayles  Tavern  (Pidge  House) 
to  Pawtucket  Falls,  Pa^^ucket.  Here,  were  two  fords,  one  below 
the  Falls  and  the  other  above  the  present  railroad  bridge,  at  Central 
Falls. 

From  Pawtucket  river  in  Massachusetts,  the  Narragansett 
Trail  passed  through  Pawtucket,  North  Attleboro,  AVentham,  Wal- 
pole,  Dedham,  Eoxbury,  into  Boston,  by  the  road  now  known  as 
Washington  street,  to  Boston.  This  was  the  old  post  and  stage  road 
from  Providence  to  Boston  as  laid  out  and  measured  by  Benjamin 
Frankhn  as  Colonial  Postmaster  in  1753.  From  Providence  to  New 
York,  the  post  road  of  Franklin  followed  the  Narragansett  and  Pe- 
quot  Trails.    Some  of  the  stone  markers  set  by  Franklin  are  still 

47 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

standing.  One  in  Pawtucket,  Khode  Island,  is  inscribed  *'2  M.  to 
C.  H.,"  which  interpreted  means  that  by  the  rotary  measurement 
of  Franklin's  shay  wheel,  it  was  two  miles  from  that  stone  to  the 
court  house  at  Providence. 

The  length  of  the  Narragansett  Trail  from  Boston  to  Provi- 
dence by  the  stage  route  was  about  fortj^-two  miles.  The  length  of  | 
the  Trail  from  Providence  to  Westerly  Bridge,  as  travelled  by  the  \ 
Indians,  was  nearly  sixty  miles.  The  total  mileage  was  not  far  from  j. 
one  hundred,  a  day's  run  for  an  Indian  messenger.  Add  the  Pequot  f 
Trail  from  Westerly  to  New  York,  and  we  have  two  hundred  and  .■  - '  j 
sevent3-four  miles  for  the  two  trails  from  New  York  to  Boston.               '■     j 

I  find  a  record  of  the  year  1697  which  gives  distances  in  miles  I 

and  all  the  places  between  New  York  and  Boston  ** where  travelers  | 

could  find  entertainment  for  man  and  beast : "  ,  I 

*'From  New  York  to  Boston  it  is  accounted  274  miles,  viz:  j 

From  the  Post  Office  in  New  York  to  Jo.  Clapps,  in  the  Bowery,  is  ;_ 

2  miles  (which  generally  is  the  baiting  place,  where  gentlemen  take  ; 

leave  of  their  friends  going  so  long  a  journey),  and  where  a  parting  -; 

glass  or  two  of  generous  wine,  if  well  applied,  make  their  dull  | 

horses  feel  one  spur  in  the  head  is  worth  two  in  the  heel."  i 

From  said  Clapp's  (his  tavern  w^as  near  the  corner  of  Bayard  *. 

street),  to  half-way  house,  7  miles:  thence  to  King's  Bridge,  9:  * 

to  old  Shute's  at  East  Chester,  6:  to  New  Rochel  Meeting-House,  4:  '; 

to  Joseph  Norton's,  4;  to  Denhams,  at  Rye,  4:  to  Knap's,  at  Horse-  | 

neck,  7:  to  Belden's,  at  Norwalk,  10:  to  Burr's,  at  Fairfield,  10:  to  | 

T.  Knowles',  at  Stratford,  9 :  to  Andrew  Sanford's  at  Milford,  4 :  to  I 

Captain  John  Mills',  at  New  Haven,  10:  to  the  Widow  Frisbie's,  at  l 

Branford,  10 :  to  John  Hudson's,  at  Guilford,  9 :  to  John  Grissets,  at  \ 

Killinsworth,  10:  to  John  Clarke's  at  Seabrook,  (Saybrook)  10:  to  ] 

Mr.  Plum's,  at  New  London,  18 :  to  Mr.  Sexton's,  15 :  to  Mr.  Pember-  ; 

ton's,  in  the  Narragansett  country,  probably  at  Westerly,  15 :  to  the  :• 
Frenchtown,  Mr.  Havens,  24:  to  Mr.  Turpin's,  Providence,  20:  to 
Mr.  Woodcock's,  North  Attleboro,  15:  to  Mr.  Billings'  farm,  11: 
to  Mr.  White's,  6:  to  Mr.  Fisher's,  6:  and  from  thence  to  the  great 
towne  of  Boston,  10,  where  many  good  lodgings  and  accommoda- 
tions may  be  had  for  love  and  money." 

This  was  the  pioneer  Indian  Trail  from  Boston  to  Manhattan, 
and  was  the  shortest  overland  route,  the  best  laid  and  conditioned, 
and  the  most  travelled  overland  route  for  foot  or  horseback  travel. 

Mention  should  here  be  made  of  two  other  Indian  trails  from 
Boston,  which  were  tributary  to  the  Narragansett  and  Pequot  Trail, 

48 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

One,  the  Niprauck,  ran  southwest  through  the  Nipmuc  country,  by 
the  great  iishing  lake,  Chargogagogmauchaugagogchaubunagunga- 
rmiug,  thence  south  down  the  Quinebaug  and  Thames  Valley,  to  Pe- 
quot  or  New  London,  there  intersecting  the  trail  to  New  York.  The 
other,  "the  Bay  Path,"  ran  from  Boston  west  through  Central  Mas- 
sachusetts to  Springfield;  thence  southerly  by  Hartford  to  Long 
Island  Sound,  intersecting  the  New  York  Trail  at  Saybrook,  at  the 
niouth  of  the  Connecticut.  The  subject  of  New  England  Trails, 
Bii>.hd  Paths,  Eoads  and  Old  Taverns,  may  engage  my  pen  later. 
Now  I  must  confine  myself  to  the  Narragansett  Trails. 

The  Narragansetts  were  not  nomadic.  They  had  beautiful  home 
lands  on  the  west  shore  of  the  Bay,  and  o^\^led  and  occupied  the 
jjrincipal  islands  in  the  Bay,  which  was  abou^  ten  miles  in  width 
from  Narragansett  to  Pocassett,  the  territory  of  the  Wampanoags, 
of  which  Massassoit  was  chief  sachem  at  the  advent  of  the  Plymouth 
settlers  in  1620.  Their  tillage  land,  five  miles  in  width  from  the  bay 
and  richly  fertilized  by  bay  products  of  seaweed  and  fishs,  bore 
abundant  crops  of  corn,  beans,  squashes,  pumpkins  and  tobacco,  un- 
der the  cultivation  of  the  women,  the  serfs  of  the  tribe.  The  men 
found  their  sports  and  labors  in  hunting,  fishing  and  trade  with 
neighboring  tribes,  while  the  occupation  of  making  wampum  from 
the  abundance  of  shells  occupied  much  of  the  time  and  labor  of  both 
sexes.  The  Narragansetts  were  also  skilled  in  making  soapstone 
basins,  kettles,  pipes,  etc.,  from  a  quarry  near  Neutakonkanut  hill, 
in  Providence.  They  also  made  necklaces,  girdles  and  bracelets  of 
beads,  with  regalia  for  the  sachems  and  other  dignitaries  of  the 
tribe,  all  of  which  industries  point  to  a  strong  commercial  life  on 
the  Bay.  Narragansett  (Wickford)  was  the  centre  of  the  tribal  life 
of  this  prosperous  people.  This  was  their  capital  and  longest  set- 
tlement. Sea  voyagers  set  out  from  the  land-locked  harbor,  and 
barter  of  all  descriptions  was  carried  on  in  the  midst  of  multitudes 
of  teepees. 

Concerning  the  villages  of  the  Narragansetts,  we  have  small 
knowledge.  Champlain  reported  large  Indian  wigwam  villages  and 
fields  of  corn  along  the  New  England  coast  in  1637.  Verazzano 
^vrites  that  a  single  wigwam  was  often  the  home  of  twenty-five  men, 
vroraen  and  children.  Of  the  thickly  settled  centres  of  population, 
we  may  readily  assume  that,  while  the  whole  coast  line  was  well 
peopled,  village  centres  were  established,  at  Pettaquamscutt,  Nam- 

49 


•IS  ;o 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

cook,  Boston  Xeck,  Saundersto^vn,  Barbers  Heights,  Hamilton, 
Wickford,  Quonsct,  Allen's  Harbor,  the  Devil's  Foot,  Aspanansnck, 
Quidnesset,  Potowomut,  East  Greenwich,  Chepiwanoxet,  Moshanti- 
cut,  Coweset,  Apponang,  Nausauket,  Buttomvoods,  Tunckatucket, 
Pomham,  Warwick  Neck,  Shawomet,  Conimicut,  Occupassuatuxet, 
Pawtuxet,  Pontiac,  Natick,  Posneganset,  Setnat,  Auburn,  Elmwood, 
Moshassuck,  Pawtucket,  Chepachet,  and  a  large  settlement  and 
tribal  council  chamber  under  and  east  of  Cawca^Mijavratchuck.  It 
Id  fair  to  assume  the  existence  of  fifty  Narragansett  villages  between 
Westerly  on  the  south  and  Womsocket  on  the  north,  including  those 
of  the  Niantics  and  Nipmucs.  Mr.  Williams  wrote,  "a  man  shall 
come  to  many  towms,  some  bigger,  some  smaller,  it  may  be  a  dozen 
in  20  miles  travel."  It  was  the  custom  of  the  Indians  to  spend  the 
spring,  summer  and  autumn  months  on  and  near  the  shore  and  their 
corn  lands,  but  in  the  winter  they  would  quickly  change  their  abodes 
to  the  thick,  warm,  wooded  valleys,  not  far  distant.  This  change  of 
residence  was  made  in  a  single  day,  all  the  people  joining  in  the  la- 
bor of  moving  their  wigwams  and  other  belongings.  As  the  tribal 
lands  were  a  common  possession,  there  were  no  o\vnerships  to  de- 
termine the  place  of  habitation  of  each  family  in  the  forests.  As  to 
planting  lands,  each  family  took  up  its  accustomed  fields,  by 
courtesy.  Few  land  contests  ever  occurred,  as  land  was  plentiful 
and  the  women  attended  to  the  location  of  the  planting,  the  labor  of 
breaking  up  the  soil,  planting  seed,  cultivating  and  harvesting  crops, 
—all  except  tobacco,  which  the  men  took  pleasure  in  cultivating  and 
smoking. 

Ha\ang  located  the  residence  of  the  Narragansetts  and  the  great 
Narragansett  Trail  from  the  Pawcatuck  river  to  Boston,  it  is  my 
purpose  to  tell  the  story  of  some  of  the  principal  events  that  oc- 
curred on  or  near  the  Trail  after  the  arrival  of  PhTUOuth  settlers  in 
1620.  I  hope  also  to  introduce  some  of  the  principal  Indian  actors  in 
scenes  transpiring  on  or  near  the  Trails  during  the  first  seventy- 
five  years  of  colonial  history. 

Narragansett  (Wickford),  has  already  been  referred  to  as  the 
capital  of  the  Narragansett  nation.  Concerning  it,  little  more  can 
be  said,  than  that  it  was  the  chief  town  and  the  centre  of  the  business 
interest  of  the  people.  Commerce  of  a  primal  sort  was  carried  on 
from  this  port;  tribal  counsels  were  held  in  the  neighborhood,  and 
governmental  authority  issued  hence  for  the  nation.    It  was  no  small 

50 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

matter  to  govern  a  native  population  of  twenty  thousand.  Brinley 
says  the  tribe  numbered  thirty  thousand  men;  Koger  Williams  says 
the  tribe  could  raise  five  thousand  warriors,  and  HutchinsoUj  that 
they  were  the  most  numerous  of  all  the  tribes  between  Boston  and 
the  Hudson  river.  As  to  trade,  Hutchinson  says  **they  were  con- 
sidered a  commercial  people,  and  not  only  began  a  trade  with  the 
English  for  goods  for  their  own  consumption,  but  soon  learned  to 
supply  other  distant  nations,  at  advanced  prices,  and  to  receive 
beaver  and  other  furs  in  exchange,  upon  which  they  made  a  profit ; 
they  were  the  most  curious  coiners  of  wampum  peag,  and  supplied 
other  tribes  with  pendants,  bracelets,  tobacco  pipes  of  stone,  some 
blue,  some  white,  earthen  vessels  and  pots,  stone  axes,  tomahawks, 
mortars,  pestles,  arrovrheads,  etc." 

Canonicus  was  the  chief  sachem  of  the  Xarragansetts.  He  was 
the  son  of  Tashtassuck,  who  had  but  two  children,  a  son  and  a  daugh- 
ter, whom  he  joined  in  marriage  because  he  could  find  none  worthy 
of  them  out  of  his  family.  Four  sons  were  born  of  this  marriage,  of 
whom  Canonicus  was  the  oldest.  He  was  born  in  1574  and  died  in 
1648,  at  Narragansett.  The  youngest  of  the  four  brothers  was 
named  Mascus,  whose  son,  Miantinomi,  was  an  associate  in  the  gov- 
ernment with  his  uncle.  Canonchet,  alias  Nanno,  was  the  son  of 
Miantinomi,  and  succeeded  to  the  sachemship  at  the  death  of  Canon- 
icus. 

Miantinomi  married  Wawaloam,  and  lived  with  his  queen  at 
Aspanansuck  (Exeter  Hill),  until  his  execution  in  Connecticut  in 
1643,  while  yet  a  young  man.  Had  he  survived  his  uncle,  he  would 
have  been  a  worthy  and  able  ruler  of  the  Narragansetts.  Of  these 
braves,  three  have  monuments  to  perpetuate  their  names,  Mianti- 
nomi in  Connecticut,  Canonchet  at  Providence,  and  "Wawaloam  in 
Exeter,  Rhode  Island. 

Canonicus  was  a  really  great  ruler,  and  widely  known  as  a  wise 
and  sagacious  man.  His  home  was  at  "The  Devil's  Foot,"  on 
the  Trail,  about  two  miles  north  of  Wickford.  This  long,  rocky 
cliff  is  indented  with  hoof-like  impressions,  suggesting  the  name 
the  ledge  still  bears.  Forests  now  cover  much  of  the  formerly  open 
prairie  lands  about  the  sachem's  teepee.  Here  was  the  Council 
Chamber  of  the  Narragansetts,  and  here  were  decided  civil,  military 
and  criminal  affairs  of  the  whole  nation.  This  great  ledge  of  rocks, 
still  unbroken,  stands  as  the  only  permanent  monument  to  the  Na- 
si 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

tion  of  which  this  locality  was  the  capital.  But  Indian  royalty  has 
passed  and  left  no  sign.  ''The  Devil's  Foot"  issues  no  secret  of 
the  transactions  it  witnessed  in  the  d3,j3  of  Narragansett  su- 
premacy. 

Richard  Smith  was  the  first  white  settler  among  the  Indians  at 
Narragansett.  Smith,  "a  Puritan  of  the  moderate  school,"  born 
1596,  left  England  in  1637,  and  was  admitted  an  inhabitant  of  New- 
port, R.  I.,  the  20th  of  the  3d,  1638-9.    Mr.  WilUams  writes  of  him: 

"Richard  Smith,  who,  for  his  conscience  toward  God,  left  a  fair 
possession  in  Gloucestershire  and  adventured  "wdth  his  relations  an 
estate  to  New  England  and  was  a  most  acceptable  and  prime  lead- 
ing man  in  Taunton,  Plymouth  Colony;  for  his  conscience  sake, 
(many  differences  arising),  he  left  Taunton  and  came  to  the  Nahi- 
gonsih  country  *  *  and  put  up  in  the  thickest  for  the  Barbarians 
the  first  English  house  amongst  them." 

The  date  of  Smith's  house-building  was  probably  1639,  although 
authorities  differ.  There  is  no  doubt  that  he  built  a  block-house  at 
Cocumscussuc,  north  of  Wickford,  "purchasing  a  tract  of  land  of 
the  Narragansett  sachem,  among  the  thickest  of  the  Indians,  (com- 
puted at  thirty  thousand  people),  erected  a  house  for  trade,  and 
gave  free  entertainment  to  travellers ;  it  being  the  great  road  of  the 
country."  (Mass.  Hist.  Coll.  1,  216).  This  tract  of  land  extended 
a  mile  west  from  the  salt  water.  Later,  Smith  and  his  son  Richard 
made  purchases  on  long  leases  of  Indian  lands,  south  and  west  of 
the  first  purchase.  About  1643-5  Richard  Smith,  Sen.,  left  "Smith's 
Castle"  at  Cocumscussuc  in  care  of  his  son  Richard,  and  with 
other  colonists  founded  the  town  of  Newiown,  on  Long  Island.  Be- 
ing assailed  by  savages,  the  Smith  family  fled  to  New  Amsterdam 
(New  York),  where  they  made  the  acquaintance  of  Gysbert  Op  Dyck, 
an  emigrant  from  Germany,  in  1638.  Later,  Mr.  Op  Dyck  married 
Katherine  Smith,  daughter  of  Richard,  and  soon  the  Smiths  and 
Op  Dycks  returned  to  the  "Smith  Castle"  home  at  Narragansett. 
Thereafter  the  Updikes  became  one  of  the  leading  families  of  Rhode 
Island,  and  of  the  South  County. 

In  the  long  contest  as  to  the  western  bounds  of  Rhode  Island 
colony,  Mr.  Smith  espoused  the  cause  of  Connecticut  against  Rhode 
Island  and  held  the  office  of  constable  under  a  commission  from  Con- 
necticut; and  in  1673  his  son  Richard  was  commissioned  as  presi- 
dent of  the  council  for  the  royal  domain  for  the  King's  Colony. 

52 


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ti-»ifv 


FORTY  MEN'S  GR.WES,  1075.  AT  COCUMSCUSSUC,  XEAR  WICKFORD.  R.  I. 


i'^'^smw^ 


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'MtfiiiTii>^flik..-cat 


FLOOR    TIMBERS    AND    SOUTH    AXD    WEST    CELLAR    WALL    OF   ROGER 

WILLLXMS'  TRADING   HOUSE 

Built  in  ir.4.1.     Note  uiiliewn  timbers  of  tlic  Hoor  set  in  1I10  wall.     Win(l..\\   in  soutluvot  corner 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

Although  the  Smiths  were  of  the  Puritan  stamp,  Episcopal  ser- 
vices were  held  at  the  castle  once  a  month,  conducted  by  Kev.  Wil- 
liam Blackstone,  a  minister  for  the  Church  of  England,  riding  from 
his  home  in  Cumberland,  on  his  trained  mouse-colored  bull,  to  and 
from,  a  distance  of  forty  miles.  Mr.  Potter  states  that  Mr.  "Wil- 
liams often  preached  at  Cocumscussuc. 

Richard  Smith,  senior,  died  in  1666,  having  led,  as  his  eulogist 
says,  '*A  sober,  honorable  and  religious  life;"  dj^ing  ''in  his  own 
house  in  much  serenity  of  soul  and  comfort,  he  yielded  up  his  spirit 
to  God,  the  Father  of  Spirits,  in  peace."  His  property  at  the  castle 
descended  mainly  to  his  son  Eichard. 

In  16-43  Mr.  Williams,  fearing  the  loss  of  Pro\'idence  Planta- 
tions in  the  territorial  claims  of  Plymouth,  Massachusetts  Bay  and 
Connecticut  colonies,  made  a  voyage  to  London  to  intercede  with 
the  Colonial  Commissioners,  of  whom  Sir  Harry  Vane  was  one,  to 
grant  him  a  patent  for  the  plantations.  As  the  trip  was  at  his  own 
expense,  and  his  absence  occupied  a  good  part  of  a  year,  always 
poor,  he  returned  in  1644  "w^th  his  much  coveted  parchment,  to  find 
himself  in  very  straitened  circumstances.  It  occurred  to  him  that 
a  second  trading  house  was  needed  at  Narragansett,  and  repairing 
to  his  friend  Canonicus  and  making  kno\vn  his  "vsTishes,  the  sachem 
gave  him  a  tract  of  land  at  ''De\dl's  Foot,"  north  of  and  near  the 
royal  teepee,  on  which  to  build  a  dwelling  and  a  store  under  one 
roof.  A  house  about  sixteen  feet  square  was  built  on  the  east  side 
of  the  Trail,  with  a  cellar  the  size  of  the  house,  vdth  a  stone  chimney 
on  the  north  side.  Of  that  house,  two  sides  of  the  cellar  wall  are 
now  standing,  as  built  by  Mr.  AVilliams.  The  floor  timbers,  roughly 
hevni  on  the  upper  side,  are  still  in  their  original  position.  At  the 
southwestern  corner,  the  cellar  still  shows  a  port  hole  for  light  for 
that  store  room  and  possible  living  room.  A  trading  house  was  the 
natural  gathering  place  and  business  centre  for  the  neighborhood, 
and  at  Smith's  and  AVilliams'  houses  could  be  bought,  in  barter  or 
with  peag,  sugar,  tobacco,  pipes,  corn,  cloth,  house  and  land  utensils, 
ammunition,  traps  for  hunting,  "strong  liquors,"  English-made 
tools,  etc.,  etc.  While  the  laws  were  strict  as  to  the  sale  of  intoxi- 
cating liquors  to  the  Indians,  they  were  able  to  obtain  it  freely. 
Canonchet  was  the  first  sachem  to  petition  the  white  traders  not  to 
sell  ''strong  water"  to  his  tribe,  and  so  far  as  our  records  attest 
was  the  first  prohibitionist  in  New  England. 

53 


.  '^HE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

The  present  gambril-roofed  house,  standing  on  the  site  of  the 
Williams  trading  house  and  protecting  the  ancient  relics,  is  more 
than  a  century  old,  and  is  owned  and  occupied  by  Mr.  Almon  C. 
Ladue  and  his  family.  It  stands  on  the  east  side  of  the  Narragan- 
sett  Trail,  and  about  forty  rods  north  of  the  Devil's  Foot.  The 
photograph  of  the  southwest  corner  of  the  Ladue  house  shows  the 
rough  floor  timbers,  resting  on  the  stone  cellar  wall.  The  open 
space  for  a  small  window  as  an  outlook  from  the  cellar  to  the 
south,  appears  in  the  picture. 

In  1649,  Mr.  Williams  ^'liad  leave  to  sell  a  little  mne  or  stronge 
water  to  some  natives  in  theare  sickness."  Prior  to  that  date,  trad- 
ing houses  were  allowed  to  sell  at  wholesale  or  retail  to  the  natives, 
Tinder  a  license  system. 

It  is  probable  that  Mr.  Williams  and  his  family  lived  at  Xar- 
ragansett  from  16-14  to  1651,  for  all  his  correspondence  to  Governor 
Winthrop  of  Pequot,  Connecticut,  and  others,  was  dated  at  Narra- 
gansett. 

The  earliest  extant  deed  of  Narragansett  land,  to  Richard 
Smith  Sen.,  is  that  of  Eoger  Williams,  dated,  "Ne^\^ort,  the  3rd  of 
ye  7th  month  soe  called  1651."  By  it,  Williams  conveys  to  Smith, 
for  fifty  pounds,  **my  tradeing  house  at  Narragansett,  together 
with  two  Iron  Guns  or  Murderers  there  lying  as  alsoe  my  fields  and 
fenceing  aboute  the  s'd  House  as  alsoe  the  use  of  the  litle  Island  for 
goates  which  the  old  Sachem  deceased  Lent  mee  for  that  use."  At 
this  time  Smith,  Sen.,  was  residing  at  Portsmouth,  Ehode  Island. 

It  is  believed  that  the  cellar  walls  and  floor  timbers  of  the  Wil- 
liams Trading  House  are  the  only  relics,  m  situ,  of  any  one  of  the 
old  New  England  houses  of  that  type,  and  for  that  reason  should 
be  preserved.  They  also  may  be  treated  as  a  memorial  of  the  only 
clearly  proven  relic  of  the  handiwork  and  residence  of  Roger  Wil- 
liams.   Here  he  lived  for  at  least  seven  years,  from  1644  to  1651. 

The  Havens  Tavern  w^as  the  first  hostelry  on  the  Ehode  Island 
section  of  the  Narragansett  Trail.  It  was  located  in  North  Kings- 
to^vn,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Trail,  about  one  mile  north  of  the  Smith 
Trading  House.  The  house  now  standing  on  the  cellar  of  the  old 
Tavern  may  and  probably  does  contain  timbers  of  the  old  house, 
built  by  Thomas  Havens  of  Newport,  who  bought  the  land  and  erect- 
ed the  first  house  before  1700.  A  sign  of  the  later  tavern  belongs  to 
Col.  H.  Anthony  Dyer,  of  Providence. 

54 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

These  early  public  houses  were  fitted  to  feed,  entertain  and 
lodge  the  travellers  on  the  post  road,  and  also  had  a  bar-room  and 
public  bar,  over  which  were  sold  to  the  neighborhood  and  transients, 
on  foot  or  by  horse,  all  liquors,  now  known  as  ''wet  goods,"  such  as 
•ttdne,  rum,  gin,  brandy  and  cider.  Not  a  householder  in  the  country 
failed  to  patronize  the  Havens  bar,  from  which  the  chief  profits 
sprang.  A  blazing  w^ood  fire  and  bountiful  dinners  were  not  to  be 
slighted  on  frosty  days  and  stormy  nights,  and  a  mug  of  cider,  a 
bowl  of  ** toddy,"  ''punch,"  or  "flip,"  or  even  a  glass  of  West  India 
rum,  added  warmth  and  cheer  to  the  old  Rhode  Island  bar-room,  and 
made  the  tavern  of  the  grandfathers  a  place  of  universal  resort  in 
all  seasons  and  weathers.  Here  it  was  that  general  news  was  re- 
tailed to  every  comer,  for  the  dailies  had  not  appeared.  The  good 
men  of  the  n3ighborhood  here  met  to  discuss  to^vn  politics  in  March, 
crop  prospects  in  July,  harvesting  in  November,  hog  and  beef  kill- 
ing in  December,  and  news  and  gossip  of  the  home  folks,  small  and 
great,  every  day  in  the  year. 

A  very  interesting  story  is  told  of  the  Havens  Tavern  by  Mrs. 
Sarah  Kemble  Knight,  wife  of  Eichard  Knight,  of  Bos'ton,  who  made 
the  journey  from  Boston  and  New  York  on  horseback  by  way  of  the 
usual  and  best  route,  the  Narragansett  Trail,  in  1704.  Madam 
Knight  passed  her  late  j'ears  in  Nor^\'ich,  Connecticut,  possessed 
considerable  real  estate,  and  "stood  high  in  the  social  rank,  and  was 
respected  both  in  the  church  and  in  mercantile  affairs."  The  fol- 
lo^\'ing  is  from  Madam  Knight's  Journal  and  relates  her  return  trip 
from  Boston,  on  horseback  to  New  York,  in  1704: 

"Tuesday,  October  ye  third,  *  *  *  about  three  afternoon 
went  on  wdth  my  Third  Guide  who  Rode  very  hard;  and  having 
crossed  Providence  Ferry,  we  came  to  a  River  (Pa\vtuxet)  wch  they 
Generally  Ride  thro',  But  I  dare  not  venture;  so  the  Post  got  a 
Ladd  and  Cannoo  to  carry  me  to  tother  side,  and  hee  rid  thro'  and 
led  my  Hors.  The  Cannoo  was  very  small  and  shallow,  so  that 
when  we  were  in  she  seem'd  redy  to  take  in  w^ater,  which  greatly 
terrified  mee,  and  caused  me  to  be  very  circumspect,  sitting  with  my 
hands  fast  on  each  side,  my  eyes  steady,  not  daring  so  much  as  to 
lodg  my  tongue  a  hair's  breadth  more  on  one  side  of  my  mouth  than 
tother,  nor  so  much  as  think  on  Lott's  mfe,  for  a  long  thought 
would  have  oversett  our  wherey :  But  was  soon  out  of  this  pain,  by 
feeling  the  Cannoo  on  shore,  wch  I  as  soon  almost  saluted  with  my 
feet ;  and  Rewarding  my  sculler,  again  mounted  and  made  the  best 

55 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

of  our  way  forwards.  The  Rode  here  was  every  even  (Warwick) 
and  ye  day  pleasant,  it  being  now  near  Sunsett.  *  But  the  Post  told 
mee  we  had  neer  14  miles  to  Ride  to  the  next  stage,  (where  we  were 
to  lodge.)  (Havens  Tavern).  I  askt  him  of  the  rest  of  the  Rode, 
foreseeing  wee  must  travail  in  the  night.  Hee  told  mee  there  was  a 
bad  River  we  were  to  Ride  thro',  wch  was  so  very  firce  a  hors  could 
sometimes  hardly  stem  it;  But  it  was  but  narrow,  and  wee  should 
soon  be  over.  I  cannot  express  the  concern  of  mind  this  relation 
sett  me  in;  *  *  *  *  wee  entered  a  Thickett  of  Trees  and 
Shrubbs,  and  I  perceived  by  the  Hors's  going,  we  were  on  the 
descent  of  a  Hill,  wch  as  were  come  nearer  the  bottom,  'twas  totally 
dark  with  the  Trees  that  surrounded  it.  But  I  knew  by  the  Going  of 
the  Hors  wee  had  entered  the  water,  wch  my  guide  told  me  was  the 
hazzardous  River  (Hunt's  at  Potowomut)  he  had  told  me  off;  and 
hee  Riding  up  close  to  my  side.  Bid  me  not  fear — we  should  be  over 
immediately.  *  *  *  *  So  as  the  Post  bid  me,  I  gave  reins  to 
my  Xagg;  and  sitting  as  stedy  as  just  before  in  the  Cannoo,  in  a 
few  minutes  got  safe  to  the  other  side,  which  hee  told  mee  was  Nar- 
ragansett  country. 

"Here  Wee  found  great  difficulty  in  Travailing,  the  way  being 
very  narrow,  and  on  each  side  the  trees  and  bushes  gave  us  very 
pleasant  welcomes  wth  their  Branches  and  bows,  which  v/ee  could 
not  avoid,  it  being  so  exceeding  dark.  *  *  *  I  on  a  suden  was 
Rous'd  *  *  *  ]3Y  jj^Q  Post's  sounding  his  horn,  wch  assured 
mee  hee  was  arrived  at  the  stage,  where  wee  were  to  Lodge.  *  *  *  * 

* 'Being  come  to  Mr.  Havens'  [Tavern]  I  was  very  civilly  re- 
ceived and  courteously  entertained,  in  clean  comfortable  House ;  and 
the  good  AVoman  was  very  active  in  helping  off  my  Riding  Clothes, 
and  then  askt  what  I  would  eat.  I  told  her  I  had  some  Chocolett,  if 
she  would  prepare  it;  wch  with  the  help  of  some  Milk,  and  a  little 
clean  brass  kettle,  she  soon  effected  to  my  liking.  I  then  betook  me 
to  my  Apartment,  wch  was  a  little  Room.,  parted  from  the  Kitchen 
by  a  single  bord  partition ;  where,  after  I  had  noted  the  occurrences 
of  the  past  day,  I  went  to  bed,  wch,  tho'  pretty  hard,  yet  neet  and 
handsome.  But  I  could  get  no  sleep,  because  of  the  Clamor  of  some 
of  the  To^vn  tope-ers  in  next  Room,  Who  were  entred  into  a  strong 
debate  concerning  ye  signifycation  of  the  name  of  their  Country, 
(viz)  Narraganset.  One  said  it  was  named  so  by  ye  Indians,  be- 
cause there  grew  a  Brier  there,  of  a  prodigious  Highth  and  bigness, 
the  like  hardly  ever  kno^\Ti,  called  by  the  Indians  Xarragansett ;  And 
quotes  an  Indian  of  so  barbarous  a  name  for  his  Author,  that  I 
could  not  Write  it.  His  Antagonist  Replyed  no — It  was  from  a 
Spring  it  had  its  name,  wch  hee  well  knew  where  it  was,  wch  was 
extreem  cold  in  summer,  and  as  Hott  as  could  be  imagined  in  the 
Winter,  Wch  was  much  resorted  too  by  the  natives,  and  by  them 
called  Narragansett,  (Hott  and  Cold,)  and  that  was  the  originall  of 

56 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

their  places  name — mth  a  thousand  Impertinences  not  worth  notice, 
■vvch  He  uttered  with  such  a  Eoreing  voice  and  Thundering  blows 
with  the  fist  of  wickedness  on  the  Table,  that  it  peirced  my  very 
head,  I  heartily  fretted  and  wish't  'em  tongue  tyed;  *  *  *  * 
I  set  my  Caudle  on  a  Chest  by  the  bed  side,  and  setting  up,  fell  to 
my  oldVay  of  Composing  my  Eesentments,  in  the  following  man- 
ner: 

"I  ask  thy  Aid,  O  Potent  Rum! 
To  charm  these  wranghng  Topers  Dum ! 
Thou  hast  their  Giddy  Brains  possest — 
The   man   confounded   with  the   Beast — 
And  I,  poor  I,  can  get  no  rest. 
Intoxicate  them  with  thy  fumes : 
O   still   their   Tongues   till   morning  comes  1" 

Wednesday,  October  4th.  About  four  in  the  morning,  we  set 
out  for  Kingston,  (for  so  was  the  town  called.)  *  *  *  This 
Rode  was  poorly  furnished  wth  accommodations  for  Travellers,  so 
that  w^e  were  forced  to  ride  22  miles  by  the  Post's  Ac^iount,  but  neer- 
er  30  by  mine,  before  wee  could  bait  so  much  as  our  horses,  wch  I 
exceedingly  complained  of.  *  *  *  From  hence  we  proceeded 
*  *  *'  through  the  Narragansett  Country  pretty  Leisurely; 
and  about  one  afternoon  came  to  Paukataug  River,  (Pawcatuck  at 
Westerly,  R.L)" 

Elizabeth  Spring  was  a  bountiful  Lidian  spring,  at  the  south- 
west bank  of  Grcemdch  Cove,  at  the  head  of  Potowomut  Neck.  It 
still  exists,  in  reduced  condition.  This  spring  now  bears  the  name 
Elizabeth,  from  Elizabeth  Winthrop,  wife  of  Hon.  John  Winthrop, 
Jr.,  Governor  of  Connecticut,  son  of  Governor  John  Winthrop  of 
Massachusetts.  Governor  Winthrop 's  home  was  at  Pequot  (now 
New  London,  Connecticut),  and  Mr.  Williams  held  frequent  corres- 
pondence ^\'ith  him  from  his  Narragansett  trading  house.  Mrs. 
John  Winthrop,  Jr.,  was  accustomed  to  ride  from  Pequot  to  Boston, 
horseback,  along  the  Narragansett  Trail,  stopping  for  news,  traffic 
or  social  intercourse  at  the  Williams  House  of  Trade  and  at  the 
Indian  Spring  for  water  for  herself  and  her  entourage.  Mrs.  AVin- 
throp  died  in  1672,  and  Governor  Winthrop,  Jr.,  in  1676.  After 
Elizabeth's  death,  Roger  Williams  wrote  to  the  Governor: 

''Sir:  I  constantly  think  of  you  and  send  up  one  remembrance 
to  Heaven  for  you,  and  a  groan  from  myself  for  myself,  when  I 
pass  Elizabeth's  Spring.  Here  is  the  Spring,  say  I,  (\\'ith  a  sigh), 
but  where  is  Elizabeth?  My  Charity  ansAvers,  She  is  gone  to  the 
Eternal  Spring  and  Fountain  of  Living  Waters. 

** Roger  Williams."' 

57 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

A  stone  at  the  Spring  bears  the  inscription,  penned  by  Mr.  "Wil- 
liams. This  spring  can  be  seen,  under  the  bank  at  Greenvrich  Cove, 
at  the  head  of  Potowomut  Neck,  just  east  of  the  railroad  bridge  over 
the  main  road.  The  old  Xarragansett  Trail  followed  the  line  of  this 
road  from  Green's  Forge,  on  Hunt's  River,  about  a  half  mile  to  the 
South. 

Garrison-houses  were  also  located  on  or  near  main  Indian  trails. 
These  were  usually  built  of  wood,  with  small  Anndows  and  small 
port-holes  on  all  sides,  through  which  hostile  Indians  could  be  seen 
and  from  which  guns  could  be  fired,  these  houses  being  built  for  safe- 
ty in  times  of  danger,  and  were  large  enough  to  hold  and  protect  a 
number  of  families.  It  is  said  that  sixty  or  more  persons  found 
room  and  protection  in  the  Bourne  garrison,  in  Swansea,  in  the  open- 
ing days  of  Philip's  "War,  in  June,  1675.  The  Richard  Smith  house  at 
Cocumscussuc  was  both  a  trading  house  and  a  garrison,  as  its  size 
would  accommodate  many  people.  It  served  as  the  rendezvous  for 
the  soldiers  before  and  after  the  Narragansett  Swamp  Fights,  De- 
cember, 1675. 

The  Jireh  Bull  house  was  also  a  Garrison.  This  house  was  lo- 
cated west  of  the  Pettaquamscutt  river,  at  the  old  Tower  Hill  trail 
and  north  of  the  east  and  w^est  trail  leading  across  the  Pettaquam- 
scutt River,  from  ''Boston  Neck"  at  Middle  bridge.  It  was  but  a 
short  distance  from  both  trails.  Jireh  Bull  was  the  oldest  child  and 
only  son  of  Gov.  Henry  Bull,  of  Newport,  born  1638.  He  bought  500 
acres  of  land  at  Pettaquamscutt  in  1666,  and  was  a  resident  of  Kings 
ToAvn,  and  a  to"wn  officer  in  1669. 

The  Bull  garrison  house  was  the  rendezvous  of  the  neighboring 
settlers,  when  conditions  in  the  Indian  country  at  Narragansett 
threatened  the  safety  of  the  whites.  In  December,  1675,  raids  of 
King  Philip's  warriors  alarmed  Rhode  Island  settlers.  Providence, 
Warwick,  Greenwich  and  other  settlements  were  attacked  by  the 
Confederate  Indians,  houses  burned  and  the  people  scattered.  While 
the  Indian  warriors  were  gathering  at  their  stockade  fort  in  the 
Narragansett  Swamp,  in  December,  1675,  a  band  of  savages  attacked 
the  Bull  garrison,  and  set  the  house  on  fire.  Hubbard  in  his  story 
of  Philip's  war,  says :  ''Captain  Prentice,  A\dth  his  troop,  being  sent 
to  Pettaquamscutt,  returned  with  the  sad  news  of  burning  of  Jerry 
Bull's  Garrison  house  and  killing  ten  Englishmen  and  five  women 
and  children,  but  two  escaping  in  all."  This  was  the  first  overt  act 
of  war  on  the  part  of  King  Philip's  warriors  on  Rhode  Island  soil. 

58 


THE  xXARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

The  ''Stone-Greene  Castle"  in  Warwick  was  built  as  a  House 
of  Kefuge  in  case  of  danger.  This  was  located  north  of  Warwick 
Cove,  on  t]ie  War^\ick  section  of  the  Narragansett  Trail. 

The  Field  garrison  house,  on  the  "To\me  Streete"  in  Provi- 
dence, was  the  only  protectorate  and  house  of  armed  defence  in  the 
iovni,  and  in  it  a  remnant  of  the  inhabitants  took  refuge,  when  Philip 
burned  the  to^\Ti  in  1676.  The  Field  garrison  stood  near  the  site  of 
the  present  Providence  Savings  Banks,  on  South  Main  street. 

The  most  noted  garrison  in  the  Xarragansett  Trails  was  the 
Woodcock  garrison  and  tavern  at  North  Attleboro.  The  license 
reads:  "July  5th,  1670,  John  Woodcock  is  allowed  by  the  (Ply- 
mouth) Court  to  keep  an  Ordinary  at  the  ten-mile  river  (so-called) 
which  is  in  the  way  from  Rehoboth  to  the  Bay ;  and  likewise  enjoined 
to  keep  good  order  that  no  unruliness  nor  ribaldry  be  permitted 
there." 

The  Yv'oodcock  garrison  was  torn  do^vn  in  1S06  to  make  room 
for  Hatch's  tavern,  built  on  the  site.  When  torn  do^^^l,  the  timbers 
were  perfectly  sound,  although  pierced  by  many  bullets  fired  by  the 
Indians  in  Philip 's  War. 

Taverns,  ordinaries  or  inns,  as  houses  of  refreshment  were 
called,  corresponding  somewhat  to  our  hotels,  were  set  up,  in  the 
early  days,  on  or  near  Indian  trails  and  also  near  Indian  villages. 
They  sold  ''strong  water,"  as  all  intoxicating  liquors  were  called, 
to  the  Indians  and  whites  alike,  and  refreshed  weary  and  hungry 
travellers  with  beds  and  meals.  Until  the  early  years  of  the  eigh- 
teenth century,  horse-back  travel  was  the  usual  mode  of  locomotion, 
as  public  highways  had  not  been  established  and  the  Indian  trail 
was  a  safe  roadway  for  horse  and  rider.  In  fact  the  trail  was  the 
most  expeditious  route,  as  it  was  not  obstructed  by  fences,  gates  or 
bars,  as  were  the  early  New  England  roads. 

^Tien  the  cart,  wagon  and  two  wheeled  chaise  were  introduced 
the  roadway  must  needs  be  widened,  and  the  Indian  Trail  was  us- 
ually used  as  the  base  for  the  new  order  of  travel  and  the  new  high- 
way. The  Narragansett  Trail  is  a  noted  example  of  the  conversion 
of  a  trail  to  a  road  for  carriages.  The  present  automobile  road  from 
Boston  to  New  York  follows  practically  the  Narragansett  Trail 
along  Washington  street  from  Boston,  through  Dedham,  Walpole, 
Wrentham,  Attleborough,  Pa^vtucket,  Providence,  Pa^\i:uxet,  War- 
wick, East  Greem\ich,  North  KingstowTi,  Tower  Hill,  South  Kings- 

59 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

town,  Charlosto^^^l,  Westerly,  Stoningtoii,  Groton,  New  London, 
New  Haven  to  New  York.  From  New  Haven  to  New  York,  the  old 
path  is  called  the  Pequot  trail.  The  changes  in  the  road  from  the 
Trail  line  are  dne  to  the  shortening  of  the  line  or  the  avoidance  of 
difficult  passages  over  rocks  or  across  streams.  An  instance  occurs 
on  Tower  Hill  in  South  Kingsto^vn.  The  Trail  in  crossing  the  hill 
from  north  to  south  led  down  the  east  side  of  Tower  Hill  by  the 
Jared  Bull  Garrison,  which  stood  on  the  level  land  north  of  the  Mid- 
dle Bridge  road  and  west  of  Pettaquamscutt  Eiver.  Listead  of 
that  detour,  the  road  now  follows  a  south  and  southwest  course  into 
the  village  of  Wakefield,  through  which  the  Trail  passed.  With  the 
individual  ownership  of  lands  along  the  Narragansett  Trail,  we 
find  the  creation  of  obstructions  to  public  travel  by  the  establishment 
of  gates  or  bar  ways  on  the  lines  separating  the  properties  of  large 
o^niers.  These  barriers  existed  on  some  important  old  trails  and 
roads  well  into  the  nineteenth  century,  when  these  private  ways  be- 
came public  property  of  to\\ms  by  gift  or  purchase  of  the  owners. 

The  Narragansett  Sachems:  Canonicus,  Teepee  at  ''Devil's 
Foot:"  died  1647.  Miantinomi,  son  of  Mascus,  brother  of  Canon- 
icus, Teepee  at  Aspanansuck;  slain,  1643.  Pessecus,  son  of  Mascus, 
slain  1676.  Wawaloam,  Queen,  wife  of  Miantinomi;  Teepee  at  As- 
panansuck,— Exeter  Hill.  Canonehet,  son  of  Miantinomi,  slain, 
1676.  Quaiapen  or  Magnus,  Queen,  \\dfe  of  Maxamo  and  sister  of 
Ninigret,  Sachem  for  the  Niantics,  a  tribe  subject  to  the  Narra- 
gansetts. 

The  Niantic  Sachems :  Ninegret,  cotemporary  with  Canonicus, 
Teepee  near  Charlesto^Mi  Pond:  died  about  1676.  Ninegret 's  sis- 
ter Quarapen  married  Maxanno,  the  son  of  Canonicus.  Ninegret 's 
daughter  became  queen  after  her  father's  death.  At  her  inaugura- 
tion, peag  and  other  presents  were  given  and  a  belt  of  peag  was 
formed  into  a  cro^^m.  Ninegret  (2nd),  succeeded  his  sister;  he  died 
about  1722.  Charles  Augustus  and  George  Ninegret,  (sons  of  N. 
2nd),  succeeded  to  the  crown,  the  latter  dying  in  1746.  ''King  Tom" 
Ninigret,  son  of  George,  succeeded  his  father  as  chief  in  1746.  See 
story  of  "King  Tom's  Palace."  "Queen  Esther,"  sister  of  "King 
Tom"  was  cro^vned  on  a  large  boulder,  north  of  "King  Tom's  Pal- 
ace," about  1770.  An  eye-witness  said,  "she  was  elevated  on  a  large 
rock,  so  that  the  people  might  see  her ;  the  royal  council  stood  around 
the  'Coronation  Rock.'     There  were  present  about  twenty  Indian 

6o 


^ 


^^fA 


-^'""'r'-'M^:. : 


COKOXATIOX    ROCK.    KIXG   TOM    FARM.    CHARLESTOWX.    R.    I..   OX 
WHICH  QUEEX   ESTHER  WAS  CROWXED 

Mr.   Bicknell.  author  of   this   narrative,  at   left 


w 


f^ 


f^,f 


ii-  y^J'i^''':i 


ARXOLDIA   RELICS.   CHARLESTOWX.   R.   L.    EXHUMED    1921 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

Boldiers  with  guns,  who  marched  to  the  rock.  The  Indians  nearest 
the  royal  blood,  in  the  presence  of  her  Counsellors,  put  the  Cro^^^l 
on  Esther's  head.  It  was  made  of  cloth,  covered  with  blue  and  white 
peag.  When  she  was  cro^^1led  the  soldiers  fired  a  royal  salute  and 
huzzaed  in  the  Indian  tongue.  Then  the  soldiers  escorted  the 
Queen  to  her  house  and  fired  salutes.  There  were  five  hundred  In- 
dians present,  besides  others." 

Queen  Esther  left  one  son,  named  George  Ninegrct.  He  was 
the  last  of  the  Niantic  chiefs  to  wear  a  cro^vn. 

''King  Tom's"  Palace,  built  about  1760,  has  an  interesting 
story.  It  seems  that  young  ''King  Tom"  desired  an  English  educa- 
tion and  went  to  London  to  acquire  it.  While  there,  he  decided  to 
live  in  a  framed  house,  instead  of  a  tribal  cabin,  and,  by  the  aid  of 
an  architect,  planned  a  two-story  dwelling,  of  American  style,  and 
not  expensive  to  build.  On  his  return  to  his  tribe,  he  built  a  sub- 
stantial two-story  house,  on  his  tribal  lands,  near  and  south  of 
Coronation  Eock,  in  the  town  of  Charlesto^vn,  near  the  great  Salt 
Pond. 

In  1761,  King  Tom  married  Mary  Whitefield  of  Newport,  and 
lived  in  the  "Palace,"  until  his  death  before  1770,  when  the  crown 
and  "Palace"  descended  to  his  sister.  Queen  Esther,  his  successor 
as  chief  of  the  Niantics.  During  "King  Tom's"  reign  much  of  the 
Indian  land  was  sold  and  a  considerable  part  of  the  tribe  emigrated 
to  New  York  State. 

"King  Tom"  should  be  remembered  for  his  petition  for  a  free 
school  in  Charlesto^\m  for  his  tribe,  closing  his  letter  with  the 
prayer,  "that  when  time  with  us  shall  be  no  more,  that  when  we  and 
the  children  over  whom  you  have  been  such  benefactors  shall  leave 
the  sun  and  stars,  we  shall  rejoice  in  a  superior  light." 

The  "Palace"  and  a  large  estate  came  into  the  possession  of  the 
Kenyon  family,  by  whom  the  house  has  been  enlarged  and  modern- 
ized and  made  a  delightful  South  County  residence  on  the  Narra- 
gansett  Trail.  By  a  sad  fortune  this  interesting  old  Indian  house 
went  up  in  flames  in  the  autumn  of  1921.  "King  Tom's  Palace"  is 
no  more.    Coronation  Pock  still  stands  in  its  firm  setting. 

The  Indian  burial  ground  on  the  hill,  north  of  Cross's  Mills  is 
the  ancient  burial  place  of  the  Niantic  Tribe,  not  the  Narragansetts. 

Amoldia  is  a  large  estate,  between  the  Narragansett  Trail  and 
Charlestown,  on  Pawaget  Pond,  and  is  owmed  by  Mr.  Thomas  Ly- 

6i 


THE  NARRAGAXSETT  TRAIL 

man  Arnold  of  New  York,  a  descendant  of  William  Arnold,  the  first 
settler  at  Providence,  in  1636.  These  coast  lands  are  a  glacial  de- 
posit and  were  probably  the  corn  lands  of  the  Niantics.  Though  the 
tides  and  seas  have  destroyed  the  great  Charlestown  or  Pawawget 
Pond  as  a  harbor,  it  was  probably  three  centuries  and  more  ago 
safe  and  deep  anchorage  for  large  vessels. 

In  making  excavations  for  a  cellar,  forty  feet  square,  Mr.  Arn- 
old's workmen  exhumed  ''A  remarkable  find,"  in  October,  1921. 
About  three  feet  below  the  surface  their  picks  struck  the  butt  of  a 
breech-loading  cannon.  "\Mien  clear  of  the  encrusted  soil,  it  proved 
to  be  a  gun  of  the  fourteenth  century  t^-pe,  one-half  of  the  muzzle 
end  gone — broken  or  rusted  off.  The  well-preserved  trunnions  show 
a  mounted  field-piece,  the  weight  of  the  relic  being  119  pounds,  and 
four  inches  bore.  The  double  collar  near  the  broken  end  probably 
marked  the  middle  of  the  gun's  length.  The  gun  lay  at  an  angle  of 
45  degrees  from  the  horizon.  Below  the  cannon,  at  the  depth  of 
about  five  feet,  a  skeleton  was  exhumed,  the  skull  and  many  of  the 
bones  being  hard  and  w^ell  preserved.  This  man  was  of  the  Euro- 
pean type,  not  less  than  forty  years  of  age.  The  thigh  bones  w^ere 
eighteen  and  one-half  inches  long  and  the  other  bones  w^ere  of  un- 
usual size,  thereby  indicating  a  man  of  more  than  seven  feet  in 
height — possibly  seven  and  one-half  feet  tall.  In  this  grave  was  a 
two-edged  sword,  over  five  feet  long,  with  an  elaborate  wrought- 
bronze  hilt,  of  the  ancient  Italian  type.  The  sword  indicated  its  o^vn- 
er,  a  military  officer  of  rank.  Near  this  grave,  three  copper  vessels 
were  found, — one,  5>^-inch  diameter,  a  quart  measure, — the  second, 
6-inch  diameter,  a  two-cj[uart  measure, — the  third,  10-inch  diameter, 
a  four-quart  measure.  The  two  smaller  vessels  are  still  usable  for 
liquids.  Further  digging  brought  to  light  several  Indian  skulls, 
quantities  of  bones,  beads,  wampum,  the  bowl  of  a  silver  spoon,  blue 
glass,  a  piece  of  cloth,  some  pottery,  the  jawbone  of  a  cat,  and  a  part 
of  a  child's  jaw-bone  showing  the  second  teeth. 

The  photographs  reproduced  herewith,  taken  by  Mr.  John  R. 
Hess,  of  the  '' Providence  Journal"  staff,  shows  a  part  of  this  inter- 
esting subterraean  "Find."  The  whole  offers  a  study  for  the  phy- 
siologist, the  psychologist  and  the  historian.  It  may  be  that  the 
smaller  skulls  were  of  African  slaves,  not  native  Indians. 

Near  Cross's  Mills,  in  the  Niantic  Country,  there  are  old  earth- 
works, indicating   an   early   fortification.     As   the   position   com- 

62 


THE  NARRAGANSETT  TRAIL 

maiids  Pawawget  Pond  and  its  entrance,  it  must  have  been  thrown 
up  for  offensive  and  defensive  military  operations  by  white  men 
and  not  by  Indians.  A  commission  of«the  State  Assembly  has  erect- 
ed a  monument  to  show  that  it  was  an  Indian  fortress.  But  it  is 
too  evident  to  be  denied  that  the  earthworks  were  made  for  defence 
by  gunmen  of  the  white  race.  Indians  never  fought  behind  earth 
stnictures, — their  defenses  were  forests,  rocks,  etc., — natural  pro- 
tectors. The  red  man  never  trusted  a  narrow  barricade  of  earth  or 
stone.  He  fought  in  the  open,  and  trusted  his  arrows  and  toma- 
hawks to  do  their  deadly  work. 

This  fort  was  Spanish,  French  or  Dutch  and  implied  occupants 
and  assailants.  The  fort  probably  had  some  connection  with  the 
Arnoldia  antiquities.  The  story  of  the  early  white  occupation  of  the 
Niantic  country  awaits  later  discoveries. 

The  limits  of  a  magazine  article  forbid  accounts  of  the  Pequot 
War,  Manisses,  The  Warwick  Purchase,  Potowomut  Purchase, 
Squamicut  Settlement,  Major  Atherton's  Purchases,  Boston  Neck, 
Aspanansuck,  The  Swamp  Fight,  Queen  Quariapen  and  Her  Fort, 
Frenchto^vn,  The  Cowesets,  The  Warwicks,  The  Nipmucks,  Bishop 
McSparran,  St.  Paul's,  Post  Eoads,  The  Greenes,  Settlers  on  the 
Trail,  Public  Highways,  Post  Eoads,  etc. 


\\rr 


63 


The  Golden  Chain  of  Memory 

Faimous  Old  Cape  May,  Xew  Jersey 
By  Caemita  de  Solms  Joxes,  Philadelphla.,  Pex 


^^T^2^1  HE  OLD  enemies  of  the  Deerslayer,  the  Lenni-Lenapes  of 
Pl'lt^^y  the  Algonquins,  came  do^\m  from  Ottawa,  and  in  their 
'f?V?'fMl|  wanderings  reached  the  shore  of  tlie  Delaware  Bay  at 
iM^Mh3  the  point  that  is  now  Cape  ^hiy.  Here  they  rested,  for, 
unlike  the  refugees  from  the  flood,  they  had  no  ark,  and  before  them 
stretched  too  wide  ''a  river  to  cross."  The  Lenni-Lenapes,  or  Del- 
awares  as  they  were  often  called,  were  hunters,  and  Avere  attracted 
to  this  region  by  the  great  variety  of  game  and  birds.  Wilson,  the 
ornithologist,  says;  '*If  birds  are  good  judges  of  excellence  in  cli- 
mate. Cape  May  must  have  the  finest  climate  in  the  United  States, 
for  it  has  the  greatest  variety  of  birds."  Living  at  Cape  May  were 
the  Kechemeches,  a  subdivision  of  the  tribe  who  gave  to  New  Jersey 
the  name  of  Schaakbee,  or  Scheyichbi,  and  to  the  River  Delaware 
that  of  '\^'Tiittuck.  AVith  noiseless  tread  they  roamed,  two  hundred 
years  ago,  over  a  spic}"  carpet  of  pine  needles,  through  a  wilderness 
of  dense  forests  destined  to  echo  in  future  years  with  the  hum  of 
the  saw  mill. 

One  of  the  few  Indian  deeds  in  existence  is  or  was  in  the  pos- 
session of  Charles  Ludlam,  Esq.,  of  Dennisville,  New  Jersey.  It  is 
dated  January  1,  1687,  and  was  given  to  John  Dennis  for  some 
land  near  Cape  Island,  as  the  town  of  Cape  May  was  called.  The 
mark  of  Panktoe,  the  Indian  giver  of  the  deed,  resembles  a  Chinese 
character.  The  witnesses  were  John  Carman  and  Abiah  Edwards. 
New  Jersey  boasts  that  none  of  its  soil  was  ever  taken  from  its  orig- 
inal Indian  owners  or  their  successors  either  by  force  or  fraud. 
The  Dutch,  Swedes  and  English  acquired  the  land  in  turn  by  pur- 
chase. 

In  1623  Captain  Cornelius  Jacobson  Mey,  in  the  ship  Blyde 
Broodschap  (Glad  Tidings),  was  sent  to  this  country,  accompanied 
by  two  other  vessels  carrving  a  party  of  settlers,  by  the  States 

64 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  ^lEMORY 

General  of  Holland.  He  explored  the  coast,  where  he  had  been 
preceded  by  Hendrick  Hudson,  and  arriving  at  Cape  May,  to  which 
he  gave  his  name,  found  there  a  lookout  which  had  been  left  four 
years  previously  by  Cornelius  Hendrichsen,  of  the  ship  Onrest.  Of 
the  names  given  to  various  points  visited  by  Captain  Mey,  onl}^  one, 
that  of  Cape  May,  has  been  retained. 

Crossing  from  Cape  Henlopen,  called  Cape  Cornelius  by  Mey, 
to  Cape  May,  Pieter  Heysen,  skipper  of  the  Walrus,  bought  four 
miles  along  the  bay  and  four  miles  inland.  The  deed,  dated  June  3, 
1631,  is  preserved  among  the  colonial  archives.  Here  among  the 
marshes,  where  ''the  inland  waters  were  found  to  abound  in  oysters, 
clams,  crabs  and  other  shell  fish,"  Pieter  Heysen  settled  doA\ai  to 
the  life  of  a  whaler.  Later  a  plan  was  organized  to  colonize  the 
Delaware  shores,  to  raise  grain  and  tobacco,  and  establish  seal  and 
whale  fisheries.  These  proving  unsuccessful,  the  colonists  lost  heart 
and  returned  to  Holland,  thus  ending  the  Dutch  occupation  of  New 
Jersey. 

English  colonists  came  from  Xew  Haven  in  1638,  to  engage  in 
whaling,  and  some  of  their  descendants  are  among  the  present  in- 
habitants of  the  county.  The  increase  in  the  importance  of  this  in- 
dustry in  1691  induced  the  building  of  a  town  as  a  haven  for  the 
whalers  who  had  come  from  further  north.  This,  the  first  to^^m  in  the 
county,  had  among  its  earliest  dwellers  Christopher  Leaming,  Thom- 
as Caesar  Hoskins,  Samuel  Hand,  Jonathan  Osborne,  Cornelius 
Shellinks  (Schellinger),  Thomas  Hewes  and  John  Eichardson.  That 
they  carried  on  the  pursuit  of  whaling  for  many  years  is  shown  by 
the  following  extracts:  The  ''Boston  Xews-Letter"  from  March  17 
to  24,  1718,  says:  "Philadelphia,  March  13.— We  are  told  that  the 
whale  men  catch 'd  six  whales  at  Cape  May  and  twelve  at  Egg-Har- 
bour." The  "Pennsylvania  Gazette"  of  March  13  to  19,  1729-30, 
says:  "On  the  5th  of  this  Instant  March,  a  whale  came  ashore  dead 
about  20  mile  to  the  Eastward  of  Cape  May.  She  is  a  Cow,  about 
50  Foot  long,  and  appears  to  have  been  killed  by  'WTialemen;  but 
who  they  are  is  yet  unknown.  Those  who  think  they  have  a  Prop- 
erty in  her,  are  advised  to  make  their  Claim  in  Time." 

The  Swedes  purchased  the  island  for  the  second  time  about 
3641.  According  to  Campanius,  a  Swedish  minister  who  lived  from 
1642  to  1648  on  the  banks  of  the  Delaware,  "Cape  May  lies  in  lati- 
tude 38°  31'.    To  the  south  of  it  are  three  sand  banks  parallel  to  each 

65 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

other,  and  it  is  not  safe  to  sail  between  them.  The  safest  course  is 
to  steer  between  them  and  Cape  May,  between  Cape  May  and  Cape 
Henlopen." 

Under  the  pen-name  of  ''Beauchamp  Plantagenet,"  Sir  Ed- 
ward Plowden  wrote  in  1648  **A  Description  of  New  Albion"  that 
contained  an  account  of  a  visit  to  Cape  May.  He  gives  a  copy  of  a 
letter  from  Lieutenant  Robert  Evelyn,  who  left  England  in  1643 
to  explore  the  Delaware.  Evelyn  discovered  that  he  had  been  pre- 
ceded during  the  years  between  1G09  and  1632  by  no  less  than  eight 
explorers.  The  Egg  Bay  spoken  of  by  Evelyn  is  now  Egg  Harbor 
Bay.  Dr.  Maurice  Beesley  says:  ''Master  Evelyn  must  certainly 
have  the  credit  of  being  the  first  white  man  that  explored  the  inter- 
ior as  far  as  the  seaboard,  and  his  name  should  be  perpetuated  as 
the  king  of  pioneers."  Evelyn  describes  the  abundance  of  fish  and 
fowl,  making  special  mention  of  a  wild  turkey  that  weighed  forty- 
six  pounds,  and  of  ''deere  that  bring  forth  three  young  at  a  time." 
The  denizens  of  the  magnificent  virgin  forests  included  bison,  black 
bear,  wolf,  panther,  catamount  and  deer,  and  among  the  smaller 
animals  were  opossum,  raccoon,  fox,  mink,  otter  and  beaver.  For 
the  skins  of  the  latter  the  red  men  received  a  goodly  amount  of 
*'sewan,"  the  currency  in  use,  from  their  English  neighbors. 

The  English  took  final  control  in  1664  and  called  the  province 
"New  Jersey"  as  a  compliment  to  one  of  the  o^\^lers,  Sir  George 
Carteret,  who  had  been  Governor  of  the  Isle  of  Jersey.  The  date  of 
the  first  settlement  by  the  English  has  always  been  in  question.  Dr. 
Maurice  Beesley  claims  that  Caleb  Carman  was  appointed  a  justice 
of  the  peace  and  Jonathan  Pine  a  constable  by  a  Legislature  in  ses- 
sion in  1685.  Other  authorities  declare  the  Townsends  and  Spicers 
to  have  come  from  Long  Island  in  1680,  and  to  have  been  the  oldest 
English  settlers  and  land  o^vners.  Eichard,  a  son  of  John  To^\^l- 
send,  was  the  first  white  child  born  in  the  county. 

It  was  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century  when  the  set- 
tlers first  devoted  their  attention  to  agriculture,  and  cultivated 
more  than  a  door-patch.  There  is  a  long  way  between  husbandry 
and  piracy,  but  perhaps  it  was  the  domestic  aspect  that  prompted 
Captain  Kidd,  the  noted  pirate,  to  take  advantage  of  the  unsuspic- 
ious character  of  the  settlement  to  bury  some  of  his  treasure  in  the 
shifting  sands.  Years  and  the  action  of  the  ocean  have  so  changed 
the  locality  that  if  the  particular  spot  chosen  for  the  hiding  place 

66 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

was  ever  kno^\^l,  it  is  lost  now,  and  the  treasure  has  become  a  tra- 
dition, if  it  is  not  actually  a  myth. 

The  distinction  of  obtaining  the  first  license  to  practice  "Chir- 
urgery  and  Pliisiq"  in  this  locality  belongs  to  an  Esculapian  named 
Iiichard  Smith,  who  lived  at  Cape  May,  or  Egg  Harbor,  and  in  1705 
received  this  coveted  honor. 

The  awakening  of  a  religious  spirit  in  the  community  was  due 
to  the  Baptists,  who  in  1712  built  a  place  of  worship.  Follo\\ing 
close  upon  them  came  the  Presbyterians  in  1714,  and  in  1716  the 
Quakers,  who  were  under  the  care  of  Salem  Meeting,  and  w^hose 
meeting  house  at  Seaville  is  kno^\Ti  as  "Old  Cedar  Meeting  House." 

The  epicureans  of  today  have  cause  to  be  thankful  for  the  aspir- 
ing palates  of  their  grandfathers.  To  them  are  to  be  credited  the 
care  and  protection  of  the  beds  where  grow  that  delicious  oyster  so 
popular  in  summertime,  the  Cape  May  salt,  as  on  ]\Iarch  27,  1719, 
the  first  measures  were  taken  to  protect  the  oyster  beds. 

The  spirit  of  patriotism  burned  with  an  ardent  flame  amongst 
the  men  of  this  district.  They  played  a  notable  part  in  the  Eevolu- 
tionary  War.  Henry  Hand  was  a  lieutenant-colonel;  John  Hand  a 
major;  Eli  Eldridge  a  first  major;  Thomas  Learning  an  adjutant; 
and  James  AVillets,  Jr.,  a  captain.  Many  other  names  memorable  in 
the  history  of  the  county  appear  on  the  registers  of  officers  and  men 
in  the  ranks.  The  Supreme  Executive  Council  of  Pennsylvania 
paid  Abraham  Bennett  on  August  1, 1777,  seven  pounds  ten  shillings 
for  "riding  express  from  Cape  May  to  this  city"  (Philadelphia),  to 
report  the  movements  of  the  British  fleet. 

In  the  autumn  of  17S6  Jesse  Hand  was  elected  a  delegate  to  the 
State  Convention.  "He  created,"  says  Dr.  Beesley,  "great  aston- 
ishment with  the  people  when  he  presented  to  their  wondering  eyes 
the  first  top-carriage  (an  old-fashioned  chair)  that  was  ever  brought 
into  the  county.  The  horse  cart  was  the  favorite  vehicle  in  those 
times,  whether  for  family  visiting,  or  going  to  meeting  purposes, 
and  any  innovation  upon  those  usages  or  those  of  their  ancestors, 
was  looked  upon  with  jealousy  and  distrust." 

Many  complaints  about  that  ever  fruitful  source  of  complaints, 
the  delivery  of  the  mail,  must  have  been  registered,  for  prior  to 
1804  there  was  no  regular  service,  the  mails  being  carried  by  private 
individuals.  On  January  30  of  that  year  the  post  office  was  opened 
with  Ellis  Hughes  as  postmaster.    The  "Daily  Aurora"  of  Philadel- 

67 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

phia,  published  June  30,  ISOl,  contained  the  follo^\'ing  advertise- 
ment of  the  hotel  kept  by  Hughes,  "The  Atlantic,"  which  later  gave 
way  to  the  **Xe\v  Atlantic"  situated  at  the  foot  of  Jackson  street. 

''The  public  are  respectfully  informed  that  the  subscriber  has 
prepared  himself  for  entertaining  company  who  use  sea  bathing, 
and  he  is  accommodated  uith  extensive  houseroom,  with  fish, 
oysters,  crabs,  and  good  liquor.  Care  ^vill  be  taken  of  gentlemen's 
horses. 

''The  situation  is  beautiful,  just  at  the  confluence  of  the  Dela- 
ware Bay  and  the  Ocean,  and  in  sight  of  the  Light  House,  and  af- 
fords a  view  of  the  shipping  which  enters  and  leaves  the  Delaware. 
Carriages  may  be  driven  along  the  margin  of  the  ocean  for  miles, 
and  the  wheels  will  scarcely  make  an  impression  upon  the  sand. 
The  slope  of  the  shore  is  so  regular  that  persons  may  wade  a  great 
distance.  It  is  the  most  delightful  spot  citizens  may  retire  to  in  the 
hot  season. 

''A  Stage  starts  from  Cooper's  Ferry  on  Thursday  in  every 
week,  and  arrives  at  Cape  Island  on  Friday;  it  starts  from  Cape 
Island  on  Friday  and  Tuesday  in  each  week,  and  arrives  in  Philadel- 
phia the  following  day. 

''Gentlemen  who  travel  in  their  o^^m  carriages  mil  observe  the 
following  directions :  Philadelphia  to  "Woodbury  is  9  miles,  thence 
to  Glasshouse  10,  Malaga  Hill  10,  Lehman's  Mills  12,  Port  Eliza- 
beth 7,  Dennis  Creek  12,  Cape  May  9,  the  pitch  of  the  Cape  15,  is  84; 
and  the  last  IS  is  open  to  the  sea  shore.  Those  who  chose  water  con- 
veyance can  find  vessels  almost  any  time. 

"Ellis  Hughes." 

The  Old  Atlantic  was  then  the  only  hotel,  and  was  the  stoj^ping 
place  of  the  prominent  and  wealthy,  among  whom  was  Commodore 
Decatur,  a  frequent  visitor.  A  large  boarding  house  called  Con- 
gress Hall  was  built  in  1816  by  Thomas  H.  Hughes,  where  Mecray's 
pharmacy  now  stands.  When  destroyed  by  fire  two  years  later,  it 
had  gro^\ai  to  the  proportions  of  two  hundred  by  three  hundred  feet. 
It  was  not,  however,  until  after  the  W^ar  of  1812  that  Cape  Island 
made  much  progress  as  a  summer  resort.  Heretofore  visitors  had 
arrived  by  carriage  or  stage,  but  in  1815  a  sloop  sailed  to  and  from 
Philadelphia.  The  pioneer  in  steamboat  navigation  on  the  Delaw^are 
was  Captain  Wllmon  W^hilldin,  Sr.,  who  was  born  in  1774,  on  land 
bought  by  his  ancestors  at  the  time  of  the  settlement  of  the  county. 
Captain  Whilldin  made  a  study  of  navigation,  and  in  1816  built  the 
steamer  Delaware,  and  was  o^v^ler  of  several  steamers  on  the  Dela- 

68 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

ware  and  the  Chesapeake.  He  was  for  a  time  a  partner  of  the  elder 
Commodore  Vanderbilt.  Early  in  life  he  went  to  Philadelphia, 
where  he  lived  until  his  death  in  1S52.  His  son  succeeded  him  and 
continued  the  steamboat  business  until  the  Civil  War,  when  the 
boats  were  impressed  into  the  Government  service.  Ephraim  Hil- 
dreth  had  a  packet  running  between  Philadelphia  and  Cape  May, 
and  in  his  diary  are  records  of  the  quick  trips  made,  leaving  Phila- 
delphia one  day  and  reaching  Cape  Island  the  next.  The  steamboat 
Pennsylvania  was  added  in  July  of  1S24  to  those  running  between 
Pliiladelphia  and  Cape  Island,  and  a  year  or  so  later  the  line  in- 
cluded the  Delaivare  also.  Until  a  very  few  years  ago  steamboats 
plied  between  the  two  points  every  summer.  They  used  to  touch  at 
New  Castle  for  the  Southerners  who  came  on  the  first  railroad  inin 
in  this  country,  the  Frenchto^\^l  &  New  Castle  railroad.  Carriages 
brought  the  passengers  from  Baltimore  to  Frenchto^vn  on  the  Sus- 
quehanna,  near  Havre  de  Grace,  Maryland.  Weekly  trips  were 
made  by  the  steamboat  Portsmouth  in  1834  between  Cape  Island, 
Lewisto\\'n  and  Philadelphia. 

Many  wrecks  occurred  off  Cape  May,  and  there  are  accounts  of 
them  to  be  found  in  the  ''Boston  News-Letter"  of  September  17-24, 
1724;  the  ''New  York  Gazette"  of  July  30,  1733,  and  other  periodi- 
cals of  the  time.  In  February  of  1809  the  British  ship  Guatamoozin, 
with  a  cargo  of  silks  and  tea  from  China  to  New  Y^ork,  came  ashore 
off  To^\^lsend's  Inlet.  This  was  probably  the  most  disastrous,  save 
one  which  happened  some  years  later  when  the  Perseverance  was 
wrecked,  that  ever  occurred  on  this  shore. 

The  ship  builders,  Jacocks  Swain  and  his  sons  Henry  and 
Joshua,  of  Seaville,  Cape  May  county,  gained  fame  for  themselves 
and  for  the  county  by  the  invention  of  the  centerboard,  which  has 
brought  the  cro\\TL  of  victory  to  America  in  many  international 
yacht  races.  The  Letters  Patent,  dated  1811,  may  still  be  seen.  They 
are  signed  by  James  Madison,  President  of  the  United  States,  James 
Monroe,  Secretary  of  State,  and  C.  A.  Eodney,  Attorney  General  of 
the  United  States. 

The  dawn  of  education  broke  in  fitful  gleams,  the  duties  of  the 
itinerant  teachers  carrying  them  north  from  Cape  Island  through 
the  sparsely  settled  region,  as  far  as  Gloucester,  now  Atlantic  coun- 
ty. "When  a  school  system  was  devised,  the  "rule  of  three"  was  not 
taught  in  "the  little  red  school  house"  of  fond  memories,  but  under 

69 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

the  most  primitive  conditions,  sometimes  Avitli  no  books  at  all. 
Those  intellectual  struggles  began  about  1765.  From  ISIO  to  1820 
Jacob  Spicer  (Srd)  and  Constantine  and  Joseph  Foster  were  in- 
trusted Anth  the  difficult  task  of  blazing  a  trail  for  the  educational 
institutions  of  the  future.  Engiebert  Sternhuysen,  who  arrived  in 
this  country  in  1059,  was  the  first  to  wield  the  rod  in  New  Jersey, 
but  tlie  first  school  house  in  the  State  was  at  Mullica  Hill,  and  was 
kno^^•n  as  Spicer 's  school-house.  It  was  built  of  cedar  logs,  and  the 
windows  were  closed  with  oiled  paper  panes.  The  master  was  in 
all  probability  the  grandfather  of  Jacob  Spicer  (Srd). 

The  white  flash  from  Cape  ]\Iay  Light  was  the  first  to  shed  its 
beams  over  the  Atlantic  to  guide  the  passing  mariner.  The  Light 
House  built  in  1823  was  rebuilt  in  1859.  Romantic  tales  that  appeal 
strongly  to  the  imagination  have  been  written  about  these  necessary 
and  so  often  solitary  habitations,  but  it  is  to  the  exact  sciences  that 
we  must  turn  to  determine  the  twelve  and  one-half  nautical  miles 
distance  from  Cape  Henlopen,  and  the  eighteen  and  three-quarters 
from  Five  Fathom  Bank  Light  Ship.  The  latitude  is  38°  55'  59",  and 
the  longitude  40°  57'  39".  The  tower,  one  hundred  and  forty-five  feet 
in  height,  pierces  the  sky  like  a  Cleopatra's  needle  with  the  sharp 
end  in  the  sand.  The  light,  one  hundred  and  fifty-two  feet  above 
the  sea  level,  is  the  needle's  eye  from  which  the  first  class  lens  throws 
its  light  at  intervals  of  thirty  seconds  over  eighteen  miles  of  the 
sea's  mysterious  depths. 

Among  a  population  numbering  4936  in  1830,  there  were  but 
two  hundred  and  twenty-eight  colored  persons,  three  of  whom  were 
slaves.  The  census  shows  that  the  county  had  many  acres  under 
cultivation  and  that  numerous  mills  were  in  operation.  Grain  was 
shipped,  as  well  as  large  quantities  of  cordwood.  A  writer  in  1830 
says  of  Cape  May:  "Cape  May  Island  is  a  noted  and  much  fre- 
quented watering  place,  the  season  at  which  commences  about  the 
first  of  July  and  continues  until  the  middle  of  August  or  first  of 
September.  There  are  six  boarding  houses,  three  of  which  are  very 
large ;  the  sea  bathing  is  convenient  and  excellent,  the  beach  affords 
pleasant  drives,  and  there  is  excellent  fishing  in  adjacent  waters." 

Picture  to  yourself,  oh,  gentle  reader,  the  days  when  you  were 
young  and  lived  in  the  country,  the  particular  day  when  that  hireling 
of  our  Government,  the  census-taker,  rang  your  bell,  if  you  had  one. 
Perhaps  you  went  to  the  door  yourself,  or  maybe  you  were  curled 

70 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

in  the  hammock  dozing  in  the  sun  and  wondering  about  the  outcome 
of  the  barbers'  strike  and  where  you  would  next  have  your  hair  cut. 
Then  that  persistent  hireling  unrolled  a  yard  or  so  of  paper  and 
asked  you  imi3ertinent  questions,  as,  were  you  male  or  female,  where 
were  you  born,  were  you  free,  white,  and  twenty-one?  Eemember 
the  cut-and-driedness  of  it  all,  and  then  read  the  report  of  the  cen- 
sus taker  of  1S40,  which  delightful  product  is  almost  an  essay  on 
Cape  May: 

''The  village  of  Cape  Island  is  a  favorite  watering-place  in  the 
southern  part  of  this  to\\niship,  thirteen  miles  south  of  Court  House. 
It  began  to  grow  into  notice  as  a  watering-place  in  1812,  at  which 
time  there  were  but  a  few  houses  there.  It  now  contains  two  large 
hotels,  three  stories  high  and  150  feet  long,  and  a  third  one,  lately 
erected,  four  stories  high  and  100  feet  long,  besides  numerous  other 
houses  for  the  entertainment  of  visitors.  The  whole  number  of 
dwellings  is  about  tifty.  In  the  summer  months  the  Island  is 
thronged  with  visitors,  principally  from  Philadelphia,  with  which 
there  is  a  daily  steamboat  communication.  It  is  estimated  that 
about  3000  strangers  annually  visit  the  place.  The  village  is  sep- 
arated by  a  small  creek  from  the  mainland;  but  its  area  is  fast  wear- 
ing away  by  the  encroachments  of  the  sea.  "Watson,  the  antiquarian, 
in  a  MSS.  journal  of  a  trip  to  Cape  Island  in  1835,  on  this  point 
says:  'Since  my  former  visit  to  Cape  Island  in  1S22,  the  house  in 
which  I  stopped  (Captain  Aaron  Bennett's),  then  nearest  the  surf, 
has  been  actually  reached  by  the  invading  waters.  *  *  *  The 
distance  from  Bennett's  house  to  the  sea  bank  was  165  feet.  In  1804, 
as  it  was  then  measured  and  cut  upon  the  house  by  Commodore  De- 
catur, it  was  334  feet.  It  had  been  as  much  as  300  feet  further  off, 
as  remembered  by  some  old  men  who  told  me  in  1822.'  " 

Commodore  Decatur  began  in  1804  to  estimate  the  encroach- 
ments of  the  ocean.  His  record  shows  that  between  that  time  and 
1829  the  hungry  sea  had  eaten  away  two  hundred  and  seventy-five 
feet  of  land.  Jeremiah  Macray  once  told  the  Hon.  Le^vis  To'\\nisend 
Stevens  that  he  remembered  fields  of  corn  gromng  where  in  1890 
the  pavilion  of  the  iron  pier  had  stood. 

"A  large  portion  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  village  are  Delaware 
pilots,  a  hardy  and  industrious  race.  About  two  miles  west  of  the 
boarding  houses  is  the  Cape  May  Lighthouse,"  continues  the  census- 
taker.  Among  the  seafaring  folk  these  were,  of  course,  those  spec- 
ially skillful  in  guiding  their  vessels  through  the  channels  and  be- 
tween the  sand  banks  and  reefs.    These  pilots  became  kno^vn  to  the 

71 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

captains  of  incoming  vessels,  who  were  always  well  pleased  when 
luck  enabled  them  to  ''pick  up"  a  pilot  from  Cape  May. 

The  Mansion  House,  the  second  large  hotel  to  be  built,  was 
erected  in  1832  on  four  acres  of  ground  on  "Washington  street.  It 
was  the  first  lathed  and  plastered  hotel,  and  was  the  property  of 
Eichard  Smith  Ludlam,  who  in  1847  entertained  there  the  famous 
Kentuckian,  Henry  Clay.  INIr.  Clay  spent  a  week  at  Cape  May  in  the 
latter  part  of  xVugust,  when  the  summer  visitors  were  nearly  all 
gone,  but  so  great  was  the  enthusiasm  created  by  his  visit  that  boat- 
loads of  people  came  to  see  him.  Horace  Greeley,  of  New  York, 
United  States  Senator  James  A.  Bayard,  of  Delaware,  and  Charles 
C.  Gordon,  of  Georgia,  were  among  the  earliest  to  greet  him.  A 
large  dinner  was  given  in  his  honor  at  the  Mansion  House,  and 
Beck's  Band  was  brought  from  Philadelphia  to  furnish  the  music. 
A  welcoming  address  was  made  to  which  "Harry  of  the  West"  re- 
sponded in  a  speech  that  fairly  startled  his  hearers.  Mr.  Clay  was 
fond  of  sea  bathing,  going  into  the  water  sometimes  t^^ice  a  day. 
It  is  said  that  it  was  ruinous  to  his  hair,  not  because  of  the  salt 
water  but  because  the  Delilahs  of  the  day  forced  him  into  the  role  of 
Sampson.  A  short  distance  from  the  Mansion  House  was  the  Co- 
lumbia House,  where  the  New  Y'ork  delegation  was  entertained. 

The  seventh  son  of  a  seventh  son  is  supposed  to  see  into  the 
future,  but  there  is  nothing  in  the  tradition  to  mark  such  a  one  as  a 
poet.  Neither  was  there  in  the  mind  of  TheoiDhilus  To^\msend  Price 
any  idea  that  his  verses  would  live.  This  seventh  child  of  John  Price 
and  Kezia  Swain  Price,  who  Avas  born  at  the  Price  homestead  at 
Town  Bank,  Cape  May  county,  when  only  twenty  years  old  held  com- 
mune Avith  the  Muses  and  through  their  aid  immortalized  himself  as 
"the  Bard  of  Cape  May."  Acceding  to  a  playful  request  of  some 
young  friends,  Theophilus  ToA\Tisend  Price  wrote  in  18-18  an  "Ode 
to  Cape  May"  to  be  sung  to  the  tune  of  "Dearest  May,"  a  popular 
song  of  that  day.  The  Ode  has  been  revised  by  the  Hon.  LeA\"is 
ToAvnsend  Stevens  and  appears  in  his  interesting  and  comprehen- 
sive "History  of  Cape  May  County." 

The  newspaper  history  of  Cape  ]\Iay  dates  back  to  1855,  when 
the  "Ocean  W^ave"  broke  upon  the  editorial  sea.  It  was  a  small 
sheet,  12x18  inches,  0A\med  by  a  Colonel  Johnson,  who  during  its  in- 
fancy sold  it  to  Joseph  S.  Leach,  by  whom  it  was  published  until 
1863.    By  process  of  elimination  it  became  ' '  The  Wave, ' '  and  passed 

72 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

through  several  hands.  At  present  it  is  knoA\ni  as  ''The  Star  and 
Wave,"  having  combined  Avith  "The  Star,"  and  is  edited  and  pub- 
lished by  a  member  of  that  same  Hand  family  that  has  for  so  many 
years  guided  its  course.  In  1857  tlie  folloAnng  notice  appeared  in 
"The  AVave:" 

"We  need  a  daily  mail.  That  we  have  no  direct  mail  communi- 
cation between  Cape  May  and  Cape  May  C.  H.,  our  count}'  seat,  but 
once  a  week,  is  a  fact  known  to  all.  A  letter  written  here  on  AVednes- 
day  may  go  direct  to  the  Court  House  on  Thursday,  and  an  answer 
be  returned  on  Saturday,  by  the  Bridgton  mail;  but  at  any  other 
time  in  the  week  our  letters  must  be  sent  up  by  the  Bayside  mail, 
on  Mondays,  Wednesdays  or  Fridays  to  Tuckahoe,  and  there  slopped 
till  the  next  down  mail  to  the  Court  House,  thus  performing  a  jour- 
ney of  nearly  fifty  miles,  while  distance  is  only  thirteen  miles  from 
here  to  the  Court  House." 

Although  many  of  the  summer  visitors  came  by  water  from 
Philadelphia  and  the  points  along  the  bay,  it  was  to  the  accompani- 
ment of  cracking  whips  and  blowing  horns  that  others  arrived.  A 
stage  ran  from  Bridgton  and  Tuckahoe,  and  dust  and  delays  were 
the  causes  of  the  traveller's  woes  rather  than  the  cinders  that 
poured  from  the  steamboat's  funnels.  Sighs  of  relief  were  no  doubt 
breathed  when  the  last  change  of  horses  had  been  effected,  and,  on 
the  outskirts  of  the  town,  the  driver  began  to  toot  his  horn.  Cramped 
muscles  straightened  out,  for  the  rough  ride  was  over,  the  jolting 
ended.  The  traveller,  already  partially  revived  by  the  salt  air  blo\\ai 
across  the  marshes,  shook  his  "duster,"  grasped  his  vari-colored 
carpet  bag,  and  started  out  to  see  the  toA\m.  Tlie  fare,  one  way  be- 
tween Philadelphia  and  Cape  May,  was  $3.50,  about  what  we  pay 
today  for  a  round-trip  ticket  on  a  luxurious  express  train  taking  but 
two  hours  to  make  the  trip  between  the  same  two  points.  In  ]\ray 
of  1863  the  Board  of  Freeholders  passed  a  resolution  which  resulted 
in  the  opening  by  the  Cape  May  &  Alillville  railroad  of  a  line  to  Cape 
May.  In  1879  this  road  united  with  the  West  Jersey.  The  Penn- 
sylvania railroad  has  since  secured  control.  Interest  in  the  welfare 
of  the  town  inspired  Logan  M.  Bullitt  of  Philadelphia  and  James  E. 
Taylor  of  Cape  May  to  make  an  arrangement  with  the  Central 
Railroad  of  New  Jersey,  the  Atlantic  City  Railroad  Company  and 
the  Yineland  Railroad  Company,  whereby  a  second  railroad  might 
be  operated  in  connection  with  these  companies.  A  regular  ser\dce 
was  established  in  1894,  and  is  kno\\Ti  as  the  South  Jersey  railroad. 

73 


THE  GOLDEX  CHAIX  OF  MEMORY 

The  city's  streets  follow  their  own  sweet  ^Wll,  for  the  reason 
that  they  were  laid  out  only  when  and  where  needed.  They  turn 
right  or  left,  or  run  straight  on,  as  the  necessity  of  that  day  dictated. 
More  than  a  hundred  years  ago  Jackson  street,  the  oldest  street  in 
to^\^l,  was  laid  out  and  set  the  example  for  its  successors  by  making 
a  sharp  turn  at  its  upper  end.  From  being  a  cow  path,  Lafayette 
street  became  a  recognized  public  way,  and  for  nearly  its  whole 
length  Washington  street  runs  parallel  with  it.  Among  the  earliest 
streets  were  Delaware  avenue,  Franklin,  Jefferson  and  Queen. 

Life  Saving  Stations  began  to  occupy  the  attention  of  the  pub- 
lic in  IS-l-S,  Congressman  William  A.  Xewell  of  New  Jersey  secured 
from  Congress  an  appropriation  of  $10,000  to  "provide  surf  boats, 
rockets,  carronades  and  other  necessary  apimrtenances  for  the  bet- 
ter preservation  of  life  and  projDerty  from  shii3wreck."  Heretofore 
Avhale  boats  had  been  used,  but  their  weight  and  bulk  made  them  un- 
wieldy. The  new  stations  were  provided  with  sleeping  quarters  for 
the  Coast  Guards,  and  were  equipjjed  with  all  necessary  appliances. 
The  Guards  now  patrol  the  beach  for  three  miles  during  the  night, 
exchanging  metal  checks  with  those  at  the  next  station,  Cape  ]\Iay 
Point,  to  the  south.  During  the  day  a  lookout  is  on  duty.  The  Sta- 
tion built  in  1S71  stood  back  beyond  the  dunes,  where  the  beach 
curved  inland.  Li  recent  years  the  sea  has  made  ground  there  and 
the  curve  has  to  some  extent  disappeared.  A  modern  house  now 
stands  among  the  cottages  that  surround  the  new  "Hotel  Cape 
May."  During  the  bathing  hours,  from  ten  in  the  morning  until  six 
in  the  evening,  from  the  fifteenth  of  June  until  the  fifteenth  of  Sep- 
tember, ten  Life  Guards  are  stationed  on  the  beach.  There  are  two 
stations,  one  in  front  of  the  Stockton  Baths  and  the  other  at  old 
Congress  Hall.  Immediately  to  the  south  is  the  colored  people's 
recognized  bathing  ground,  guarded  by  a  huge  West  Lidian  whose 
brown  skin  has  turned  black  in  the  summer  sun.  Recently  a  g-uard 
was  stationed  north  of  the  pier  for  the  protection  of  the  cottagers. 
One  is  much  needed  at  the  southern  end  of  the  beach,  where  for  a 
long  distance  no  means  of  help  is  available.  Li  the  summer  of  1919 
two  young  women  were  dro^\^led  whose  lives  might  have  been  saved 
had  a  guard  been  near.  The  distance  was  so  great  that  although  an 
alarm  was  promptly  given,  too  long  a  time  elapsed  before  assistance 
came.    Both  were  dead  when  they  were  brought  ashore. 

The  to^^^l  has  had  the  approval  of  America's  chief  magistrates. 

74 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIX  OF  MEMORY 

Both  James  A.  Buchanan  and  General  Grant  vrerc  guests  at  Con- 
gress Hall  during  their  terms  of  office.  Franklin  Pierce  came  in 
1855,  and  in  1883  the  government  steamer,  the  Despatch,  arrived  at 
Cape  May  bringing  President  Chester  A.  Arthur.  After  being  cere- 
moniously escorted  along  the  beach  front,  now  Beach  avenue,  the 
President  was  welcomed  at  the  Stockton  Hotel  by  the  strains  of 
''Hail  to  the  Chief,"  played  by  Hassler's  orchestra  and  the  Wec- 
cacoe  Band.  The  cottage  belonging  to  the  Hon.  John  Wanamaker 
of  Philadelphia,  Postmaster  General  under  President  Benjamin 
Harrison,  was  loaned  by  Mr.  Wanamaker  to  Mr.  McKinley  for  one 
summer.  Later  a  cottage  was  built  with  money  privately  subscribed, 
and  presented  to  the  President. 

Old  Cape  May  practically  began  at  the  summer  station,  at  the 
foot  of  Grant  street.  Here  stood  net-covered  horses  drawing  busses 
in  every  stage  of  repair  or  dilipidation,  awaiting  passengers  and 
the  dimes  that  were  the  fare  ''to  any  part  of  towm."  A  small  street 
car  started  its  peregrinations  beside  the  boardwalk  and  wandered 
along  to  the  other  end  of  to^^^l.  For  several  years  the  cars  have  not 
run  at  all,  and  today  jitneys  and  the  old  time  busses,  the  Alpha  and 
Omega  of  transportation,  offer  the  only  means  of  conveyance  to 
those  who  do  not  own  automobiles. 

In  this  vicinity  a  dozen  or  more  commodious  cottages  had  been 
erected  on  large  plots  of  ground.  They  Avere  frame  and  built  in 
the  southern  stj^le,  with  double  porches,  painted  white  and  vine  em- 
bowered. Well  kept  la\\ms  with  gardens  and  ornamental  trees  sur- 
rounded them,  enclosed  in  their  turn  by  hedges  of  a  bush  much  like 
the  tropical  tamarisk.  Among  the  bushes  the  white  of  marble  statu- 
ary gleamed,  and  the  calls  of  the  many  birds  that  have  made  of  these 
secluded  spots  a  feathered  sanctuary,  carried  one  far  from  the  sea 
that  broke  at  the  end  of  the  walk.  Hydrangeas,  that  reach  perfec- 
tion here,  meet  one 's  eye  at  every  turn.  In  this  delightful  group  of 
seaside  homes  were  those  of  General  William  J.  Sewell ;  of  the  Sel- 
lers of  Millbourne,  and  the  Knight  family. 

The  first  hotel  beyond  the  station  is  the  Windsor,  a  three-story 
clapboarded  building  A^-ith  a  long  ^\^ng  parallel  with  the  sea.     A        r 
porch  runs  inside  the  angle  and  across  the  end,  while  verandas  hang        t 
from  the  upper  story.    Sheltered  by  the  building  there  used  to  be        f 
a  pebbled  terrace  with  an  ornate  fence  and  "a  fountain  in  the  cen- 
ter."   Broad  wooden  steps  led  down  to  the  street  level  and  gave  the        I 

75 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

hotel  an  air  at  once  imposing  and  unique.  Now  the  pebbles  have 
gone,  the  fountain  is  dry,  and  where  once  the  water  sparkled  ''in  its 
gleaming  marble  rim,"  green  paint  has  transformed  the  basin  that 
is  filled  \\'ith  soil  in  which  geraniums  (not  lilies)  grow.  Grass  plots 
separated  by  sandy  walks  replace  the  pebbles,  and  the  only  touch  of 
its  vanished  beauty  is  in  the  groups  of  lovely  hydrangeas  that  still 
grow  upon  the  terrace. 

The  solid  wooden  fence  \\ith  its  wide  flat  top,  that  guarded  the 
ocean  side  of  the  boardwalk,  has  been  replaced  by  modern  gas  pipe. 
In  the  past  it  was  a  convenient  resting  place,  available  at  any  mo- 
ment when  fatigue  threatened,  when  one  cared  to  linger,  or  felt  that 
consuming  desiring  that  comes  to  the  young,  to  commune,  a  deux, 
"with  sea  and  sky. 

Far  back  from  the  ocean  stands  Congress  Hall.  The  large  brick 
buildings  were  for  years  neglected.  The  porch  roof  hung  in  scal- 
lops between  the  tall  square  columns,  one  of  which  rested  against 
the  wall.  Part  of  the  roof  lay,  a  mass  of  debris,  on  the  floor.  Brok- 
en window  panes  looked  out  like  sad  blind  eyes,  and  even  birds  hesi- 
tated to  build  amid  such  evidences  of  decay.  The  hotel  register  con- 
tains many  of  the  names  that  have  made  history.  Statesmen,  artists, 
travellers  and  the  great  of  many  lands  sought  hospitality  there,  left 
their  marks  upon  those  ''sands  of  time,"  and  went  again  into  the 
^lnkno^^m.  Recently  the  house  has  been  renovated  and  is  now  open 
to  the  public.  The  tragic  atmosphere  of  decay  that  for  so  long  per- 
vaded the  building  has  been  dispelled. 

Visitors  passing  the  old  Columbia,  near  the  corner  of  "Wash- 
ington street  and  Ocean  avenue,  lingered  to  hear  the  colored  wait- 
ers sing.  The  crooning  musical  voices  of  the  negroes  in  their  o\\ii\ 
weird  melodies  have  a  strong  appeal.  They  seem  to  reach  out  and 
set  a  heart-string  quivering  with  a  vague  longing  for  something  yet 
iinkno^wn. 

In  1876  fire,  which  has  been  an  active  enemy  of  Cape  ^lay,  de- 
stroyed the  then  Columbia  House  and  made  a  place  for  its  succes- 
sor, the  New  Columbia.  Of  all  the  old  hotels  the  Columbia  House 
showed  most  plainly  the  prevalent  influence  of  the  South.  It  might 
have  been  a  huge  plantation  home  transported  from  some  far  off 
southern  scene  and  set  down  by  the  sea. 

The  New  Columbia  was  a  brick  stinicture,  moderate  in  size  and 
of  commonplace  tvpe.    It  too,  was  burned,  and  the  place  of  the  two 

7^ 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

Columbias  is  filled  with  small  cottages  built  in  a  Close,  surrounded 
by  grass  and  hedges  and  hydrangeas,  with  a  common  entrance  and 
exit  to  the  sea.  Baltimore  Inn  is  near.  Shining  in  white  paint,  with 
shading  a"\\'nings  and  flowers  in  boxes  on  the  porch,  it  looks  inviting. 
Above  the  old  bath  houses  are  the  same  names  as  in  years  gone  by. 
Magiiire's,  and  further  on  Shield's.  From  under  one  of  them  a 
Imge  rat  scampered  and  ran  across  the  drive.  There  was  that  pecu- 
liar fetid  odor  of  old  wood  rotting  in  salt  water. 

A  second  generation  of  Japanese  conduct  the  *'Art  Store,"  but 
a  touch  of  modernity  is  given  by  ''Arnold's  Hotel"  where  before 
the  era  of  prohibition  good  dinners  and  ''good  times"  were  to  be 
had.  Still  in  the  window  rests  the  frame  of  scarlet  lobsters,  an  en- 
ticement still,  but  inside  the  gayety  is  subdued  to  the  level  of  the 
refreshment  now  offered,  "near  beer." 

On  Decatur  street,  a  little  way  back  from  Arnold's  is  Zillinger's 
Cafe.  Beside  the  house  a  garden  invites  the  hungry,  and  between  the 
large  leaves  of  the  vine  that  clings  to  the  latticed  roof  with  its  spiral 
tendrils,  are  pendant  bunches  of  green  and  purpling  grapes. 

The  remains  of  the  pier  voice  the  old  question:  "If  I  am  so  soon 
done  for,  I  wonder  what  I  was  begun  for?"  Cut  off  abruptly  in 
mid-air  a  few  feet  from  the  entrance,  it  juts  into  space.  At  low  tide 
jagged  rusty  supports  stick  up  from  the  sand,  but  at  high  tide  the 
water  covers  them  and  hides  the  danger  they  have  become.  The 
pier  was  built  in  18S5,  at  the  foot  of  Decatur  street,  and  was  for 
many  years  the  only  amusement  place  in  to^vll.  Now  it  houses  a 
shop  where  ice  cream  cones  and  salt  water  taffy  are  sold ;  a  momig 
picture  theatre;  a  Japanese  rolling  ball  game;  and  a  shop  where 
commonplace  embroidered  cotton  kimonos  are  sho-\vm.  At  the  en- 
trance years  ago  a  giant  sword  fish  hung,  its  long  serrated  sword 
striking  terror  into  young  hearts.  Beyond  was  a  merry-go-round, 
and  further  out  a  theatre,  and  then  a  fishing  platform  ^\'ith  a  lower 
deck  where  boats  landed.  Light  opera  and  musical  comedies  were 
given  on  the  pier  by  stars  like  Jennie  Prince,  who  shed  their  his- 
trionic light  on  Cape  May  in  the  summer  time. 

Across  from  the  pier  is  the  Lafayette,  a  relic  of  Cape  May's 
gay  old  days.  Theatrical  people  frequented  it  and  it  was  thought  a 
' ' lively ' '  place.  On  the  next  corner  are  the  cottages  originally  o"s\Tied 
by  the  late  William  Weightman,  of  Philadelphia.  They  were  con- 
sidered the  finest  and  most  modern  houses  at  the  Cape.    Now,  paint- 

77 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

ed  a  dull  battleship  grey  and  overshadowed  b)'  the  newer  residences, 
they  are  unremarkable.  On  Ocean  avenue,  near  the  beach  and  over- 
looking the  Stockton  Baths,  is  the  Colonial,  a  medium  size  house  of 
the  "middle  age;"  and  "run"  in  unpretentious  fashion.  Opposite 
is  Star  Villa,  a  house  of  the  same  type. 

The  Stockton  Hotel  was  the  hub  of  Cape  May,  but  the  Stockton 
Baths  were  surely  the  most  important  spokes.  They  cover  one  end 
of  the  block  between  Ocean  avenue  and  Stockton  row,  and  are  the 
last  remnant  of  the  Cape  Maj'  property  of  the  late  John  C.  Bullitt, 
of  Philadelphia,  the  framer  of  the  Bullitt  Bill.  Always  painted  yel- 
low with  brown  trimmings  and  red  tin  roofs,  they  are  today  just  as 
they  were  years  ago.  In  the  center  is  a  small  house,  its  porch  sur- 
mounted b}"  a  clock,  in  which  are  office  and  store  rooms.  The  bath 
houses  extend  in  rows  on  either  side.  This  was  the  daily  meeting 
place  for  all  socially  inclined.  At  eleven  o'clock  on  any  summer 
morning  the  porch  was  filled  with  daintily  dressed  women  and  men 
in  flannels.  In  those  days  girls  were  mermaids  and  went  into  the 
sea  with  flowing  locks,  regardless  of  the  damage  Father  Neptune 
might  do.  The  popularity  of  a  girl  was  measured  by  the  number 
of  men  who  asked  to  dry  her  hair.  A  very  popular  one  had  to  "cut" 
the  drying,  as  her  modern  sister  does  her  dances. 

At  the  end  of  the  bath  houses  is  a  small  photograph  gallery 
Avhere  the  principal  business  used  to  be  taking  tintj-pes  of  bathing 
parties.  An  examination  of  those  early  pictures  would  be  like  turn- 
ing back  the  pages  of  a  biographical  history.  The  women  wore  dark 
blue  flannel  suits  fastened  up  to  their  necks,  the  tape  trimmed  ruf- 
fles almost  covering  their  hands  and  clinging  closely  round  their 
ankles  at  the  end  of  the  long  full  pantalettes.  A  wide  coarse  straw 
hat,  tied  under  the  chin  in  the  shape  of  a  poke,  completed  the  cos- 
tume. What  woman  could  be  beautiful  in  such  garb  ?  But  in  those 
days  sunburn  was  crime.  The  men  wore  loose,  flapping,  one-piece 
garments  very  like  the  women's,  only,  of  course,  without  the  long 
wide  skirts.  Heads  bald  and  well  thatched  were  alike  covered  with 
a  small  skull  cap  or  a  straw  hat  held  in  place  by  a  string  of  turkey 
red.  But  custom  changes,  and  from  being  over-dressed  they  went  to 
the  other  extreme.  Clothes  became  so  abbreviated  as  to  be  a  matter 
of  concern  to  the  municipal  authorities.  Now  an  executive  council 
meets  in  solemn  conclave  to  decide  upon  the  propriety  of  stockings 
or  bare  legs  for  bathing  girls. 

78 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

Dominating  the  town  and  its  activities  stood  the  Stockton,  a 
large  clap-board  structure  built  in  the  shape  of  a  capital  '^T"  with 
the  top  laid  towards  the  street.  The  ground  was  o^^^led  by  the  Betz 
estate,  but  the  hotel  was  built  in  ISGO  and  run  for  many  years  by  the 
Pennsylvania  railroad.  Follo^s-ing  the  custom,  a  high  roofed  porch 
with  great  square  columns  ran  round  the  house.  Immediately  in 
front  was  a  gravelled  space,  with  j^osts  connected  by  festooned 
chains.  Towards  the  sea  stretched  a  large  la^\^l  at  the  end  of  which 
stood  a  ruined  two-story  pavilion,  where  in  the  palmy  days  the 
Marine  Band  played  on  summer  afternoons.  In  the  Exchange  hung 
a  large  oil  portrait  of  Commodore  Stockton,  after  whom  the  hotel 
was  named.  It  gave  the  house  a  dignity  perceptibly  felt,  although 
perhaps  unrecognized.  On  the  right  was  the  ball  room,  where  Simon 
Hassler  played,  and  back  in  the  huge  wing  the  entire  space  was  given 
over  to  the  dining  rooms. 

;At  night  the  porches  were  so  crowded  it  w^as  difficult  to  find 
one's  way  between  the  chairs.  Some  time  during  the  day  or  evening 
all  found  their  way  to  the  Stockton,  if  only  to  walk  through.  Beside 
the  hotel,  in  a  building  connected  Avith  it  by  a  jDorch,  was  a  billiard 
room  ^vith  a  bowling  alley  at  the  back.  The  kitchen  and  service 
rooms  were  in  a  separate  building  close  alongside.  Various  mana- 
gers played  the  part  of  boniface,  but  perhaps  the  most  noted  were 
the  Cakes,  and  *' Plunger  Walton,"  so  called  because  of  his  opera- 
tions as  a  stock  speculator.  His  daughters  married  David  S.  Chew, 
of  the  Chews  of  Germantown,  and  William  E.  Bates,  a  descendant  of 
Francis  Guerney  Smith.  All  trace  of  the  hotel  has  been  removed, 
and  grass  grows  where  flying  feet  once  danced.  At  the  upper  end 
of  the  lot  is  a  small  Baptist  church,  built  of  white  stucco,  and  a 
modern  cottage.  The  rest  is  vacant,  emblematic  of  the  emptiness  of 
life  of  Cape  May  since  its  mainspring  was  removed.  Life  no  longer 
runs  so  merrily  on  through  the  sunny  summer  days.  Chimes  of 
laughter  are  not  so  often  heard,  even  the  echoes  of  those  long  past 
peals  exist  only  in  memory  or  imagination. 

Here  in  the  golden  days  had  come  the  wealth  and  fashion  of 
the  South,  as  well  as  the  elite  of  Philadelphia  and  New  York.  Belles 
and  beaux  occupied  the  armchairs  on  the  porch  and  posed  with  lan- 
guid grace.  They  brought  A\'ith  them  their  retinues  of  colored  ser- 
vants, their  richly  harnessed  horses  and  luxurious  carriages  that  so 
well  suited  those  wide  skirts  and  veiled  faces.    Jewels  flashed  and 

79 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

feathered  fans  -waved  as  southern  beauties  coquetted  in  their  inimi- 
table way.  Men  in  stocks  and  broadcloth  made  elegant  bows  and 
kissed  the  white  hands  that  the  sun  had  never  touched.  The  stately 
minuet  was  danced  in  that  ball  room  whose  jDassing  has  spared  it 
the  humiliation  of  witnessing  the  *' shimmy."  The  ball  room  brings 
back  memories  of  the  Hasslers,  Simon  and  Mark,  who  had  their 
orchestras  and  played  respectively  at  the  Stockton  and  Congress 
Hall.  Every  visitor  to  Cape  May  will  remember  them  and  the 
dreamy  waltzes  that  they  played. 

The  bathing  hour  was  but  a  preliminary  to  the  visit  to  the 
Stockton,  where  in  the  small  cafe  to  the  left  of  the  office  and  beyond 
the  barber  shop,  were  served  such  drinks  as  ''horse's  necks," 
''brandy  floats,"  and  the  best  claret  punches  that  were  ever  made. 

Back  of  the  Stockton  stood  the  Chalfont,  popular  as  a  family 
hotel,  and  unchanged  today.  There  was  the  Page  Cottage,  too,  a 
"genteel  boarding  house"  much  patronized  by  exclusive  Philadel- 
phians.  From  there  Stockton  avenue  runs  north.  Marine  Villa,  an- 
other sacrifice  to  Vulcan,  belongs  to  the  past;  its  place  is  empty. 
Close  to  its  site  is  the  new  Stockton  Villa,  which  accommodates  but 
few  guests,  but  is  to  be  relied  upon  to  have  those  guests  exactly  what 
they  should  be. 

Old  Cape  May  ends  here,  and  turning  from  the  sea  the  streets 
run  inland  and  wander  among  the  cottages  that  surround  the  Stock- 
ton. There  on  the  corner  lived  George  D.  McCreary,  of  Philadel- 
phia, with  "the  little  McCreary  cottage"  next  door.  Diagonally 
across  the  street  is  the  large  house  of  the  Scott  family,  who  still 
spend  every  summer  there.  Not  far  away  is  the  cottage  where  Mrs. 
Bowen  entertained  her  brother,  Archbishop  Ryan  of  Philadelphia, 
whose  droll  stories  and  brilliant  conversation  were  so  delightful. 
On  Washington  street,  removed  from  the  daily  crowds  brought  by 
the  incoming  trains,  the  residence  of  the  late  Dr.  Phillip  Sygn  Phy- 
sic stands  alone  and  secluded.  The  house  is  frame  and  conveys  an 
impression  of  dignity  and  generous  hospitality  that  is  not  lessened 
by  the  lack  of  paint.  Fine  trees  and  rare  shrubs  thrive  there  and  the 
sun  filters  through  the  leaves,  dappling  the  ground  with  gold.  A 
wide  open  la-\^^l  beside  the  house  is  surrounded  by  a  hedge  whose 
impenetrability  secures  privacy. 

On  the  corner  of  "Washington  street  and  Ocean  avenue  stood 
Hand's  Market.    The  Hand  family  belong  to  the  original  settlers, 

80 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIX  OF  MEMORY 

and  Cape  May  owes  much  to  their  moulding.  In  the  past  the  name 
frequently  appeared  upon  the  street  signs  and  in  the  to^^^l's  business 
life.  Today  there  are  but  few  members  of  the  family  left.  The  name 
is  still  over  the  jewelry  store  at  the  end  of  the  street,  do^^^l  by  Con- 
gress Hall,  where  Cape  May  diamonds  may  be  had.  It  is  over  the 
office  of  "The  Wave  and  Star.".  The  market  is  now  Mecray's. 

Opposite  to  the  market  is  the  Reading  railroad  station,  and  a 
new  building  on  one  corner  houses  a  Savings  Fund.  Beside  the 
station  is  the  rectory  of  the  Catholic  Church  of  Our  Lady,  Star  of 
the  Sea.  The  original  rectory  is  still  in  use,  a  small  gray  building, 
its  ornate  trinunings  painted  white.  The  little  church  of  years  ago 
seemed  crowded  and  over-decorated ;  the  tall  sharp  spires  and  nar- 
row arches  above  the  altar  were  of  white  painted  wood,  cut  and 
fretted  and  tortured  into  intricate  designs.  The  impression  created 
by  the  new  church  is  of  breadth  and  nobility  of  treatment,  of  white 
purity  and  sanctity,  and  a  retirement  from  the  heat  and  glare  out- 
side. It  is  conducive  to  prayer  and  meditation.  The  small  columns 
of  the  altar  and  the  central  part  of  the  conmiunion  rail  are  white 
marble  with  brown  markings.  There  are  a  few  stained  glass  win- 
dows whose  dominant  tone  is  a  cool  deep  green,  but  in  the  whole 
church  there  is  no  jarring  note. 

The  Episcopalians  have  two  churches,  St.  John's,  the  village 
church,  and  the  Church  of  the  Advent,  for  summer  visitors.  Here 
every  week  an  address  is  made  by  some  notable  visiting  churchman, 
as  Ethelbert  Talbot,  Bishop  of  Central  Pennsylvania,  and  the  Rev. 
Floyd  Tompkins,  rector  of  Holy  Trinity,  Philadelphia.  The  Presby- 
terians have  a  handsome  church  at  Decatur  and  Hughes  streets, 
where  the  air  is  cooled  by  electric  fans  and  an  accousticon  is  sup- 
plied for  those  who  have  difficulty  in  hearing.  The  Baptists,  Metho- 
dists and  Hebrews  have  their  places  of  worship  too. 

The  old  tower  is  standing  on  Perry  street,  marking  the  oldest 
part  of  town  and  a  monument  to  its  decay.  Close  to  its  foot  nestles 
an  automobile  accessory  shop.  Built  of  wood  and  long  unpainted, 
with  advertising  signs  disfiguring  its  sides,  the  tower  rears  its  worn 
head  like  an  old  man's  whose  hair  has  paid  tribute  to  the  flight  of 
time.  The  Ocean  House,  one  of  the  very  old  hotels  and  famous  in  its 
day,  was  nearby ;  it  was  burned  in  1878.  It  was  characterized  by  a 
balcony  that  ran  around  the  third  floor,  high  above  the  porch.  From 
the  roof,  which  was  continuous  from  its  apex  to  the  edge  over- 
Si 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

hanging  the  balcony,  dormer  Avindows  sprang,  breaking  the  monot- 
ony. Close  by  was  Center  House,  a  simpler  type.  Its  large  gabled 
wings  were  connected  by  a  recessed  central  building  with  a  high 
roofed  porch. 

In  the  vicinity  was  the  famous  Mount  Vernon  Hotel,  which  had 
taken  the  then  unlieard  of  time  of  two  years  to  build  and  which  was 
said  to  be  the  largest  hotel,  at  that  time,  in  the  world.  Its  dining 
room  seated  three  thousand  people.  Fatality  followed  in  the  wake 
of  the  tire  that  consumed  it  in  1S56,  the  proprietor  and  four  others 
losing  their  lives.  Early  in  the  following  sunmier  the  Mansion 
House  and  Kersal,  an  amusement  pavilion,  followed  it,  and  years 
ago  this  once  exclusive  neighborhood  fell  into  disrepute  amongst 
the  white  visitors,  the  remaining  hotels  and  large  boarding  houses 
being  given  over  entirely  to  the  use  of  the  colored  population.  At 
present  the  better  class  of  colored  visitors  go  to  the  Hotel  Dale,  a 
hotel  run  by  a  famous  Philadelphia  caterer  exclusively  for  his  peo- 
ple. 

Back  of  Congress  Hall  and  round  about  the  corner  where  is 
now  Mecray's  drugstore,  the  first  houses  for  the  summer  visitors 
were  built.  The  Philadelphians  who  came  were  wealthy  men  who 
w^ere  attracted  by  the  fishing  and  the  opportunity  to  do  a  little  quiet 
gambling.  It  is  said  that  the  first  millionaire  in  America  came  here. 
"When  the  house  he  occupied  was  torn  dovni  to  make  room  for  mod- 
ern improvements,  many  coins  were  found  under  the  floor  where 
the}^  had  fallen  and  been  forgotten.  In  the  attic  were  old  pistols  and 
small  amis  that  had  been  undisturbed  for  many  years.  Later  years 
brought  the  great  luxurious  hotels  of  a  few  decades  ago.  The  at- 
mosphere of  the  place  changed,  and  the  wealthy  from  all  parts  of  the 
country  came  as  regularly  to  this  Mecca  of  fashion  as  the  true 
Southerner  used  to  go  to  "The  Whites"  or  Saratoga  Springs. 

South  of  the  summer  station  is  the  site  of  the  United  States 
Hotel.  Four  stories  high,  it  had  a  continuous  porch  on  every  floor 
and  was  surmounted  by  a  cupola  from  which  floated  the  Stars  and 
Stripes.  Fire  destroyed  it  in  1869.  Xear  the  hotel  was  a  race  track 
that  was  in  occasional  use  as  late  as  1887. 

A  narrow  guage  railroad  started  at  the  southern  end  of  town 
and  ran  to  Cape  May  Point.  The  train  was  dra^\^l  by  an  engine 
with  a  funnel-shaped  stack  of  the  same  type  as  "Old  Baldwin,"  now 
reposing  quietly  in  the  station  at  Chattanooga.  The  lessening  of  its 

82 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

patronage  and  the  deterioration  of  the  track  and  rolling  stock  re- 
sulted in  the  failure  of  the  company.  The  engine  and  cars  were 
sold  to  junk  dealers,  and  the  track  torn  up  and  put  to  other  uses. 
Busses  carried  the  visitor  to  Schellinger's  Landing,  where  in  the 
shadow  of  the  old  pavilion  he  embarked  in  a  flat-bottomed  row  boat 
and  wound  his  way  between  the  mud  banks  in  search  of  hard  shelled 
crabs ;  or,  on  a  rainy  day  in  early  fall,  he  went  in  a  sneak  box,  a  bird 
gun  laid  across  the  bow,  to  hunt  for  rail  or  reed  birds.  From  Sew- 
ell's  Point  he  sailed  about  the  bay,  or,  crossing  the  bar,  went  sea- 
ward in  search  of  A\dld  adventure. 

The  name  Cape  Island,  as  Cape  May  was  originally  kno^\^l,  was 
first  used  in  1699,  when  the  causeway  connecting  the  island  with  the 
mainland  was  built  by  George  Eaglesfield.  Following  its  history 
step  by  step,  we  turn  the  pages  of  the  Indian  occupation,  of  the 
Swedish  purchase,  the  Dutch,  the  second  Swedish,  and  the  final 
purchase  by  the  English.  Perhaps  traces  of  these  differing  national- 
ities may  still  be  found,  but  the  most  lasting  impression  was  made  by 
the  English  whaling  folk  who  came  during  the  fishing  season  and  in 
some  instances  settled  here.  Gradually  the  fishing  village  became  a 
summer  resort  and  large  hotels  sprang  up  beside  the  lowly  cottages. 
The  period  of  its  greatest  prosperity  was  just  j^rior  to  the  Civil 
"War,  when  to  the  rich  Philadelphians  and  New  Yorkers  were  added 
Baltimoreans  and  travellers  from  many  other  southern  cities. 
Sweeping  the  wealth  of  the  South  into  the  realms  of  memory,  the 
war  deprived  Cape  May's  most  luxury  loving  visitors  of  the  means 
of  travel,  thus  taking  from  her  one  of  her  greatest  sources  of  revenue 
and  advertisement.  For  many  years  these  have  been  missing,  and 
the  to^^'n  has  suffered  a  consequent  decline  in  prosperity.  The  de- 
structive fires  that  at  intervals  have  wrought  such  havoc  robbed 
her  of  the  great  hotels  that  made  her  famous. 

About  1908  a  number  of  capitalists  interested  in  promoting 
Cape  May  endeavored  to  regain  for  her  her  past  prestige.  A  large 
brick  hotel.  The  Hotel  Cape  May,  was  built  on  the  upper  end  of 
the  beach  towards  Sewell's  Point.  Many  handsome  cottages  sprang 
up  around  it.  The  Government  was  induced  to  make  an  inland  pro- 
tecting harbor  in  the  bay,  with  a  wide  channel  to  the  sea,  in  which 
ships  might  anchor.  Much  of  the  marshland  was  drained  and  filled. 
A  golf  course  of  nine  holes  was  laid  out  back  of  the  town,  with  ten- 
nis courts  adjoining  it.    The  Corinthian  Yacht  Club  established  its 

83 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY   . 

summer  quarters  on  Cape  Island  creek,  which  empties  into  the  har- 
bor. The  Cape  May  Yacht  Club  was  organized,  and  an  attractive 
club  house  was  built.  A  ]\Iarine  Casino  furnishes  amusement  in  the 
form  of  moving  pictures  and  a  merry-go-round.  The  *'Eed  Mill," 
as  it  is  picturesquely  called,  is  the  nightly  gathering  place  for  the 
devotees  of  Terpsichore.  Opposite  the  site  of  the  Stockton  is  Con- 
vention Hall,  a  dance  hall  on  a  pier. 

The  plan  laid  out  for  the  New  Cape  ]\Iay  is  most  attractive, 
with  its  wide  central  avenue  and  streets  sweeping  round  it  in  long 
oval  curves  bisected  by  others  leading  from  the  sea  to  the  harbor. 

During  the  World  War  the  new  Hotel  Cape  May  was  General 
Hospital  Number  11,  and  was  filled  ^^ith  wounded  men  from  over- 
seas. Camp  Wissahickon  was  established  as  a  Naval  Base,  and 
was  located  between  the  hospital  and  the  harbor.  Many  soldiers 
were  in  barracks.  An  aviation  field  with  a  huge  hangar  that  houses 
a  dirigible  balloon,  still  adds  to  the  interest  of  the  section  devoted  to 
the  different  branches  of  the  Service  represented  here.  At  intervals 
the  whirr  and  drone  of  an  aeroplane  are  heard,  and  all  eyes  turn  up- 
ward and  search  the  sky  until  the  birdman  appears,  flying  in  a  long 
straight  line  and  then  turning  and  circling  in  the  ^\ide  sweeps  of  the 
eagle.  The  wounded  have  been  taken  away  and  concentrated  in  a 
few  hospitals  scattered  throughout  the  country.  Soldiers,  sailors 
and  marines  have  been  demobilized  and  sent  home.  The  Govern- 
ment intends  to  keep  only  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  men  on  duty 
at  the  camp. 

Cape  May  has  tasted  all  the  delights  of  giddy  youth,  the  com- 
forts of  middle  life,  and  now,  in  her  old  age,  she  is  like  a  woman 
struggling  to  recapture  her  lost  youth.  The  attempted  grafting 
of  Philadelphia  conservatism  on  Southern  democracy  was  unsuc- 
cessful. The  peculiar  condition  existed  of  Northern  capital  and 
energ}'  promoting  a  settlement  which  Nature  herself,  whether  by 
placing  it  south  of  Mason  and  Dixon's  line,  or  by  some  intangible 
influence,  confirmed  in  its  easy-going  attitude.  Because  of  its  won- 
derful beach  and  its  central  position  between  the  North  and  South, 
the  tremendous  initial  impetus  carried  it  on  for  many  years.  Since 
the  Civil  War  its  decline,  gradual,  it  is  true,  has  been  continuous. 
The  cordial  yet  restricted  social  life  of  the  South  was  overwhelmed 
by  Northern  reserve,  and  the  summer  visitors  being  of  mixed  types 
and  varying  social  standing,  found  between  them  an  icy  wall  as  im- 

84 


THE  GOLDEN  CHAIN  OF  MEMORY 

passable  as  the  slioal  water  between  the  ocean  and  the  bay  and  as 
dangerous  to  those  who  recklessly  attempted  to  cross.  They  still 
assemble  on  the  beach,  the  only  common  meeting  ground,  but  they 
do  not  gather  together,  for  there  is  hand  writing  on  the  wall,  plainly 
visible  to  those  who  running,  read:  "So  far  mayst  thou  go,  but  no 
further." 

Lying  where  the  bay  and  ocean  meet,  at  the  southern  extremity 
of  the  State,  Cape  May  has  enjoyed  an  unequalled  position.  Its 
beach  is  said  to  be  the  finest  in  the  world,  smooth  and  gradual,  and 
free  from  the  sea-cut  ledges  that  mar  so  much  of  the  Jersey  coast. 
On  clear  nights  the  light  from  Cape  Henlopen  may  be  seen  across 
the  bay,  answering  the  flash  that  streams  out  from  Cape  May.  Land 
breezes  are  impossible,  for  when  the  wind  comes  from  that  direction 
it  blows  over  more  than  a  mile  of  water  and  is  freshened  and  puri- 
fied. 

"With  better  train  service  and  easier  access,  the  resorts  north 
of  Cape  May  have  made  rapid  progress  to  her  detriment.  The  old 
residents  feel  that  she  has  been  discriminated  against,  that  when  the 
railroad  cut  do^^^l  the  train  service  and  the  last  of  the  great  hotels 
was  torn  down,  the  monument  was  erected  upon  her  burial  place. 
It  remains  for  some  one  in  whose  heart  sufficient  love  for  Cape  May 
endures,  to  write  a  fitting  epitaph.  May  there  be  one  whose  tender 
recollections  will  inspire  his  pen  to  do  full  justice,  to  pay  full  tribute, 
to  Cape  May.    She  can  never  be  excelled  or  equalled. 


85 


Early  Discoveries  and  Explorations 

By  Fkank  K.  Holmes,  New  York  City 

j^^^^HE  discovery  of  the  "Western  Continent  by  Columbus 
j^^U/S-y  i  placed  Spain  as  the  foremost  European  nation  in  com- 
Ij^jfelj  mercial  enterprise.  This  was  followed,  1493,  by  the 
tJM^rA^rl  edict  of  Pope  Alexander  YI,  a  native  of  Spain,  who  with 
all  the  lofty  pretensions  of  the  Bishop  of  Rome  as  sole  ar- 
biter of  the  world,  divided  the  unexplored  portions  of  the  globe 
between  Spain  and  Portugal.  This  bull  of  the  Pope  met  with  con- 
tempt in  England  and  France  and  stimulated  those  nations  to  com- 
pete in  the  explorations  and  discoveries  in  the  AYestern  AYorld. 
Portugal's  claim  was  based  on  a  former  proclamation  by  the  same 
authority,  specifying  a  line  supposed  to  be  drawn  from  pole  to  pole 
at  a  distance  of  one  hundred  leagues  westward  of  the  Azores  Is- 
lands, previously  explored  by  that  nation,  and  that  all  the  countries 
east  of  this  imaginary  line  not  in  possession  of  a  Christian  prince 
were  given  to  Portugal,  all  westward  of  it  to  Spain.  This  partition 
raised  dissension,  and  the  line  was  fixed  two  hundred  and  seventy 
leagues  further  west. 

The  first  nation  to  show  dissatisfaction  mth  the  Pope's  bull  was 
England.  Henry  VII,  the  reigning  monarch,  decided  to  compete  for 
those  rich  prizes  ready  to  the  hand  of  the  venturesome,  and  he 
accepted  the  offer  of  John  Cabot,  a  Venetian  merchant  residing  at 
Bristol,  England,  to  fit  out  several  ships  for  exploration.  He  issued 
a  patent  in  the  spring  of  1496  authorizing  Cabot  and  his  three  sons 
*'to  sail  to  all  parts,  countrys  and  seas  of  the  East,  of  the  West, 
and  of  the  North,"  under  the  banner  of  England.  This  was  one  of 
those  curious  commissions  so  common  in  those  days,  when  the  sov- 
ereign allowed  private  adventurers  to  use  their  o^vn  money  on  con- 
dition that  the  Crown  should  receive  one-fifth  of  the  profits  of  the 
undertaking.  The  patent  was  not,  however,  as  one-sided  as  it 
seemed,  as  the  Crown  had  to  pay  for  the  wars  which  invariably 
resulted.  There  is  no  positive  evidence  that  John  Cabot  took 
advantage  of  this  charter,  as  his  death  occurred  in  1498.    In  that 


Note.— This  narrative  is  a  chapter  from  "History  of  Bergen  County,  New  Jersey, 
now  in  press.     (Lewis  Historical  Pubhshing  Company,  New  York  and  Chicago). 

86 


AnckoraQe-. 
Noiv  York    'B^^s 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

year  liis  son  Sebastian  received  a  commission  from  tlie  king  to 
depart  on  a  voyage  of  discovery,  and  two  caravels  were  fitted  out 
for  the  expedition.  Cabot  sailed  from  Bristol,  England,  in  ^May, 
149S,  his  object  being  to  search  for  a  northwest  passage  to  India, 
but  he  was  stopped  by  the  ice  pack  in  Da\-is'  Strait.  Sailing  south- 
west, he  discovered  the  shores  of  Labrador  and  traversed  the  coast 
of  the  continent  to  the  60tli  degree  of  latitude,  when  again  the  ice 
barred  his  way.  He  then  sailed  southward  until  he  discovered  a 
large  island  which  he  named  Xew  Found  Land  (Newfoundland) ; 
thence  he  coasted  as  far  as  the  shores  of  Maine,  and  some  historians 
contended  even  to  the  coast  of  Florida,  to  which  he  gave  the  name 
Prima  Vestal.  On  his  return  to  England,  Henr}'  YII  did  not  receive 
him  with  open  arms  of  welcome,  as  he  failed  to  bring  back  gold  from 
America.  His  report  of  the  abundance  of  codfish  near  the  coast  of 
Newfoundland  caused  in  the  next  five  or  six  years  the  fishermen  of 
England,  Brittany  and  Normandy  to  gather  rich  harvests  in  the 
waters  surrounding  this  island.  Cabot  subsequently  became  Chief 
Pilot  of  the  Realm  at  the  Spanish  Court,  and  Edward  VI  made  him 
Great  Pilot  of  England.  He  died  in  comparative  poverty  and  ob- 
scurity in  the  city  of  Bristol,  at  the  age  of  eighty  years. 

The  next  nation  to  disregard  the  Pope's  donation  to  Spain  was 
Portugal.  An  expedition  was  fitted  out  in  1500  to  explore  North 
America  under  the  navigator  Gasper  Cortereal.  He  first  touched 
the  northern  shores  of  Newfoundland,  discovered  the  Gulf  of  St. 
Lawrence,  and  sailed  along  the  coast  of  the  American  Continent  to 
the  60th  degree  of  latitude.  Landing  on  the  coast  he  named  Labra- 
dor, he  captured  fifty  of  the  natives  and  carried  them  to  Portugal, 
where  he  sold  them  as  slaves.  The  profits  from  this  source  excited 
the  cupidity  of  Cortereal  and  Emanuel  the  Great,  Portugal's  reign- 
ing sovereign ;  and  a  second  expedition  was  fitted  out,  setting  sail  in 
1501  to  carry  on  an  active  slave  trade  ^vith  Labrador,  but  the  vessel 
with  all  on  board  was  lost  at  sea.  Emanuel  the  Great  declared  that 
Cortereal  was  the  first  discoverer  of  the  Ajnerican  Continent,  and 
caused  a  map  to  be  published  in  1508  on  which  the  coast  of  Labrador 
is  called  Terra  Corterealis,  or  Cortereal 's  Land. 

In  the  last  decade  of  the  fifteenth  century  and  the  early  part 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  Spain  and  Portgual  were  active  in  fitting 
out  voyages  of  discovery  to  the  New  World.  The  rumors  of  the 
abundan.ce  of  gold  and  precious  stones  in  the  southern  extremity  of 

87 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

the  AVcstorn  Continent  encouraged  their  navigators  to  penetrate  the 
southern  seas  to  rob  the  Incas  of  South  America  and  the  Mexicans 
of  the  valuable  treasures  in  their  possession.  Alonzo  de  Ojeda,  who 
was  with  Columbus  on  his  first  voyage,  sailed  from  Seville,  Spain,  in 
May,  1499,  and  reaching  the  northeastern  coast  of  South  America 
discovered  mountains  on  the  coast,  and  sailing  along  the  shores  he 
named  the  country  Venezuela.  The  Carribbean  Sea  was  crossed 
and  Santo  Domingo  visited.  Ojeda  returned  to  Spain  in  1501,  and 
the  Spanish  monarch  divided  Central  America  into  two  provinces, 
making  Ojeda  governor  of  one,  and  Diego  de  Xicuesa  of  the  other. 
The  proclamation  of  Alexander  VI,  which  justifies  the  murder 
and  robbery  of  those  that  opposed  its  enforcement,  and  receiving 
the  sanction  of  the  Church  and  State,  indicated  the  spirit  of  most 
of  the  Spanish  conquerors.  The  natives  delaying  in  their  submis- 
sion were  slaughtered,  and  those  made  captives  were  pressed  into 
slavery.  The  outraged  Indians  retaliated,  slew  the  Spanish  soldiers, 
Ojeda  w'as  joined  by  Xicuesa,  and  a  desolating  war  was  conmienced 
on  the  natives.  Ojeda  and  his  forces  took  to  their  vessels  and  were 
stranded  on  the  southern  coast  of  Cuba,  where  although  they  were 
treated  kindly  by  the  pagans  they  rewarded  them  with  the  same 
fate  received  by  the  natives  of  Santo  Domingo.  The  pious  Ojeda 
told  of  the  wealth  of  the  Cubans,  and  though  a  chapel  was  built  and 
Christianity  introduced  into  the  island,  it  soon  became  over-run  with 
avaricious  adventurers  who  soon  turned  a  paradise  into  a  pan- 
demonium. 

The  caravel  Niua,  on  the  first  voyage  of  Columbus,  was  com- 
manded by  Vincente  Yailez  Pinzon.  In  December,  1499,  in  command 
of  four  caravels,  he  sailed  from  Palos,  Spain.  Land  was  first 
sighted  at  Cape  Augustine,  in  what  is  now  Brazil,  South  America. 
Pinzon  took  possession  of  the  country  in  the  name  of  the  ruling 
house  of  Castile.  Sailing  northward  he  discovered  and  named  the 
River  Amazon. 

A  squadron  consisting  of  thirteen  ships,  commanded  by  Pedro 
Alvarez  Cabral,  was  sent  in  1500  by  Emanuel  the  Great,  King  of 
Portugal,  from  Lisbon  to  the  Indies.  The  fleet  sailed  so  far  west- 
ward that  land  was  discovered  on  the  coast  of  Brazil,  ontheshores  of 
which  they  erected  a  cross  and  named  the  country  ''The  Land  of 
the  Holy  Cross."  Cabral  took  possession  of  the  country  in  the  name 
of  his  king.    This  resulted  in  a  controversy  between  the  cro^\^lS  of 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

Spain  and  Portugal  concerning  rights  of  possession  whicli,  however, 
was  settled  amicably;  Portugal  was  to  possess  that  portion  of  the 
continent  from  the  Eiver  Amazon  to  the  Eiver  De  La  Plata. 

A  native  of  Florence,  Italy,  Americns  Vespucins,  sailed  with. 
Ojeda  as  geographer.  On  his  return  to  Spain  in  1501,  he  entered  the 
service  of  the  King  of  Portugal  and  sailed  in  May  of  that  year  for 
the  Western  Continent,  exploring  the  coast  of  Brazil.  Two  years 
later,  as  captain  of  a  caravel  attached  to  a  squadron,  he  again  sailed 
for  the  New  World.  Off  the  coast  of  Brazil  he  parted  company  with 
other  vessels  of  the  squadron,  and  sailing  along  the  coast  discovered 
the  Bay  of  All  Saints.  He  returned  to  Portugal  in  1504,  loaded  with 
a  cargo  of  wood  from  the  forests  of  Brazil.  By  a  falsely  dated  let- 
ter, a  friend  of  Vespucius  in  1506  proposed  to  the  Academy  of 
Cosmography  at  Strasburg  to  give  the  name  America  to  the  Wes- 
tern Continent,  in  compliment  to  its  first  discoverer.  This  was  done, 
fraudulently  depriving  Columbus  and  Cabot  of  the  honor  of  having 
their  names  associated  with  the  title  of  this  continent. 

Spain  still  continued  her  voyages  for  discovery  and  ill-gotten 
gains.  The  Spanish  governor  of  Cuba,  Don  Diego  Valasquez,  en- 
couraged by  the  discovery  of  Yucatan  and  a  part  of  Mexico  by 
Francisco  Hernandez  Cordova  in  1517,  sent  Hernando  Cortez  at 
the  head  of  an  expedition  to  conquer  and  colonize  Mexico.  He 
founded  Vera  Cruz,  and  in  November,  1519,  entered  the  City  of  Mex- 
ico and  compelled  Montezuma,  the  reigning  sovereign,  to  acknowl- 
edge himself  and  subjects  vassals  of  Charles  V,  of  Spain.  Velas- 
quez, in  fear  of  the  ambition  of  Cortez,  sent  another  expedition 
under  the  command  of  Pamfilo  De  Xarvaez  to  supersede  Cortez. 
The  latter  gave  him  battle,  defeated  him,  the  vanquished  troops 
joining  the  army  of  the  victor.  The  Mexicans  in  the  meantime  had 
risen  in  revolt  against  the  Spanish  and  drove  them  from  the  City  of 
Mexico.  Cortez  reinforced  his  army  with  natives,  gave  battle,  and 
after  a  gallant  defence  of  the  city  of  seventy-seven  days  the  Mexi- 
cans capitulated  and  Cortez  entered  the  city  in  triumph. 

The  other  early  Spanish  explorers  of  note  were  Vasco  de  Bal- 
boa Nunez,  who  went  to  Santo  Domingo  in  1501,  afterwards  to  the 
Isthmus  of  Darien,  and  November  26,  1513,  from  a  bold  rocky  sum- 
mit of  a  mountain  beheld  a  mighty  sea.  Wading  into  the  water, 
Nunez  took  formal  possession  of  the  great  ocean  in  the  name  of  his 
sovereign,  naming  it  the  South  Sea.     This  was  the  Pacific  Ocean, 

89 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AXD  EXPLORATIONS 

that  laves  many  a  league  of  the  western  coast  of  the  United  States. 
The  discoverer  of  Florida,  Juan  Ponce  de  Leon,  was  a  distinguislied 
Spanish  cavalier.  He  accompanied  Columbus  on  his  second  voyage, 
later  was  made  commander  of  a  portion  of  Santo  Domingo,  after- 
wards governor  of  Porto  Kico.  He  sailed  north  from  the  latter 
island  in  March,  1513,  in  pursuit  of  a  "Fountain  of  Youth"  whose 
waters  were  supposed  to  have  the  power  to  restore  youth  to  the 
aged.  He  failed  to  fmd  the  fountain,  but  landed  at  the  present  site 
of  St.  Augustine  in  Florida,  to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  Pasora 
de  Flores,  taking  possession  of  the  country  in  the  name  of  the  Span- 
ish monarch.  In  strong  contrast  to  this  eminent  gentleman  was 
Francisco  Pizarro,  a  low  born  Spaniard,  imprisoned  for  debt  in  his 
native  country.  He  crossed  the  Atlantic  Ocean  in  1530,  accompanied 
by  his  four  brothers,  bearing  a  commission  from  Charles  Y  to  con- 
quer Peru.  Leaving  the  Isthmus  of  Panama  the  following  year,  he 
landed  on  the  shores  of  a  bay  on  the  borders  of  the  Empire  of  Incas. 
There  was  at  that  time  a  civil  war  raging,  two  brothers  contending 
for  power,  and  one  had  just  made  the  other  a  prisoner.  Pizarro 
pretended  friendship  with  the  successful  Inca,  and  treacherously 
made  him  prisoner.  The  Inca's  army  fled  in  dismay,  and  the 
emperor  offered  for  his  ransom  to  fill  the  room  he  was  in  with  gold. 
The  precious  metals  and  golden  ornaments  of  the  temples  when 
melted  down  represented  more  than  $17,000,000,  Avhich  was  laid  at 
the  feet  of  Pizarro.  The  treacherous  Spaniard  caused  his  royal 
captive  to  be  murdered.  Pizarro  then  founded  a  new  capital  (now 
Lima)  near  the  coast,  married  a  daughter  of  the  slain  ruler,  and  the 
empire  of  Incas  lay  prostrated  at  the  feet  of  the  Spaniards,  with 
Pizarro  as  ruler.  This  led  to  a  revolt  and  the  Spanish  ruler  was 
attacked  in  his  palace  and  slain. 

A  protege  of  Davila,  governor  of  Darien,was  Fernando  De  Soto. 
He  accompanied  Pizarro  to  Peru  as  his  chief  lieutenant,  and  was 
prominent  in  achieving  the  conquest  of  that  country.  After  the 
capture  of  the  Incas'  capital,  he  returned  to  Spain,  having  acquired 
great  wealth.  He  was  favorably  received  by  Charles  Y,  but  longing 
to  rival  Cortez  and  Pizarro  in  the  brilliancy  of  his  deeds  and  believ- 
ing Florida  richer  in  precious  metals  than  Mexico  or  Peru,  he 
offered  to  conquer  that  country  at  his  o^\m  expense.  To  this  agree- 
ment the  king  readily  agreed,  and  commissioned  him  governor  of 
Cuba.    He  sailed  from  Spain  in  April,  1538,  and  in  ^lay  of  the  fol- 

90 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

lowing  year  his  expedition  to  Florida  set  sail,  consisting  of  nine 
vessels  bearing  a  thousand  followers,  cattle,  horses,  nmles  and 
swine,  the  first  of  the  latter  seen  on  the  American  Continent.  The 
expedition  met  with  opposition  from  the  natives,  who  still  remem- 
bered the  cruel  treatment  they  had  received  from  Xarvaez.  "Winter 
quarters  were  established  east  of  the  Flint  river,  near  Tallahassee, 
on  the  borders  of  Georgia.  A  northward  course  was  taken  the  next 
spring  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Savannah  river.  The  Spaniards 
practiced  the  most  cruel  treachery  towards  the  friendly  natives. 
De  Soto  was,  however,  rewarded  in  kind  not  long  afterwards,  when 
in  a  terrible  battle  on  the  present  site  of  Mobile  the  expedition  was 
nearly  ruined.  Turning  northward  with  the  remnant  of  his  forces, 
he  reached  the  upper  waters  of  the  Yazoo  river  late  in  December, 
where  he  wintered  in  great  distress.  Moving  westward  in  the  spring, 
De  Soto  discovered  the  Mississippi  river,  crossed  this  mighty 
stream,  and  still  went  westward  in  his  fruitless  search  for  gold.  He 
spent  a  year  in  the  country  towards  the  eastern  slope  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  and  returning  to  the  Mississippi  in  May,  1542,  died  of  a 
fever  on  its  banks.  De  Soto  was  buried  in  the  turbid  waters  of  the 
river  he  had  discovered;  his  body  was  encased  in  a  trough  made  of 
a  trunk  of  a  live  oak,  and  sunk  at  midnight  in  its  depths  to  prevent 
it  being  desecrated  by  the  Indians. 

Francis  I,  of  France,  though  engaged  in  warfare  with  the 
Emperor  of  Spain,  fully  realized  the  importance  of  discoveries  and 
settlements  in  the  New  ^Vorld.  In  the  second  decade  of  the  seven- 
teenth century  he  engaged  Giovanni  Da  Verrazzano,  a  Florentine, 
to  explore  the  unknown  West.  This  new  aspirant  for  exploration 
honors  sailed  late  in  1523  in  the  ship  Daupliin,  and  claimed  to 
have  first  touched  America  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cape  Fear  river, 
thence  coasting  north  to  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence,  and  entering 
the  harbors  of  Delaware,  New  I'ork,  Narraganset  and  Boston. 
There  is,  however,  something  mythical  in  this  statement,  which  is 
included  in  letters  written  by  the  explorer  to  Francis  I.  Their  auth- 
enticity is  questioned  by  American  historians,  who  claim  they  were 
forged  by  one  of  his  countrymen  anxious  to  secure  for  Italy  the 
glory  due  to  Cabot  for  the  discovery  of  the  North  American  Conti- 
nent. There  seems  to  have  been  at  this  period  a  Verrazzano  who 
was  a  noted  corsair,  who  captured  in  1522  a  treasure  ship  sent  by 
Cortez  to  Charles  V,  loaded  with  the  spoils  of  Mexico  valued  at 

91 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

$1,500,000.  This,  with  other  depredations,  aroused  both  Spain  and ' 
Portugal.  He  was  captured  in  the  autumn  of  1527,  and  soon  after- 
wards executed  at  Puerto  del  Pico,  Spain.  Some  writers  say  that 
Verrazzano  the  navigator  sailed  again  for  America  in  1525  and  was 
never  heard  from  afterwards.  AAliether  these  were  two  sejDarate 
identities  or  it  was  one  and  same  person,  has  not  been  clearly  de- 
fined. 

France,  however,  was  not  to  be  loft  in  the  explorations  of  the 
"West.  Jacques  Cartier,  a  native  of  that  country,  sailed  from  St. 
Malo,  France,  in  April,  1534,  entered  the  Straits  of  Belle  Isle,  and 
touching  the  coast  of  Labrador,  formally  took  possession  of  the 
country  in  the  name  of  his  king.  He  erected  a  cross  on  the  main- 
land, upon  which  he  hung  the  Arms  of  France,  returning  to  his 
native  country  to  avoid  the  autumn  storms.  In  the  middle  of  May 
of  the  folloA\ing  year  the  king  provided  him  with  a  fleet  of  three 
vessels  which  met  at  the  appointed  rendezvous  in  the  Straits  of  Belle 
Isle.  In  July  the  vessels  sailed  up  the  St.  Lawrence  river  to  the 
present  site  of  Quebec,  and  here,  taking  his  smallest  caravel,  Cartier 
ascended  the  river  to  the  Huron  village  called  Hochebaga,  the  pres- 
ent site  of  Montreal. 

For  the  next  fifty  years,  European  explorations  and  coloniza- 
tions were  at  a  standstill  owing  to  continual  warfare  between  the 
different  nations.  During  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  Sir  AYalter 
Ealeigh  was  dispatched  to  effect  a  settlement  in  Virginia.  There 
were  several  other  unsuccessful  attempts,  and  a  permanent  settle- 
ment was  not  effected  until  1607,  when  Jamesto^^^l,  on  the  right  bank 
of  the  Elver  of  Powhatan,  in  Virginia,  was  chosen  for  the  capital  of 
the  new  colony.  Several  attempts  were  made  to  colonize  what  is 
now  New  England,  as  many  hardy  men  hitherto  engaged  in  warfare 
sought  ne^y  fields  of  enterprise  and  adventure  in  the  New  World. 
Others  also  engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits,  as  well  as  artisans  and 
followers  of  the  plough,  became  interested  in  the  new  country.  Dur- 
ing the  last  years  of  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  Bartholomew 
Gosnold  in  attempting  to  find  a  direct  course  to  Virginia  reached  the 
Massachusetts  coast  and  landed  on  a  promontory,  naming  it  Cape 
Cod.  This  is  the  first  spot  in  New  England  ever  trod  by  an  English- 
man. 

Into  this  period  of  exploration  a  new  factor  was  to  appear.  On 
a  bright  day  in  September,  in  the  year  1609,  the  Ilalf-Moou,  a 

92 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

vessel  commanded  by  Henry  Hudson,  in  the  employ  of  the  Dutch 
East  India  Company,  a  corporation  legally  organized  by  the  States 
General  of  Holland,  sailed  into  what  is  now  the  harbor  of  New  York 
City.  Hudson,  proceeding  north  through  the  river  which  now  bears 
his  name,  thought  he  had  discovered  the  long  sought  passage  to  the 
Indies,  but  meeting  fresh  water  at  the  Highlands,  recognized  he 
was  mistaken. 

Thus  we  see  that  at  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century 
territory  in  the  northern  portion  of  North  America  was  claimed  by 
three  different  nations.  England  based  her  rights  of  possession  on 
the  discoveries  of  Cabot  and  the  settlement  of  Gosnold;  France  on 
the  explorations  of  Verrazzano  and  Gartier ;  and  Holland  on  Hud- 
son's  discoveries  and  purchases  made  from  the  Indians.  All  these 
claims  were  based  on  the  ruling  of  the  English  Parliament  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  that  occupancy  conferred  title  of  possession  by 
the  laws  of  nations  and  nature.  This  remains  a  law  of  nations  to 
the  present  day. 

The  rise  of  the  Low  Countries  in  the  sixteenth  century  as  a  com- 
mercial power  is  rivaled  only  by  the  scenes  produced  by  a  ma- 
gician's wand.  At  the  time  of  the  discovery  of  America,  the  Neth- 
erlands were  in  possession  of  the  municipal  institutions  which  had 
been  saved  from  the  w^eck  of  the  Roman  world.  The  landed  aris- 
tocracy, the  hierarchy,  possessed  the  political  franchises,  while  the 
power  of  the  people  was  unknown  to  the  law.  Charles  V,  Emperor 
of  Spain,  on  account  of  the  urgencies  of  war,  the  reformation,  also 
with  arrogance  of  power,  often  violated  the  liberties  of  the  State. 
His  successor,  Philip  II,  his  only  son,  to  support  the  constitutions 
of  the  Netherlands  formed  a  unity  with  the  church,  who  thus  became 
the  sole  guardian  of  the  people.  The  political  influence  of  the  clergy 
rested  on  reverence  for  that  order,  thereby  opening  for  the  ambition 
of  the  plebeian  the  avenue  to  the  highest  distinction.  The  ward  soon 
became  stronger  than  the  guardian,  and  a  new  political  alliance 
■was  the  consequence.  Arbitrary  powder  became  arrayed  against 
national  liberty,  and  the  contest  in  the  Low  Countries  became  one 
of  the  most  memorable  in  the  history  of  the  human  race.  Despotism 
seized  possession  of  the  courts ;  a  commission  was  established  mth 
arbitrary  power  over  life  and  property;  mercenary  soldiers  over- 
awed the  burghers  and  caused  terror  amongst  the  nobility;  fugitives 
fled  for  an  asylum  to  the  pirate  ships  of  the  ocean,  deserting  village, 

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EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

city,  court  and  camp  that  were  lield  by  tyranny.  The  establishment 
of  arbitrary  tribunals  was  followed  by  arbitrary  taxation,  and  levy- 
ing of  tax  caused  more  commotion  than  the  tribunal  of  blood.  The 
time  was  ripe  for  an  insurrection.  Merchant,  landholder,  citizen 
and  peasant,  whether  Catholic  or  Protestant,  joined  issues,  and  the 
States  of  Holland,  creating  the  Prince  of  Orange  their  stadtholder, 
prepared  to  levy  money  and  troops.  Zeeland  joined  Holland  in 
the  demands  for  liberty,  and  united  to  drive  Spanish  troops  from 
the  soil. 

The  union  of  the  five  northern  provinces  at  Utrecht  perfected 
the  insurrection  by  forming  the  basis  of  a  sovereignty,  and  the  rude 
structure  of  a  republic  was  the  result  of  the  revolution.  The  re- 
public of  United  Netherlands  thus  constructed  was  necessarily  of  a 
nature  commercial;  the  rendezvous  of  its  martyrs  had  been  the  sea, 
the  muster  of  its  patriots  was  held  on  shipboard.  Two  leading 
members  of  the  confederacy  were,  from  their  geographical  situa- 
tion, obliged  to  seek  subsistence  only  by  water.  Holland  was  a  pen- 
insula intersected  by  na^^gable  rivers,  crowded  by  a  dense  popula- 
tion on  a  soil  saved  from  the  depths  of  the  ocean  by  embankments 
and  kept  dry  by  pumps  driven  by  windmills.  Zeeland  was  composed 
of  islands,  her  inhabitants  mostly  fishermen,  her  villages  built  on  the 
margin  of  the  sea.  Both  provinces  were  the  nursery  of  sailors, 
every  house  a  school  for  mariners.  Their  commerce  connected  hem- 
ispheres, and  into  their  harbors  were  gathered  the  fruits  of  the 
whole  world.  Holland,  producing  almost  no  grain,  was  the  best 
supplied  granary  of  Europe ;  without  a  field  of  flax,  she  numbered 
amongst  her  people  an  infinite  multitude  of  w^eavers  of  linen ;  des- 
titute of  sheep,  she  became  the  center  of  all  woolen  manufactories; 
and  while  she  had  no  forests,  she  built  more  ships  than  all  Europe 
combined.  Her  enterprising  mariners  displayed  the  flag  of  the 
republic  from  Southern  Africa  to  the  Arctic  circle.  Amsterdam  was 
the  first  commercial  city  of  the  world,  fleets  of  merchantmen  lay 
crowded  together  at  her  docks.  liolland  gained  the  commerce  of 
Spain  by  its  maritime  force  and  secured  the  wealth  of  the  Indies  by 
trafiic. 

Years  rolled  away,  and  success  of  English  commerce  in  the  west 
awakened  the  jealousy  of  the  Dutch.  The  United  Provinces 
abounded  in  mariners,  also  in  unemployed  capital ;  America  alone 
offered  great  inducements  to  exhaust  the  energy  of  her  seafaring 

94 


COMMUXIPAW— FROM  AX  OLD  PRIXT 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AXD  EXPLORATIONS 

population  and  the  wealth  of  her  merchants.  The  States  General 
Avas  urged  to  incorporate  privileged  corporations  for  conquest 
and  commerce,  but  declined  the  adventure,  though  it  offered  no  ob- 
stacles to  private  enterprise.  The  first  efforts  of  the  Dutch  mer- 
chants to  share  in  the  commerce  of  Asia  were  accompanied  with  the 
desire  to  search  for  a  northwest  passage.  Twice  they  made  unsuc- 
cessful attempts,  but  A\ith  the  establishment  of  the  Dutch  East  India 
Company,  vrith.  unlimited  power  for  conquest,  colonization  and  gov- 
ernment, they  covered  the  seas  of  Asia  with  fleets  of  Indiamen. 

In  the  autumn  of  1608,  Henry  Hudson,  who  had  made  two  voy- 
ages for  the  Muscovy  Company  of  London,  England,  was  called  to 
Amsterdam,  and  there,  after  many  vacillating  negotiations,  was 
placed  in  command  of  the  Half-Moon,  "u-ith  a  mixed  crew  of 
eighteen  or  twenty  Englishmen  and  Hollanders.  On  the  fourth  day 
of  April,  1609,  he  left  the  Texel  and  set  sail  again  to  find  the  north- 
western passage.  Masses  of  ice  impeded  the  navigation  towards 
Kova  Zembla,  and  passing  beyond  Greenland  and  Newfoundland  he 
proceeded  down  the  coast  of  Acadia,  and  probably  anchored  at  the 
Penobscot  river.  Following  the  track  of  Gosnold,  he  sighted  the 
promontory  of  Cape  Cod,  and,  believing  he  was  its  first  discoverer, 
gave  it  the  name  of  New  Holland ;  this  was  afterwards  claimed  by 
the  Dutch  West  India  Company  as  the  northeastern  boundary  of 
New  Netherlands.  Still  steering  a  southerly  coui*se,  Hudson  found 
himself  opposite  the  entrance  into  the  bay  of  Virginia.  He  then 
turned  north,  discovered  the  Delaware  river,  and  without  going 
ashore  took  note  of  the  aspect  of  the  country.  It  was  on  the  third  of 
September,  1609,  that  the  Half-Moon  anchored  at  what  is  now 
Sandy  Hook,  after  a  week's  delay  sailed  through  the  Narrows,  and 
ten  days  were  employed  exploring  the  river.  The  Half-Moon 
proceeded  up  the  river  two  miles  above  the  present  city  of  Hudson, 
where,  taking  small  boats,  an  advance  was  made  to  a  short  distance 
beyond  the  present  site  of  Albany.  The  same  summer  Champlain, 
the  noted  French  navigator,  was  making  his  way  south  through  the 
waters  of  the  lake  bearing  his  name,  in  a  vain  search  for  an  outlet 
to  the  South  Sea ;  the  two  navigators  were  only  the  distance  of  about 
twenty  leagues  apart.  The  Half-Moon  weighed  anchor  for  the 
Texel  on  October  4, 1609 ;  she  was  seized  by  the  English  government 
November  7th  of  that  year  at  Dartmouth,  England,  and  her  crew 
detained.    Hudson  forwarded  to  his  Dutch  employers  the  account 

95 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

of  his  discoveries,  but  the  Dutch  East  India  Company  refused  to 
make  any  further  search  for  the  northwestern  passage.  Though  the 
voyage  fell  short  of  Hudson's  expectations,  it  served  many  pur- 
poses important  to  the  vrorld. 

The  right  of  possession  was  claimed  by  the  Dutch  East  India 
Company  of  the  lands  discovered  by  their  agent.  In  the  year  1611 
the  merchants  of  Amsterdam  fitted  up  a  ship  to  trafSc  with  the 
natives  in  the  discovered  country.  The  undertaking  was  a  success 
and  was  renew^ed.  Argall,  a  commander  of  the  Colony  of  Virginia, 
on  his  return  from  an  expedition  against  the  French  at  Port  Royal, 
visited  the  waters  of  what  is  now  New  York  bay.  Here  he  found 
three  or  four  rude  huts  erected  on  the  Island  of  Manhattan  for  a 
summer  shelter  for  the  few  Dutch  mariners  and  for  traders  whom 
private  enterprises  had  stationed  there.  The  Dutch  continued  their 
profitable  traffic,  even  remaining  on  Manhattan  during  the  wiiiter. 
The  first  rude  fort  was  erected  on  the  southern  extremity  of  the 
island  in  1614.  Hudson's  discovery  formed  a  wedge  betAveen  the 
English  colony  at  Jamestown,  Virginia,  and  the  later  settlement  of 
the  Pilgrim  Fathers  at  Plymouth,  Massachusetts,  which  for  a  half 
of  a  century  was  to  be  an  eyesore  to  the  covetous  English  govern- 
ment. At  this  early  day  the  government  of  the  United  Netherlands 
made  no  claim  to  the  territory.  The  tardy  progress  of  civilization 
was  due  to  several  reasons;  prominent  among  these  Avas  that  the 
independence  of  Holland  brought  with  it  no  elective  francliise  for 
the  people;  the  municipal  officers  were  either  named  by  the  stadt- 
holder  or  were  self-elected,  on  the  principle  of  close  corporations. 
The  municipal  officers  elected  delegates  to  the  provincial  states,  and 
these  in  turn  elected  representatives  to  the  States  General. 

This  soon  caused  a  division  of  parties  which  extended  to  every 
question  of  domestic  politics,  theology,  and  international  inter- 
course. The  followers  of  the  stadtholder  asserted  sovereignty  for 
the  States  General,  while  the  party  headed  by  Johan  Van  Olden 
Barneveldt,  Grand  Pensionary  of  Holland,  and  his  friend  and  co-pa- 
triot, Hugo  Grotius  (or  De  Groot),  claimed  sovereignty  exclusively 
for  the  provincial  assemblies.  The  stadtholder  favored  coloniza- 
tion of  America;  the  aristocratic  party,  fearing  the  increase  of 
executive  power,  opposed  it,  believing  it  would  lead  to  new  collisions. 
The  Gomarists,  the  party  of  the  people,  denied  personal  merit  as  a 
quality,  attributing  everv  virtue  and  capacity  to  the  benevolence  of 

96 


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14  ■  ff-:i: 


y 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

God;  the  creed  of  tlie  Arminians  or  Eemoiistrants  ascribed  power 
and  merit  to  man,  and  was  commended  by  the  aristocratic  party. 
Thus  the  Calvinists,  popular  enthusiasm,  and  the  stadtholder,  were 
arrayed  against  the  provincial  states  and  municipal  authorities. 
The  colonization  of  the  Dutch  possessions  in  New  Xetherland  there- 
fore depended  on  the  issue  of  the  struggle.  The  imprisonment  for 
life  of  Grotius  and  the  execution  of  Barneveldt  was  to  hasten  the 
permanent  settlement  of  Manhattan.  A  short  time  after  these  first 
acts  of  violence  and  triumph  over  the  intestine  commotions,  the 
scheme  of  the  Dutch  "West  India  Company  was  incorporated  by  the 
States  General,  While  the  Dutch  planted  colonies  only  under  the 
auspices  of  chartered  companies,  the  States  General  would  never 
undertake  the  defense  of  foreign  possessions.     The  Dutch  West  /i 

India  Company,  therefore,  became  the  sovereign  of  the  Dutch  pos-  ^ 

sessions  in  America.     The  company  was  incorporated  for  twenty-  |. 

four  years,  with  a  pledge  of  a  renewal  of  its  cliarter,  and  was  3 

invested  ^^'ith  the  exclusive  privilege  in  traffic  and  planting  colonies 
on  the  coast  of  Africa  from  the  Tropic  of  Cancer  to  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope;  also  on  the  coast  of  America  from  the  Straits  of  Magel-  i 

Ian  to  the  utmost  north.     The  States  General  gave  the  company  a  •, 

half  million  guilders  as  an  encouragement,  and  subscribed  for  a  half  f 

million  guilders  of  its  stock,  the  stock  subscription  book  open  to  men  r 

of  all  nations.  The  chartered  company  through  its  franchises  held 
the  power  to  act  with  independence;    the  States  General  did  not  9 

guarantee  its  possession  of  any  specific  territory,  and  in  case  of  war 
were  to  be  kno^\ii  only  as  allies  and  patrons.    The  company  might  ! 

conquer  provinces,  but  at  its  o"\\^l  risk.  England  in  its  patents  made 
the  conversion  of  the  natives  a  prominent  feature;  the  Dutch  were 
only  intent  on  promoting  trade ;  the  English  cliarters  gave  protec- 
tion to  the  political  rights  of  the  colonists  against  the  proprietors ; 
the  Dutch,  having  no  popular  liberty  at  home,  bestowed  no  thought 
on  colonial  representation;  the  company  subject  to  the  approval  of 
the  States  General  had  absolute  power  over  its  possessions. 
Branches  of  the  company  were  established  in  the  five  principal  cities 
of  Netherlands,  and  the  charge  of  Xew  Xetherland  was  given  to  the 
branch  at  Amsterdam.  The  government  of  the  Dutch  West  India 
Company  was  intrusted  to  a  board  of  nineteen  directors,  eighteen  of 
whom  were  from  the  branches,  and  one  was  named  by  the  States 
General.    The  main  object  of  the  incorporation  of  the  company  was 

97 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

not  the  colonization  of  the  territory  on  the  Hudson ;  New  Xether- 
land  was  not  even  described  in  the  charter,  nor  by  any  special  act  of 
the  States  General  at  that  time.  The  company  was  to  prosecute  its 
o^vll  plans  and  provide  for  its  own  protection.  Yet  there  were  jeal- 
ous efforts  taken  by  the  company  for  colonization,  and  the  country 
from  the  southern  shore  of  Delaware  bay  to  New  Holland  or  Cape 
Cod  became  known  as  New  Xetherland.  Around  the  new  block  house 
on  Manhattan  Island  in  1624  the  cottages  of  X"ew  Amsterdam  began 
to  cluster,  and  the  country  began  to  assume  the  form  of  a  colony. 
These  rude  beginnings  of  X^ew  Amsterdam  were  to  cast  an  influence 
over  the  surrounding  territory,  to  invade  the  outlying  contiguous 
surroundings,  and  effect  settlements  on  its  soil. 

It  was  in  1629  or  1630  that  the  council  of  the  Dutch  AVest  India 
Company  adopted  plans  for  a  more  extensive  colonization  of  X"ew 
Netherland.  They  granted  to  certain  individuals  extensive  seigni- 
ories or  tracts  of  land,  with  feudal  rights  over  the  lives  and  persons 
of  their  subjects.  These  tracts  were  granted  with  the  provision  that 
a  settlement  was  to  be  effected  within  a  specified  time,  besides  other 
conditions.  Under  these  provisions  Kiliaen  Van  Rensselaer,  a  pearl 
merchant  of  Amsterdam,  secured  a  tract  of  land  miles  in  extent, 
comprising  the  present  counties  of  Albany,  Rensselaer  and  part  of 
Columbia.  Our  wealthy  patroons  obtained  large  grants  for  similar 
seigniories  in  other  portions  of  X^ew  X^'etherland. 

The  first  Indian  deed  to  territory  along  the  west  side  of  X'ew 
York  bay  and  Hudson  river  is  dated  July  12, 1630.  It  was  for  a  pur- 
chase made  by  the  Director-General  and  Council  of  X^'ew  Xetherland 
for  Michael  Pauw,  Burgomaster  of  Amsterdam  and  Lord  of  Ach- 
tienhoven  near  Utrecht,  Holland.  The  burgomaster  also  in  the  same 
year  obtained  a  deed  for  Staten  Island.  The  purchase  on  the  Jersey 
shore  of  the  Hudson  was  named  Pavonia.  The  colony  established 
by  Pauw  was  not  a  success,  and  his  interests  were  purchased  by  the 
directors  of  the  Dutch  West  India  Company,  and  it  became  kno\\'n  as 
the  West  India  Company's  Farms. 

David  Pieterson  de  Yries,  who  had  made  two  unsuccessful  at- 
tempts to  establish  Dutch  settlements  on  the  shores  of  Delaware, 
turned  his  attention  in  1640  to  Xew  Xetherland.  He  purchased  in 
that  year  of  the  Indians  a  tract  of  about  five  hundred  acres  at  Tap- 
pan,  on  the  Achter  Kull  shore  of  the  Hudson,  and  gave  it  the  name 
of  "Vriesendael."    Located  along  the  river  side,  sheltered  by  high 

98 


"- '  i*  •  *''  'f^^S-?*6'in^f''''' 


K,:.kri 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

hills,  a  stream  wended^  its  ^vav  through  the  center,  supplyin;^'  mill 
sites.  It  had  all  the  charms  of  nature,  and  with  the  erection  of  build- 
ings became  an  ideal  home  where  the  energetic  o\\mer  lived  for  sev- 
eral years.  Settlements  were  also  made  at  Communipaw,  Hoboken, 
Ahasimus,  Paulius  Hoeck;  and  throughout  the  territory  were  indi- 
vidual settlements,  many  of  which  were,  however,  destroyed  in  the 
Indian  AVar  of  164:4. 

The  policy  of  the  Dutch  government  was  to  encourage  the  settle- 
ment of  colonies  or  manors  similar  to  lordships  and  seigniories  of 
the  Old  World  by  men  of  large  fortunes,  to  be  kno\\ni  as  patroons, 
to  whom  peculiar  privileges  of  trade  and  government  were  accorded. 
These  tracts  were  sixteeen  miles  in  extent  along  the  seashore  or 
banks  of  some  navigable  river,  or  eight  miles  when  both  banks  were 
occupied,  ^\^th  an  indefinite  extent  inland,  the  company,  however, 
reserving  the  island  of  Manhattan  and  the  fur  trade  with  the 
Indians.  These  patroons  were  within  four  years  from  the  granting 
of  the  tract  to  settle  them  with  fifty  persons  upwards  of  fifteen  years 
of  age,  and  upon  all  trade  carried  on  by  them  were  to  pay  five  per 
cent,  to  the  company.  They  w^ere  also  to  extinguish  the  Indian  titles 
to  the  land;  their  tenants  were  not  to  acquire  a  free  tenure  to  the 
lands,  and  were  prohibited  from  making  any  woolen,  linen  or  cotton 
cloth  or  to  weave  any  other  material  under  a  penalty  of  banishment. 
This  restriction  was  to  keep  them  dependent  on  the  mother  country 
for  the  most  necessary  manufactured  goods,  which  was  in  spirit  with 
the  colonial  system  adopted  by  all  the  nations  of  Europe.  This 
scheme  of  colonization  met  with  favor,  and  several  members  of  the 
Dutch  West  India  Company  elected  and  purchased  the  most  desir- 
able tracts  both  on  the  Xorth  and  South  rivers,  as  well  as  the  vrhole 
neck  opposite  New  Amsterdam  as  far  as  the  Kills,  together  vAih 
Staten  Island. 

The  colonization  of  New  Jersey  was  deferred  by  the  ravages  of 
the  Indians,  which  was  a  check  to  making  any  permanent  settlement. 
Treaties,  however,  were  consummated  with  them,  and  the  territory 
repurchased  by  Governor  Stu>"\^esant,  with  the  intention  of  erecting 
a  fortified  town.  There  had,  however,  been  no  village  located  prior 
to  1660,  but  in  the  month  of  August  of  that  year  the  right  to  estab- 
lish a  village  in  Achter  KuU  was  granted  to  several  inhabitants.  It 
was  named  Bergen,  from  a  small  village  in  Holland,  eighteen  miles 
north  of  A.ntwerp.    The  village,  located  on  a  hill  now  called  Jersey 

99 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

City  Heights,  grew  rapidly,  and  in  May,  1661,  there  was  not  a  vacant 
lot  inside  of  the  fortiiications.  This  was  the  first  permanent  settle- 
ment on  the  soil  of  Xew  Jersey.  At  the  time  of  the  dismemberment 
of  New  Xetherland  by  the  English  in  East  Jersey,  outside  of  the 
settlement  at  Bergen,  savages  roamed  at  will,  undisturbed  by  the 
white  man.  In  Smith's  "History  of  New  Jersey,"  he  says  that  a 
score  of  years  later,  on  the  side  of  Overpeck  creek  adjacent  to  Hack- 
ensack  river,  the  rich  valleys  were  settled  by  the  Dutch ;  and  near 
Snakehill  was  a  fine  plantation  owned  by  Pinhorn  and  Eickbe.  There 
were  other  settlements  on  Hackensack  river,  and  on  a  creek  near  it 
Sarah  Kiersted  had  a  tract  given  her  by  an  old  Indian  sachem  for 
services  interpreting  between  tlie  Indians  and  Dutch ;  on  this  tract 
several  families  were  settled;  two  or  three  miles  above  this  point 
John  Berrie  had  a  large  plantation,  and  nearby  was  his  son-in-law 
Smith  and  a  person  by  name  of  Baker,  from  Barbadoes.  Opposite 
to  Berrie,  on  the  west  side  of  the  creek,  were  other  plantations,  but 
none  more  northerly.  There  was  a  considerable  settlement  in  Ber- 
gen Point,  then  called  Constable  Hook.  Other  small  plantations 
were  improved  along  Bergen  Neck  to  the  east  between  the  point, 
and  a  little  village  of  twenty  families.  Further  along  lived  sixteen 
or  eighteen  families,  and  opposite  New  York  about  forty  families 
were  seated;  southward  from  this  a  few  families  were  settled  to- 
gether at  a  place  called  the  Duke's  Farm,  and  further  up  the  country 
was  a  place  called  Hobuck,  where  there  was  a  mill.  Along  the  river 
side  on  the  north  were  lands  settled  by  William  Lawrence,  Samuel 
Edsal,  and  Captain  Beinfield.  The  plantations  on  both  sides  of  the 
Neck,  also  those  at  Hackensack,  were  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Ber- 
gento^^^l,  which  contained  upwards  of  seventy  families. 

The  emigrants  from  Holland  were  of  various  lineage,  for  that 
country  had  long  been  the  gathering  place  of  the  unfortunate.  Ref- 
ugees from  persecution  flocked  to  her  boundaries  from  England  and 
Continental  Europe.  She  housed  from  the  heart  of  Bohemia  those 
who  were  swayed  by  the  voice  of  Hus,  the  Separatists  from  Eng- 
land, the  Huguenots  from  France,  the  Protestants  from  the  Eefor- 
mation,  the  Walloons  from  Belgium — all  came  to  her  hospitable  soil, 
and  from  there  emigrated  to  the  New  Eldorado  in  the  Western  Con- 
tinent. 

The  Dutch  settlers  were  reluctant  to  make  acquaintances  with 
strangers,  lest  they  should  be  imposed  upon,  but  when  a  friend- 

100 


EARLY  DISCOVERIES  AND  EXPLORATIONS 

ship  was  formed  it  proved  lasting.  They  were  clanish  in  their  rela- 
tions to  each  other.  "When  one  of  the  community  was  wrongly  in- 
volved or  m  trouble,  especially  in  litigation,  they  were  as  one  man. 
At  the  time  of  the  subjection  of  New  Xetherland  by  the  Eng- 
lish the  Dutch  colonists  were  satisfied,  a  very  few  embarked  for  Hol- 
land, it  seemed  rather  that  English  liberties  were  to  add  to  the 
security  of  their  property.  The  capitulation  of  the  Dutch  and 
Swedes  early  in  October,  1664,  placed  the  Atlantic  seacoast  of  the 
thirteen  original  colonies  in  possession  of  England.  The  country 
had  become  a  geographical  unity. 


lOI 


Marquette's  Monsters 

By  Jacob  P.  Duxx,  Secretaey  of  Ixdiaxa  Historical  Society, 

IXDIAXAPOLIS,  IXDL\XA 

ITHOUT  ANY  imputation  of  either  superstition  or  timid- 
ity to  Father  ^Marquette,  it  is  safe  to  say  that  when  he 
ct:,  made  his  celebrated  first  voyage  down  tiie  Mississippi 
he  was  prepared  to  see  things  that  might  arouse  his 
' '  special  wonder. ' '  The  Menominees  had  tried  to  dissuade  him  from 
the  venture,  assuring  him  that  he  would  encounter  '^Nations  who 
never  show  mercy  to  Strangers,  but  Break  Their  heads  \\i.thout  any 
cause ; ' '  and  further :  ' '  They  also  said  that  the  great  River  was  very 
dangerous,  when  one  does  not  know  the  difficult  Places ;  that  it  was 
full  of  horrible  monsters,  which  devoured  men  and  Canoes  To- 
gether; that  there  was  even  a  demon,  who  was  heard  from  a  great 
distance,  who  barred  the  way,  and  swallowed  up  all  who  ventured  to 
approach  him. ' ' 

Marquette  tells  us:  ''I  thanked  them  for  the  good  advice  that 
they  gave  me,  but  told  them  that  I  could  not  follow  it,  because  the 
salvation  of  souls  was  at  stake,  for  which  I  would  be  delighted  to 
give  my  life;  that  I  scoffed  at  the  alleged  demon;  that  we  would 
easily  defend  ourselves  against  those  marine  monsters ;  and,  more- 
over, that  We  would  be  on  our  guard  to  avoid  the  other  dangers 
with  which  they  threatened  us."  Nevertheless  he  was  on  the  look- 
out, for  he  says :  ''On  another  occasion,  we  saw  on  The  water  a  mon- 
ster with  the  head  of  a  tiger,  a  sharp  rose  Like  That  of  a  wildcat, 
with  whiskers  and  straight.  Erect  ears;  The  head  was  gray  and  The 
Neck  quite  black ;  but  AVe  saw  no  more  creatures  of  this  sort." 

This  Avas  quite  natural  from  any  standpoint.  He  was  encoun- 
tering new  and  strange  forms  of  animal  life  every  day,  and  had 
scientific  basis  for  even  greater  wonders,  for  Champlain  had  not 
only  included  ''the  dragon"  in  the  fauna  of  the  country,  but  had  giv- 
en an  authentic  picture  of  it.  True,  this  was  a  rather  amiable  look- 
ing dragon,  but  dragons  are  dragons.  Moreover,  the  world  had  not 
outgroAA-n  belief  in  the  supernatural  in  earthly  alfairs.     Marquette 

;     1  102 


MARQUETTE'S  MONSTERS 

was  contemporary  ^vitll  Cotton  Mather;  and  he  wrote  nearly  a  cen- 
tury before  Sir  "William  Blackstone  defended  the  British  laws 
against  wilehcraft.  The  Bible  gave  assurance  tliat  Satan  and  his 
imps  could  take  terrifying  forms,  and  while  the  righteous  had  ample 
spiritual  protection  against  these  evil  ones,  it  was  merely  an  applica- 
tion of  ''safety  first"  to  be  ready  with  exorcism  if  they  appeared. 

When  Marquette  reached  the  vicinity  of  Alton,  Illinois,  he  re- 
corded : 

"AVhile  Skirting  some  rocks,  which  by  Their  height  and  Length 
inspired  awe,  We  saw  upon  one  of  them  two  painted  monsters  which 
at  iirst  made  Us  afraid,  and  upon  Which  the  boldest  savages  dare  not 
Long  rest  their  eyes.  They  are  as  large  As  a  calf;  they  have  Horns 
on  their  heads  Like  those  of  deer,  a  horrible  look,  red  eyes,  a  beard 
Like  a  tiger's,  a  face  somewhat  like  a  man's,  a  body  Covered  with 
scales,  and  so  Long  A  tail  that  it  winds  all  around  the  Body,  passing 
above  the  head  and  going  back  between  the  legs,  ending  in  a  Fish's 
tail.  Green,  red,  and  black  are  the  three  Colors  composing  the  Pic- 
ture. Moreover,  these  2  monsters  are  so  well  painted  that  we  cannot 
believe  that  any  savage  is  their  author;  for  good  painters  in  f ranee 
would  find  it  difficult  to  paint  so  well, — and,  besides,  they  are  so  high 
up  on  the  rock  that  it  is  difficult  to  reach  that  place  Conveniently  to 
paint  them.  Llere  is  approximately  The  shape  of  these  monsters, 
As  we  have  faithfully  Copied  it.  [A  sketch  accompanied  this  nar- 
rative.— Editor.] 

"While  conversing  about  these  monsters,  sailing  quietly  in 
clear  and  calm  Water,  we  heard  the  noise  of  a  rapid,  into  which  we 
were  about  to  run.  I  have  seen  nothing  more  dreadful.  An  accumu- 
lation "of  large  and  entire  trees,  liranches,  and  floating  islands,  was 
issuing  from  the  mouth  of  The  river  pekistanoui  (^Missouri)  with 
such  impetuosity  that  we  could  not  without  great  danger  risk  pass- 
ing through  it.  So  great  was  the  agitation  that  the  water  was  very 
muddy,  and  could  not  become  clear." 

This  description  put  subsequent  travelers  on  the  qui  vive,  but 
none  of  them  was  so  much  impressed  as  Marquette.  Father  Henne- 
pin, who  passed  the  place  in  the  spring  of  1680,  says  he  had  been  told 
by  the  Illinois  that  at  this  point  "there  were  some  Tritons  and  other 
Sea  Monsters  painted  Avhich  the  boldest  men  durst  not  look  upon, 
there  being  some  Lichantment  in  their  face."  But,  he  adds:  "I 
thought  this  was  a  story;  but  when  we  came  near  the  place  they  had 
mentioned  we  saw  instead  of  these  monsters  a  Horse  and  some  other 
Beasts  painted  upon  the  rock  with  Red  Colors  by  the  Savages.  The 
Illinois  had  told  us  likewise  that  the  rock  on  which  these  dreadful 

103 


MARQUETTE'S  MONSTERS 

monsters  stood  \vas  so  steep  that  no  man  could  climb  np  to  it,  but 
had  we  not  been  afraid  of  the  savages  more  than  of  the  Monsters  we 
had  certainly  got  up  to  them." 

On  September  2,  1687,  Father  Douay  and  Henri  Joutel  reached 
the  rock  on  their  way  home  from  the  fatal  expedition  of  LaSalle. 
Father  Douay  wrote:  "It  is  said  that  they  (Marquette's  party)  saw 
painted  monsters  that  the  boldest  would  have  difficulty  to  look  at, 
and  that  there  was  something  supernatural  about  them.  The  fright- 
ful monster  is  a  horse  painted  on  a  rock  with  matachia  (obsolete 
word,  supposed  to  be  of  Indian  origin,  signifying  colors,  and  used 
specifically  for  strings  of  colored  beads;  cf.  Old  French  niafacher, 
**to  tattoo,"  and  matacli'in,  a  masked  jester  dancer),  and  some  other 
wild  beasts  made  by  the  Indians.  It  is  said  that  they  cannot  be 
reached,  and  yet  I  touched  them  ^^^thout  difficulty." 

Joutel  was  even  more  scornful,  saying:  "The  2nd  we  arrived  at 
the  place  where  the  figure  is  of  the  pretended  monster  spoken  of  by 
Father  Marquet.  That  monster  consists  of  two  scurvy  figures 
dra^\m  in  red,  on  the  flat  side  of  a  rock,  about  ten  or  twelve  feet  high, 
which  wants  very  much  of  the  extraordinary  height  that  relation 
mentions.  However,  our  Indians  paid  homage  by  offering  sacrifice 
to  that  stone ;  though  we  endeavored  to  give  them  to  understand  that 
the  said  rock  had  no  manner  of  virtue,  and  that  we  worshipped 
something  above  it,  pointing  up  to  heaven;  but  it  was  to  no  purpose, 
and  they  made  signs  to  us  that  they  should  die  if  they  did  not  per- 
form that  duty. ' ' 

Both  Hennepin  and  Douay  speak  of  the  Indians  offering  sacri- 
fices, and  say  they  had  a  legend  that  a  number  of  Miamis,  pursued 
by  Michigamia  enemies,  were  drowned  at  this  place,  and  that  there- 
after the  Indians  made  these  sacrifices  to  appease  the  Manito.  After 
the  American  occupation,  this  legend  was  improved  on  by  having 
the  Miamis  devoured  by  the  monsters ;  and  a  new  and  more  romantic 
legend  was  concocted  in  which  the  monster  was  slain.  In  this  period, 
however,  was  recorded  the  significant  fact  that  passing  Indians  used 
to  fire  their  guns  at  the  picture  and  shout  at  it. 

In  recent  years  there  has  been  a  somewhat  amusing  revival  of 
interest  in  the  subject  on  a  quasi  scientific  basis,  which  grows  out 
of  the  researches  of  William  McAdams.  He  was  a  farmer  who  re- 
sided in  the  vicinity,  and  became  interested  in  antiquities,  and  read 
a  paper  on  this  pictograph  at  the  Ann  Arbor  meeting  of  the  Ameri- 

104 


MARQUETTE'S  MONSTERS 

can  Academy  of  Sciences,  in  18S5.  The  paper  was  not  printed  in  the 
Proceedings,  it  being  announced  that  it  would  appear  in  the  **  Amer- 
ican Antiquarian";  however,  it  did  not  appear  in  ''The  Antiqua- 
rian," and  in  1SS7  McAdams  published  a  book  on  the  subject,  with  a 
voluminous  title  oeginning,  ''Records  of  Ancient  Races  in  tlie  Mis- 
sissippi A^alley."  It  is  rather  interesting,  but  so  indefmite  that  it  is 
almost  impossible  to  verify  his  authorities. 

McAdams  gives  the  later  legend  of  the  destruction  of  the  mon- 
ster, which  he  calls  "the  Piasa  Bird,"  and  states  that  he  got  it  from 
a  magazine  article  by  Professor  John  Russell.  It  avers  that  the 
Manito  came  to  death  through  the  wiles  of  Ouatogo,  "the  great  chief 
of  the  mini,"  (strange  that  he  is  not  mentioned  by  any  of  the  early 
French  chroniclers),  who  exposed  himself  as  a  lure  to  the  Piasa, 
which  was  killed  by  poisoned  arrows  from  his  concealed  warriors. 
In  his  "Early  Settlement  of  the  Mississippi  Valley,"  published  in 
1890,  F.  A.  Rozier  gives  the  same  legend,  stating  that  he  got  it  from 
"Sketches  of  St.  Louis,"  by  Rev.  W.  H.  Hill,  and  that  Hill  had  it 
from  Father  DeSmet,  who  said  he  had  it  from  a  Potawatomi  chief 
in  1838.  McAdam  says  he  wrote  to  Russell  about  the  legend,  and 
that  Russell  replied  that  there  was  a  "somewhat  similar  tradition 
among  the  Indians,"  and  that  his  own  story  was  "somewhat  illus- 
trated." 

The  one  thing  certain  is,  that  no  legend  of  a  Manito  being  killed 
by  poisoned  arrows  and  having  sacrifices  made  to  it  to  appease  its 
wrath  after  it  was  extinct,  ever  came  from  an  Indian.  ]\IcAdam 
identifies  the  monster  with  "the  Thunder  Bird,"  and  has  been  fol- 
lowed in  this  by  several  later  writers.  One  of  the  latest  presenta- 
tions of  the  subject,  with  its  accumulations  of  the  last  century — 
"Piasa,"  "Thunder  Bird,"  "Ouatogo,"  and  all — was  in  "Art  and 
Archaeology"  for  September,  1922,  and  this  was  noticed  at  length 
in  the  "Literary  Digest"  of  October  7th. 

The  recent  discussion  indicates  a  woful  ignorance  of  Indian 
mythology,  and  any  intelligent  inquiry  into  it  requires  first  the 
identification  of  the  words.  Xotwithstanding  the  statement  of  Mc- 
Adams that  "Piasa"  is  "Indian,  and  signifies,  in  the  Illini,  'The 
bird  which  devours  men,'  "  there  is  no  such  word  in  the  Illinois  or 
Peoria  language;  and,  if  there  were,  it  would  not  have  that  mean- 
ing. It  has  been  corrupted  in  American  usage,  and  is  now  in  its  sec- 
ond stage  of  metamorphosis.    In  the  Executive  Journal  of  Indiana 

105 


MARQUETTE'S  ^lONSTERS 

Territory  is  an  entry:  "January  1st,  1S07.  A  Lisconce  was  granted 
to  Eli  Langford  to  keep  a  ferry  on  the  east  side  of  the  ^Mississippi  in 
St.  Clair  County  above  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  and  two  miles 
from  Pyesaw  Rock."    (Ind.  Hist.  Soc.  Pubs.,  Vol.  3,  p.  138). 

In  his  ''Sketches  of  T.ouisiana,"  published  in  1812,  Amos  Stod- 
dard says  that  this  pictograph,  "kno^\^l  to  the  moderns  by  the  name 
of  Piesa,  still  remains  in  a  good  state  of  preservation."  McAdam 
says  the  word  is  given  ''Piasau"  in  Patterson's  **Life  of  Black- 
hawk,"  as  the  name  of  Blackhawk's  father.  In  reality  the  name  is 
there  given  "Pyesa."  It  is  not  uncommon  as  a  proper  name,  its  earli- 
est recorded  use  in  that  way,  to  my  knowledge,  is  as  the  name  of  a 
Kaskaskia  friend  of  LaSalle,  (Mason's  "Chapters  from  Illinois 
History,"  p.  118),  when  the  French  chronicler  made  it  "Paessa." 
The  proper  Indian  form  is  Pa-i-sa  (pronounced  pah-ee-sah),  and 
the  change  from  that  to  the  early  American  fonn  is  quite  slight,  as 
anyone  may  see  by  pronouncing  the  two. 

If  you  should  ask  a  Miami  or  Ojibwa  Indian  what  a  Paisa  is,  he 
\vould  probably  answer  that  it  is  a  dwarf;  but  patience  and  perse- 
verance would  probably  elicit  the  information  that  it  is  a  little  man, 
with  supernatural  powers,  corresponding  exactly  vdth  the  elves  and 
gnomes  of  the  old  world.  These  Paisas  (the  Indian  plural  is  Pa-i- 
sa-ki)  although  somewhat  mischievous,  are  not  unfriendly  to  men 
unless  annoyed  in  some  way.  On  the  contrary,  two  of  them  come  to 
guide  the  spirit  of  a  dead  Indian  to  the  happy  hunting  grounds. 
Father  Le  Mercier  gives  an  interesting  account  of  the  Indians  get- 
ting fliiits  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Champlain,  which  they  believe  to  be 
furnished  by  these  "little  men."  As  the  point  could  easily  be  identi- 
fied, some  enterprising  geologist  might  find  in  this  submerged  flint 
w^orkshop  a  clue  to  the  age  of  man  in  America,  (Jesuit  Relations, 
Vol.  51,  pp.  182-3). 

But  the  Paisaki  have  nothing  to  do  with  the  monster,  unless  per- 
haps the  Indians  thought  they  had  put  up  the  picture  as  a  warning 
of  a  dangerous  place  in  the  river.  If  you  should  give  its  description 
to  a  Miami  Indian,  just  as  given  by  Marquette,  he  would  tell  you  it 
was  Len-ni-pin-ja,  while  an  Ojibwa  would  tell  you  it  was  Mi-ci-bi-si 
(Michybichy),  which  is  the  same  thing  under  another  name,  to  vdt, 
the  Manito  of  the  Waters.  Micibisi  is  the  ordinary  word  for  a  pan- 
ther, but  in  this  usage  it  means  the  Spirit  Panther  (literally  the  big 
cat) ;  and  Lennipinja  is  literally  the  ■Man  Panther,  or  as  one  of  the 
French  chroniclers  makes  it,  VHomme  Tyger. 

io6 


MARQUETT&'S  MONSTERS         •KS 

Primarily  it  rules  the  waters,  living  usually  in  deep  and  danger-  ■'• 

ous-looking  places,  especially  whore  the  water  boils  up,  which  is 
sui)posed  to  be  due  to  the  waving  of  its  tail.  If  one  were  to  look  up 
the  references  to  it  in  the  index  to  the  Jesuit  Relations,  he  would  find 
evidence  of  tiie  missionaries  being  grieved  by  the  persistence  of  the 
Indians  in  offering  tobacco  to  it  (all  intelligent  manitos  appreciate 
tobacco),  whenever  they  wanted  good  fishing,  or  thought  they  were 
in  danger  on  the  water.  But  it  has  another  important  function.  It 
corresponds  to  the  Fire  Dragon  of  old  world  myths ;  and  when  the 
old  Miamis  see  a  meteor  crossing  the  sky,  they  say  it  is  Lennipinja  (l-'n. 
going  from  one  water  to  another. 

This  was  a  general  belief  and  this  Manito  furnishes  to  one  of        '^'i' 
the  Shawnee  clans  the  name  of  "Manetuwi  Msi-pessi,  of  which  it  is 
said:    *'The  Msi-pessi,  when  the  epithet  miraculous  (manetuwi)  is 
added  to  it,  means  a  'celestial  tiger',  i.  e.  a  meteor  or  shooting  star. 
The  Manetuwi  Msi-pessi  lives  in  water  only,  and  is  visible  not  as  an  ! 

animal,  but  as  a  shooting  star."  (Report  of  Bureau  of  Ethnology,  'i  *  • 
1892-3,  p.  6S2).  The  celebrated  Shawnee  chief  Tecumtha  belonged  to 
this  clan,  which  is  the  cause  of  the  variant  translations  of  his  name. 
The  word  Tecumtha,  of  itself,  means  ''he  goes  across,"  or  "crosses 
over;"  but,  in  connection  with  the  clan  name,  it  means  "the  Spirit 
Panther  going  across,"  or,  in  other  words,  a  meteor. 

The  recorded  custom  of  the  Indians  firing  guns  at  the  picto-  '    • 

graph,  and  shouting  at  it,  was  the  product  of  ancient  experience.  In 
the  course  of  its  aviation  this  Manito  occasionally  came  into  the  vi- 
cinity of  the  moon  or  sun,  and  undertook  to  devour  them,  thereb}' 
producing  eclipses.  LePotherie  recounts  being  attracted  by  the 
Indians  beating  drums,  shouting,  and  shooting  arrows  at  the  moon, 
during  an  eclipse,  and  receiving  this  explanation  from  a  chief:  "Our 
old  men  have  taught  us  that  when  the  moon  is  sick  it  is  necessary  to 
assist  her  by  discharging  arrows  and  making  a  great  deal  of  noise, 
in  order  to  cause  terror  in  the  spirits  who  are  trying  to  cause  her  ' 

death;  then  she  regains  her  strength,  and  returns  to  her  former  con- 
dition. If  men  did  not  aid  her  she  would  die,  and  we  would  no  long- 
er see  clearly  at  night;  and  thus  we  could  no  longer  separate  the 
twelve  months  of  the  vear."  (Blair's  "Indian  Tribes,"  Vol.  2,  p. 
121). 

A  striking  application  of  this  astronomical  theory  was  made  by 
Father  Lafitau,  who  was  deeply  versed  in  ancient  lore,  and  published 

107 


MARQUETTE'S  MONSTERS 

a  book  entitled  ''Moeurs  des  Sauvages  Ameriqiiains,"  devoted  to  a 
comparison  of  their  views  with  ancient  ideas  of  the  old  world.  He 
found  in  this  Indian  explanation  of  eclipses  a  counterpart  of  the  vi- 
sion of  the  dragon  and  the  man-child,  in  the  twelfth  chapter  of  the 
Book  of  Eevelation.  He  had  this  illustrated  in  a  cut  in  which  the 
uppei-part  showed  the  Indians  frightening  away  the  dragon,  who 
was  preparing  to  devour  the  moon;  and  the  lower  part  depicting 
John's  vision.  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  early  missionaries  went  to 
some  lengths  to  bring  Bible  teachings  in  touch  with  savage  traditions 
— a  practice  Avhich  has  been  found  very  advantageous  i]i  modern 
missionary  work. 

The  uniform  success  of  this  remedy  fixed  the  conmion  faith  that 
spirits  may  be  driven  away  by  noise  and  carnal  weapons ;  and  to  this 
day  Indians  who  are  troubled  by  spooks,  resort  to  it.  If  it  is  a  ter- 
rifying noise,  they  shoot  at  the  noise ;  but  in  a  case  of  that  kind  the 
Miami  custom  is  to  rub  the  gun  barrel  ^^ith  a  plant  which  they  call 
''black  root," — I  think  it  is  Rudhechia  liirta,  but  am  not  certain.  The 
object  of  firing  at  the  pictograph  Avas  to  scare  away  the  Manito, 
which  was  somewhere  in  the  neighborhood.  This  was  not  incon- 
sistent with  the  offering  of  tobacco,  for  the  Indian  has  two  forms  of 
defense  against  supernaturals,  sacrifice  and  terrorism;  and,  if  the 
case  is  serious,  he  takes  no  chances,  but  uses  both  precautions. 

The  later  Indians  add  little  of  detail  concerning  this  Manito. 
George  Finley  (Piankeshaw)  informed  me  that  one  of  its  horns  is 
white  and  the  other  blue.  Gabriel  Godfroy  (Miami)  said  that  it 
stayed  in  the  water  to  avoid  setting  the  world  on  fire;  but  Finley 
said  the  reason  for  submerging  was  to  escape  danger  from  Tcing- 
Avia,  ''The  Thunder,"  who  is  its  enemy.  Thunder  is  personified  as  a 
sort  of  American  Thor;  but  lightning  is  regarded  as  the  manifesta- 
tion of  his  blows.  Consequently  the  Miamis  never  speak  of  anything 
being  struck  by  lightning,  but  always  as  "struck  by  Thunder."  They 
have  legends  both  of  the  water  Manito 's  dangerous  character,  and 
of  its  friendship  to  some  individuals,  for  no  Manito  is  either  wholly 
beneficent  or  hopelessly  evil.  The  Manitos  are  beings  of  super- 
natural powers,  but  with  very  human  qualities. 

It  is  doubtful  if  any  accurate  reproduction  of  the  Marquette 
pictograph  is  in  existence,  although  there  are  some  purporting  to 
be,  which  are  of  widely  divergent  appearance.  Parkman  searched 
for  the  copy  made  by  Marquette,  and  reported  it  lost.     McAdams 

io8 


MARQUETTE'S  MONSTERS 

presented  two  copies,  one  marked:  "Made  by  Wm.  Dennis,  April 
od,  1S25."  This  lias  been  elaborated  into  the  conventional  form 
now  in  use  (Journal  of  Illinois  State  Hist.  Soc,  Vol.  7,  p.  82),  and 
corresponds  more  closely  with  the  description  given  l)y  ^Marquette 
and  by  the  Indians  than  any  other.  The  other  is  from  a  German 
publication,  "Das  Illustrirte  Mississippithal";  and  he  says  it  was 
"taken  on  the  spot  by  artists  from  Germany"  and  "published  about 
the  year  1839."  This  work,  however,  is  listed  by  Sabin  (under  title 
Lewis,  H.),  as  a  translation  of  an  English  edition  printed  at  Phila- 
delphia in  1858.  It  seems  to  correspond  more  closely  with  Joutel's 
idea.  Le^\'is  is  called  in  the  title  of  the  book  "a  landscape  painter 
of  St.  Louis." 

Later  artists  have  attempted  to  improve  the  monster  by  wrap- 
2)ing  his  tail  around  his  body  two  or  tliree  times,  and  some  criminals 
have  even  represented  Marquette  as  saying  of  the  tail:  "It  twice 
makes  a  turn  of  the  body."  The  exact  words  of  Marquette  are :  "It 
makes  a  complete  circuit  of  the  body,  passing  over  the  head  and  re- 
turning between  the  legs,  ending  in  the  tail  of  a  fish;" — "Le  queue 
si  Longue  qu'eUe  fait  tout  le  tour  du  Corps  passant  par  dessus  la 
teste  et  retournant  entre  les  jambes  elle  se  termine  en  queue  de 
Poisson."  Eozier,  who  claims  to  have  seen  the  pictograph  in  1837, 
gives  a  picture  of  the  rock  which  is  quite  impossible;  but  it  is  in 
harmony  with  Marquette's  statement  as  to  inaccessibility.  Eozier 
also  states  that  the  figure  was  "on  the  bluffs  about  twenty  feet  below 
the  top  of  the  cliff,  and  about  sixty  feet  above  its  base." 

The  chief  objections  to  the  conventional  form  are  that  it  is  too 
finished  and  too  Oriental  in  type  for  Indian  pictography.  But  that 
is  not  very  material,  as  there  is  no  more  possibility  of  having  an  ac- 
curate portrait  of  an  Indian  Manito  than  of  having  one  of  Venus,  or 
the  angel  Gabriel.  The  pictograph  on  the  rock  was  some  Indian  ar- 
tist's ideal  of  the  ]\Ianito  of  tribal  tradition,  and,  by  the  usages  of 
art,  other  artists  are  not  only  at  liberty  to  present  their  ideals,  but 
are  under  spiritual  compulsion  to  express  their  o\x\\  souls  in  the 
work.  The  Manito  may  have  a  reserved  right  to  complain  that  the 
portrait  does  not  do  him  justice,  but  it  may  be  doubted  that  this  right 
extends  to  persons  who  never  saw  him. 


109 


Pierson  and  Allied  Families 

By  Clyde  F.  Eyax,  Los  Axgeles,  Califorxl\ 

^^^J;  HE  name  Pierson  is  derived  tliroiigli  the  French ''Pierre" 
|:|fl;M^)n  and  farther  back  from  the  Danish  "Peterson."  In  Eng- 
^^^  i  Lf*-|>|j  h^jid  it  was  nsed  early  in  the  fifteenth  century  in  York- 
l^y^j^il  shire,  and  throughout  its  history  its  spelling  has  been 
varied,  Pierson,  Pearson,  Person,  Peirson,  and  even  Par- 
sons. 

The  coat-of-arms  of  the  family  is  as  follows: 

Arms — Sable,  three  suns  in  pale  or,  between  two  pallets  erminois. 

The  founder  of  the  line  of  interest  here  was  Henry  Pierson,  who 
came  from  England,  eventually  becoming  a  leading  settler  of  South- 
ampton, Long  Island,  probably  coming  to  that  place  from  Lynn, 
Massachusetts,  as  did  Rev.  Abraham  Pierson,  who  was  in  all  likeli- 
hood his  brother.  Rev.  Abraham  Pierson  removed  to  Newark,  Xew 
Jersey,  but  Henry  Pierson  remained  in  Southampton  and  was  clerk 
of  Suffolk  county  from  1GG9  to  1680,  his  death  occurring  in  1680  or 
1681.  He  married  and  had  issue :  John ;  Daniel ;  Joseph ;  Henry, 
of  whom  further;  Benjamin,  died  in  1731,  removed  to  Elizabeth, 
New  Jersev;  Theodore,  born  in  1659,  died  May  7,  1726;  Sarah,  born 
January  20,  1660. 

Henry  (2)  Pierson,  son  of  Henry  (1)  Pierson,  was  born  in  1652, 
and  died  November  15,  1701.  He  was  one  of  the  early  settlers  of 
Bridgehampton,  Long  Island,  member  of  the  Assembly  from  Suffolk 
county,  1691  to  1695,"and  from  1698  to  1701,  and  was  called  ''Colo- 
nel." He  married  Susannah  Howell,  who  died  in  1716.  Issue:  1. 
John,  born  in  November,  1685,  died  January  15,  1701:.     2.  David, 

married  Esther ,  who  died  in  1711,  aged  twenty-seven  years.    3. 

Theophilus.    4.  Abraham.    5.  Josiah. 

Three  brothers,  David,  William  and  Sylvanus  Pierson,  came 
from  Bridgehampton,  Long  Island,  and  settled  in  AVestiield  to^\'^l- 
ship,  New  "jersey.  A  David  Pierson  served  in  the  Revolution,  also 
William  and  Sylvanus.  David  Pierson,  grandfather  of  Oliver 
Mooney  Pierson,  was  first  a  tailor,  and  with'  his  brothers  bought 
large  tracts  of  land  in  Westfield  township.  Issue:  1.  Susannah, 
married,  in  1797,  Jam.es  AVade.  2.  John,  who  served  in  the  War  of 
1812  as  a  captain.    3.  Theophilus.  of  whom  further. 

Theophilus  Pierson,  son  of  David  Pierson,  was  born  in  West- 
field,  New  Jersey,  August  9,  1791,  and  there  his  early  life  was 

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PIERSON  AND  ALLIED  FAMILIES 

passed.  He  decided  upon  the  acqiiisitioii  of  a  trade,  and  on  moving 
to  Xew  York  City  became  a  mason,  later  spending  some  time  in 
Savannah,  Georgia.  On  coming  to  Westfield  lie  bought  a  large 
farm,  his  property  extending  from  what  is  now  Central  avenue  to 
West  Broad  street,  the  house  having  been  built  in  ISOl.  lie  later 
bought  a  tract  of  land  that  extended  ^o  the  Ilettlield  place,  but  after 
working  both  farms  for  some  years  he  sold  them  and  lived  at  his 
Broad  street  house  for  one  year,  working  at  his  trade  of  mason. 
Later  he  was  obliged  to  resume  ownershipof  the  old  place. 

He  married  (first)  Xancy  Mooney,  of  Cranford,  New  Jorsev, 
who  died  April  1,  1S21;  (second)  Fanny  Clark,  of  Westtield,  Xew 
Jersey,  who  died  April  23,  1S41 ;  (third)  Abigail  Counet.  Issue  bv 
first  wife:  Oliver  Mooney,  of  whom  further,  "issue  by  second  \viie: 
Hetty  C,  Jonas,  Edwin  H.,  Eliza,  John,  Homer  C,  George  H.,  Theo- 
philus  S. 

Oliver  Mooney  Pierson,  son  of  Theophilus  and  X^ancv  (Moonev) 
Pierson,  was  born  in  X\^w  York  City,  December  20,  1S20,  but  the 
family  removed  to  Yv^estfield,  Xew  Jersey,  when  he  was  but  three 
nionths  old,  on  account  of  the  healtli  of  the  mother,  who  subsequently 
died  tliere.  Oliver  M.  Pierson  inherited  a  part  of  the  home  farm, 
including  the  residence.  He  later  bought  the  remainder  of  the 
l^roperty,  and  a  number  of  years  afterward  sold  that  part  which 
faced  Central  avenue,  and  upon  which  many  beautiful  houses  have 
since  been  erected.  Throughout  his  lifetime  he  was  broadly  inter- 
ested in  development  activities  in  various  parts  of  the  community. 
A  Republican  by  political  affiliation,  Mr.  Pierson  was  for  many 
years  treasurer  of  the  to^^m  committee,  and  also  of  the  Board  of 
Health.  He  was  prominent  in  all  movements  tending  to  promote  the 
public  welfare,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Presbytermn  church.  His 
death  which  occurred  April  24,  1903,  removed  from  AVestfield  a  citi- 
zen deeply  loyal  to  the  civic  as  well  as  the  individual  responsibilities 
which  devolve  upon  every  man,  and  his  memorv  is  warmly  cher- 
ished. 

Mr.  Pierson  married  Sarah  Cory,  of  AVestfield,  daughter  of  Wil- 
liam and  Chanty  (Baker)  Cory  (see  Cory  line).  Issue:  1.  David 
T.,  now  (1922)  in  the  coal  and  lumber  business  in  Madison,  X^ew 
Jersey.  2.  Mary  C,  died  December  23,  1910.  3.  George  Oliver, 
deceased.  4.  Edward,  died  in  infancy.  5.  William,  died  in  infancy. 
6.  Hettie  M.,  lives  in  the  old  house,  which  she  has  remodeled  and 
made  into  a  charming,  modern  residence. 

(The  Cory-Corrle  Line) 

The  family  of  Cory  has  English  and  Scotch  branches,  the  latter 
inclining  toward  the  spelling  '"'Corrie,"  and  having  two  of  their 
principal  residences  at  Kelwood  and  X^ewby,  Scotland.  The  coat- 
of-arms  is  as  follows : 

III 

i  12 


PIERSOX  AND  ALLIED  FAMILIES 
Arms — Gules,  a  saltire,  and  in  chief  a  rose  argent. 

(I)  From  Scotch  ancestry  was  doscGiided  Joseph  Cory,  who 
resided  iii3on  land  at  Westfield,  Xew  Jersey,  that  descended  to  his 
grandson.  He  was  an  elder  of  the  Westliekl  Presbyterian  Chnrch, 
and  was  a  man.  of  considerable  inlluence  in  his  commnnity.  He  mar- 
ried Margaret  Darby,  of  Scotch  Plains,  New  Jersey,  the  Darby  fam- 
ily fonndcd  in  that  place  by  Deacon  William  Dar])y,  born  in  1G92, 
died  February  26,  1775.  Issue:'  1.  A  son,  unnamed,  born  January 
7,  1779.  2.  Jonathan,  born  February  8,  17S0.  3.  Levi,  born  March 
1,  1782.  4.  William,  of  whom  further.  5.  Martha,  born  July  30, 
1786.  6.  Joseph,  born  December  21,  1788.  7.  Sarah,  born  August 
9,  1791.  8.  Jonath  Levi,  born  August  29,  1793.  9.  Abigail,  born 
December  3,  1795.     10.  A  son,  unnamed,  born  October  22,  1797. 

(II)  William  Cory,  son  of  Joseph  and  Margaret  (Darby) 
Cory,  was  born  at  the  farm  in  Westfield  township,  L'nion  county, 
New  Jersey,  February  16,  17S1:,  and  there  died  in  1866,  aged  eighty- 
two  years.  In  his  youth  he  learned  the  carpenter's  trade,  but  later 
he  returned  to  the  farm  and  there  engaged  in  its  cultivation  until 
the  years  grew  heavy  and  he  turned  the  management  over  to  his 
son,  Levi.  He  married  Charity  Baker,  daughter  of  Jonathan  I. 
Baker,  of  AVestfield.  (See  Baker  line).  Issue:  1.  Keziah  Baker, 
born  August  14,  1810,  died  July  23,  1837.  2.  Margaret  D.,  born 
February  12,  1812,  died  October  8,  1899;   married  Ephraim  Clark. 

3.  MaryPicton,  born  November  3,  1813,  died  February  18,  1836. 

4.  Jonathan  Baker,  born  November  26,  1815,  died  September  19, 
1826.  5.  Levi,  born  July  2,  1819;  married,  February  12,  1851,  Har- 
riet B.  Clark,  of  Eahway.  He  became  the  o\\mer  of  the  home  farm 
in  1867,  and  gave  his  after  life  to  its  cultivation.  He  was  a  Repub- 
lican in  politics,  served  as  a  member  of  the  to^^^lship  committee  of 
Westfield,  vras  an  elder  of  the  Presbyterian  church,  and  a  man  of 
high  character.  He  died  January  3,  1895.  6.  Abigail,  born  Septem- 
ber 24,  1821,  died  Januarv  15,  1891;  n^rried  George  W.  Pierson. 
7.  Joseph,  born  May  31, 1824,  died  October  24,  1825.  8.  Sarah,  born 
May  25,  1827,  at  tlie  home  farm,  now  ^lountainside  avenue,  where 
she* grew  to  womanhood,  going  hence  as  the  bride  of  Oliver  M.  Pier- 
son.  She  occupied  the  old  home  until  her  passing,  January  14,  1910, 
the  same  house  now  occupied  by  her  only  living  daughter,  Plettic  M. 
Pierson. 

(The  Baker  Line) 

The  name  Baker  is  of  occupational  origin,  and  because  of  the 
large  number  of  early  immigrants  named  Baker  and  the  siniilarity 
of  their  children's  baptismal  names,  no  family  is  more  difiicult  to 
trace.  But  little  has  been  discovered  about  the  relationship  of  the 
immigrants.     Before  1650  Alexander  Baker  settled  at  Gloucester, 

112 

-     / 


^  ^. 


^^^^>^6 


(^(iTorrte) 


nket^ 


PIERSOX  AND  ALLIED  FA^IILIES 

r^Iassaclmsetts;  Edward  Baker,  at  Lynn;  Francis  Baker,  at  Bos- 
ton; Jolni  Baker,  at  Charleston;  Launcelot  Baker,  at  Boston;  Xa- 
tlianiel  Baker,  at  Watertown;  Rev.  Xicliolas  Baker,  at  Ilinghani; 
Ricliard  Baker,  at  Dorchester;  Robert  Baker,  at  Salem;  Thomas 
Baker,  at  Roxbnry;  Walter  Baker,  at  Salem;  "William  Baker,  at 
Plymouth;  William  Baker,  at  Charlestown;  and  Thomas,  of  whom 
further. 

The  Baker  arms  are  as  follows : 

Arms — Azure,  on  a  fess,  between  three  swans'  heads  erased  or  and  ducally  gorged 
gules,  as  many  cinquefoils  of  the  last. 

Crest — An  arm  embowed,  habited  with  green  leaves,  in  the  hand  proper  a  swan's 
head  erased  or. 

(I)  Thomas  Baker  came  from  England  to  America  in  1639, 
and  settled  in  East  HamjDton,  Long  Island.  He  married,  June  20, 
1643,  Alice  Dayton,  born  in  1621,  died  February  8,  1708,  daughter 
of  Ralph  Dayton,  one  of  the  founders  of  East  Hampton.  Issue :  1. 
Hannah,  born  June  26,  1650.  2.  Thomas,  born  July  26,  1651.  3. 
Nathaniel,  of  whom  further.    4.  Abigail. 

(IT)  Nathaniel  Baker,  son  of  Thomas  and  Alice  (Dayton) 
Baker,  was  born  in  East  Hampton,  Long  Island,  December  22,  1655, 
and  died  February  27,  1739.  He  married  Catherine  Schellinger. 
Issue :  1.  Jonathan,  born  February  12.  1679.  2.  Joanna,  born  July 
7,  1681.  3.  Abigail,  born  starch  15,  16S2.  4.  Henry,  born  April  16, 
1686.  5.  Daniel,  of  vrhom  further.  6.  Hannah,  born  January  26, 
1694. 

(III)  Daniel  Baker,  son  of  Nathaniel  and  Catherine  (Schell- 
inger) Baker,  was  born  in  East  Hampton,  Long  Island,  August  21, 
1692.  He  married  Abigail  Osborn.  Issue:  1.  Daniel,  married 
(first)  Mary  Osborn,  (second)  Mary  Conkling.  2.  Abraham.  3. 
Nathaniel,  removed  to  New  Jersey.  4.  Henry,  of  whom  further. 
5.  Elizabeth,  married  Jeremiah  Stratton.  6.  Catharine.  7.  Abi- 
gail. 

(IV)  Henry  Baker,  son  of  Daniel  and  Abigail  (Osborn) 
Baker,  ^vas  early  of  Westfiold  tovniship,  Union  county,  Nev/  Jersey, 
coming  with  his  brother,  Nathaniel,  from  East  Hampton,  Long 
Island.  He  married  Phoebe  Jedges,  of  Long  Island.  Issue:  1. 
Daniel,  born  June  3,  1753,  served  in  the  Revolution.  2.  Jonathan 
I.,  of  whom  further.  3.  William,  married  Jemima  AVoodruff.  4. 
Henry.  5.  Jeremiah,  born  June  28,  1770;  married  Mary  King.  6. 
Phoebe,  married  Ziba  Ludlow. 

(V)  Jonathan  I.  Baker,  son  of  Henry  Baker,  was  born  aboiit 
1755.  He  married  Keziah  Clark,  daughter  of  Jesse  Ch^irk,  and  his 
daughter.  Charity,  married  William  Cory.     (See  Cory  line). 

(The  Darby  Line) 

The  name  of  Scotch  Plains  is  derived  from  the  nationality  of 
its  original  founders.    In  1684  a  number  of  Scotch  emigrants  settled 

113 


PIERSOX  AND  ALLIED  FAMILIES 

there.  The  population  increased,  and  about  16S9  came  the  family  of 
William  Darby.    The  coat-of-arms  of  the  family  is  as  follows : 

Anns— Per  chevron  battelly  or  and  azure,  three  eagles  displayed  counterchanged. 
Crest— Out  of  a  tower  argent  two  wings,  the  dexter  or,  sinister  azure. 

(I)  William  Darby  was  of  a  group  of  English  settlers  from 
Elizabethto^\m   and   vicinity.     William   Darby   married   Elizabeth 

and  lived  for  a  number  of  years  at  Elizabeth,  Xew  Jersey, 

prior  to  removing  to  Scotch  Plains.  In  16S7  he  bought  forty-four 
acres  of  land  at  Elizabeth  from  x\gatha  White,  widow,  and  in  1701 
he  sold  this  land  to  John  Blanchard.  He  was  not  a  resident  of  Eliz- 
abeth then,  and  presumably  he  was  of  Scotch  Plains.  Among  his 
children  was  William. 

(II)  Deacon  Yfilliam  (2)  Darby,  son  of  William  (1)  and  Eliz- 
abeth Darby,  was  born  in  1693,  and  died  at  Scotch  Plains,  Xew  Jer- 
sey, February  26,  1775.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Baptist  church  of 
Scotch  Plains  in  1747,  the  date  of  its  organization.     He  married 

Mary ,  born  in  1699,  died  April  13, 1761.    Among  their  children 

was  John,  of  whom  further. 

(III)  John  Darby,  son  of  Deacon  William  (2)  and  Mary 
Darby,  was  born  about  1725.  He  married  (second),  after  1777, 
Margaret  Stanberry,  widow  of  Eecompence  Stanberry,  of  Scotch 
Plains.  She  was  born  in  1729,  died  January  18,  1812,  and  is  buried 
in  Scotch  Plains  Cemetery.  Issue  of  John  Darby:  1.  John,  born 
about  1758;  married  Anna  Stanberry.  2.  Margaret,  of  whom  fur- 
ther. 

(IV)  Margaret  Darby,  daughter  of  John  Darby  by  his  first 
wife,  married  Joseph  Cory  (see  Cory  line). 


114 


ilarb 


3 


p^   ,-, ...  -  ~  .^,— ,,^ -'r--rrr. .  I  .iiai^yfftiitw  y  »)-■  ,g^y^)^^  ij>jlj|By|J,,.J  ..t^'upiejyiniiuw.  ni,  ji)i||.  k  ■^^?..■^_.,..it^!lj>!^'^s;M 


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'^ 


COLONIAL     I'.ROOMl': 


'V 

v. 

X 

'  ' 

r 

Sir  William  Inline, n.  Indian  SuperintL-ndcnt  for  all  British  Xurtli 
America.  Horn  in  Ireland,  in  1715.  and  camo  to  America  in  1738.  Ma- 
jor-General  in  P.riti.-h  Army  anfl  made  a  I'.ar.jiiet  for  his  services  at 
Lake  George. 


^ 

AMERICANA 

APRIL,    1923 

^55 

Sir  William  Johnson 

His  Character  and  Public  SER\^CES 
By  Charles  A.  Ingraham,  Cambridge,  New  York 


^^  0  THOSE  who,  prominent  in  public  affairs,  are  trusting 
;:.-)FJ  to  the  future  for  the  perpetuation  of  their  fame,  the 
7(J|y  manner  in  which  posterity  has  neglected  the  memory  of 
i^^      Sir  William  Johnson  is  not  encouraging.  Though  in  his 


day  the  most  distinguished  and  influential  man  in  the  Colony  of  New 
York  and  with  a  reno-^m  extending  throughout  America,  and  though 
his  public  services  were  during  a  period  of  many  years  of  the  great- 
est importance,  vitally  and  permanently  benefiting  the  country,  he 
and  his  work  do  not  occupy  the  prominence  and  space  in  American 
history  which  is  their  due. 

There  are,  however,  valid  reasons  for  such  seeming  neglect,  first 
among  which  is  the  fact  that  Sir  William  was  a  serv^ant  of  the  Eng- 
lish Crowm  in  the  government  of  the  Colony  of  New  York.  In  com- 
mon with  other  able  men  who  served  under  British  rule  in  the  Amer- 
ican Colonies,  his  appeal  to  historians  has  been  less  than  those  pa- 
triots, who,  in  the  closing  years  of  his  life,  were  beginning  the  great- 
struggle  for  independence.  Another  historical  fact  which  militates 
against  Johnson's  popularity  in  American  annals  is  that  his  son, 
Sir  John  Johnson,  was  a  malignant  tory  in  the  Revolution,  who  led 
the  Iroquois  Confederacy,  with  the  exception  of  the  Oneidas  and 
Tuscaroras,  against  the  Colonists  in  many  a  fearful  massacre. 
Though  it  is  claimed  by  some  historical  students  that  Sir  William, 
had  he  lived,  would  have  been  with  the  people  in  the  war,  the  fact  is 
that  his  family,  who  were  better  acciuainted  with  his  ideas  and  senti- 
ments, fought  for  the  British.  Johnson,  however,  was  a  tinily  great 
man,  a  uniciue  character,  and  in  his  day  popular ;  had  he  and  his  kin, 

117 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON 

with  their  charges  tlie  Iroquois,  stood  Trith  the  Colonists  in  the  Rev- 
olution, his  name  would  be  a  shining  light  in  American  history. 

Unlike  most  of  the  distinguished  men  of  our  history,  concern- 
ing whose  characters  the  people  have  a  clear  conception,  the  individ- 
uality of  Sir  William  Johnson  was  very  diversified,  and  is  to  be  un- 
derstood only  after  considerable  study  and  meditation.  For  in- 
stance, the  personal  and  intellectual  characteristics  of  General  Grant 
are  easily  comprehended; — he  was  a  quiet,  plain,  persevering  man, 
with  a  genius  for  conducting  military  operations  on  a  large  scale, 
but  lacking  in  ability  for  handling  practical  affairs;  but  Sir  William 
was  a  many-sided  person,  of  brilliant  parts,  devoting  himself  v.'ith 
untiring  energy  to  a  variety  of  enterprises,  and  always  successfully. 
His  career  in  the  Mohawk  Valley,  beginning  in  the  year  1738  at  the 
age  of  twenty-three  years,  exemplified  the  life  of  a  swashbuckler,  ag- 
riculturist, trader,  major-general,  superintendent  of  the  Six  Indian 
Nations  and  other  northern  tribes.  He  fostered  religion  and  educa- 
tion in  his  primitive  frontier  territory,  erected  churches,  encour- 
aged missionaries  and  school  teachers  to  labor  among  the  settlers 
and  Indians;  founded  the  village  of  Johnsto^v^l,  and  built  its  court 
house  and  other  buildings,  erected  two  fine,  baronial  mansions,  both 
of  wdiich  are  still  standing,  and  died  in  the  harness  on  the  11th  of 
July,  1774,  from  the  over-exertion  of  addressing  for  the  space  of 
tw^o  hours  a  delegation  of  six  hundred  Iroquois  Indians.  An  idea  of 
his  multiplied  activities  may  be  derived  from  his  manuscript  letters 
and  other  documents,  (many  of  which  have  been  lost),  which  may  be 
seen  in  the  New  York  State  Library ;  they  number  6,550  and  are  con- 
tained in  twenty-six  cumbrous  volumes. 

William  Johnson  was  born  in  County  Meath,  Ireland,  in  the 
year  1715.  His  father,  Christopher  Johnson,  was  a  scion  of  a  long 
and  honorable  line,  while  his  mother,  Anne  Warren,  was  a  sister  of 
Sir  Peter  Warren,  in  later  years  distinguished  as  an  admiral  in  the 
British  navy.  Having  been  made  commandant  of  a  British  war-ship. 
Captain  Peter  Warren  later  established  his  home  in  New  York  City, 
where  he  erected  a  fine  mansion  at  No.  1,  Broadway,  which  in  its  day 
was  a  beautiful  and  magnificent  dwelling.  In  after  years  it  was  the 
residence  of  Nathaniel  Prime,  and  still  later  was  employed  as  the 
Washington  Hotel.  In  the  Revolution,  while  the  city  was  in  the  pos- 
session of  the  British,  it  was  the  headquarters  of  Sir  William  Howe 
and  other  commanders;  here  Major  Andre  dwelt  in  the  family  of 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON 

Sir  Henry  Clinton  when  he  made  his  fatal  journey  to  West  Point  to 
arrange  with  the  traitor  Arnold  for  the  surrender  of  that  fortress. 
Captain  Warren  married  a  daughter  of  Stephen  De  Lancey,  a 
wealthy  merchant  of  New  York,  whose  son,  James  De  Lancey,'  be- 
came very  distinguished  in  the  judicial  and  political  annals  of  the 
colony. 

These  remarks  are  introduced  to  elucidate  the  beginning  of  the 
career  of  Sir  William  Johnson  in  America,  and  to  show  the  advan- 
tages which  he  gained  from  the  assistance  of  influential  relatives. 
Having  been  employed  by  his  uncle.  Captain  W^arren,  to  serve  as 
agent  for  the  tract  of  fourteen  thousand  acres  of  land  which  he  had 
purchased  in  the  Mohawk  Valley,  young  Johnson  reached  New  York 
in  December,  1737,  and  spent  the  winter  with  his  aunt,  the  wife  of 
Captain  Warren.  Here  he  met  and  formed  a  warm  friendship  with 
her  brother,  James  De  Lancey,  who  -with  other  prominent  persons 
with  whom  he  became  acquainted  at  this  time,  served  to  advance  his 
interests  in  later  years. 

He  took  up  his  residence  on  his  uncle's  tract  in  the  summer  of 
1738,  making  his  home  about  one-half  mile  east  of  Amsterdam,  and 
on  the  south  side  of  the  Mohawk  river.  Thus,  Sir  William  Johnson, 
a  mere  boy  in  years  and  experience,  begins  in  rough,  primitive  and 
dangerous  obscurity  his  notable  career.  It  w^as  a  plunge  from  the 
cultured  social  plane  in  which  he  had  passed  the  winter,  to  the 
coarse  life  in  log  houses  of  the  frontier,  where  his  neighbors,  far 
apart,  were  German  settlers  and  Mohawk  Indians.  But,  as  has 
been  remarked,  there  was  a  rough  element  in  the  nature  of  the 
young  land  agent,  and  he  adapted  himself  to  his  surroundings  with 
seeming  relish.  Though  he  had  enjoyed  considerable  education  and 
had  studied  wdth  a  view  to  the  practice  of  law,  he  was  content  to  re- 
main during  upwards  of  the  forty  remaining  years  of  his  life  in  the 
valley  of  his  adoption,  leaving  it  rarely  and  for  brief  periods,  always 
deeply  immersed  in  the  affairs  of  his  estate  and  of  the  Indians.  He 
was  popular  wdth  the  w^hitesand  Indians  from  the  day  of  his  arrival. 
He  associated  with  the  utmost  freedom  and  spirit  of  friendship  ^vith 
all,  entered  with  zest  into  their  social  entertainments  and  athletic 
meets,  but  in  the  meantime  being  diligent  in  business  and  by  prudent 
and  energetic  methods  acquiring  wealth.  His  housekeeper,  whom  he 
employed  soon  after  his  coming  to  the  valley,  was  an  immigrant 
Dutch  girl  named  Catharine  Weisenburg,  who,  after  having  borne 

119 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON 

him  three  children,  one  of  whom  was  the  notorious  Sir  John  John- 
son, of  Tory  fame,  became  his  wife.  And  here  begins  a  wretched 
story,  continued  to  his  death,  of  the  blot  on  Sir  "William's  escutcheon, 
— his  unsavory  relations  with  women.  The  most  conspicuous  of  his 
many  paramours  was  Molly  Brant,  a  sister  of  the  Mohawk  sachem, 
Joseph  Brant,  who  was  living  with  him  at  the  time  of  his  death  and 
by  whom  he  had  eight  half-breed  children.  She  was  evidently  a 
comely  woman,  and  intelligent  for  one  of  her  race  and  condition,  and 
believed  herself  the  A\ife  of  Sir  William,  after  the  fashion  of  her 
tribe,  which  redeems  her  memory ;  but  no  gloss  of  romance  or  appeal 
to  the  loose  social  morals  of  that  day  \\ill  ever  justify  his  domestic 
relations.  His  biographers  state  that  his  coming  to  America  was  a 
result  of  a  love  entanglement,  and  a  pathetic  word-picture  has  been 
dra^\m  depicting  the  grief  of  the  betrothed  Irish  girl  on  the  eve 
of  his  departure  for  America;  but  in  the  light  of  the  young  man's 
subsequent  career,  smirched  \rith  misconduct,  one  cannot  but  feel 
that  she  was  to  be  congratulated. 

Sir  William  remained  about  five  years  at  the  place  of  his  origi- 
nal settlement,  superintending  the  affairs  of  his  uncle's  estate  and 
carr>^ng  on  a  profitable  trade  with  the  settlers  and  Indians,  the 
leading  village  of  the  Mohawks  being  but  a  few  miles  away.  A  con- 
•  siderable  settlement  had  gro\\Ti  up  around  his  trading  establishment, 
w^hen,  having  thriven  in  business  and  purchased  lands  on  the  north 
side  of  the  river  and  a  few  miles  west,  he  moved  to  this  location. 
Here  he  had  erected  in  1742  a  fine  stone  mansion,  and  employed  the 
large  creek  w^hich  flows  just  east  of  it  for  the  running  of  a  flouring 
miU.  Johnson's  rise  from  now  on  was  rapid  and  substantial;  be- 
sides his  large  trading  and  milling  interests,  he  embarked  boldly  in 
the  fur  and  wheat  business,  steadily  accumulating  money  and  coming 
more  and  more  into  public  notice.  In  17-i5,  at  the  age  of  only  about 
thirty,  his  furs  were  selling  in  London  and  his  flour  in  the  West  In- 
dies, while  public  recognition  of  his  honor  and  ability  was  sho\\Ti  by 
his  appointment  as  justice  of  the  peace  for  Albany  county.  All  this 
success  had  come  to  him  through  business  acumen,  energetic  appli- 
cation, strict  integrity  in  all  his  dealings  and  unbounded  popularity. 
Large  of  frame  and  muscular,  genial  and  approachable  by  all,  ac- 
quainted mth  the  Indian  dialects  so  that  he  was  able  to  converse 
with  them  in  their  own  language,  affiliated  with  them  in  a  so-called 
marriage, — all  this  insured  the  admiration  and  good-will  of  the 

120 


k^ 


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'ii^-.>i,iii-i.i^:£Li:>iiiJj.:k^i:i,^^  Ml-.  ,'  „rn^ittn'iit.ktli-fttn^ 


JOSEPH  BRAXT 
(Thayendanegca).  War  Cliief  of  tlie   Iroquois,  brother  of    Molly    Brant 


<»iiiiyijL^i* 


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SIR  WILLIAM  JOHXSOX 

dwellers  in  the  Mohawk  valley.  His  residence  here  and  his  activi- 
ties, however,  exposed  him  to  danger,  for  the  French,  jealous  of  the 
control  which  he  had  acquired  of  the  Six  Nations  and  indignant  con- 
cerning the  profitable  trade  with  them  which  he  was  largely  divert- 
ing to  himself,  threatened  him  with  assassination,  a  peril  which, 
throughout  a  large  part  of  his  career,  was  ever  to  be  reckoned  ^dth. 

What  is  known  as  the  Old  French  War  was  now  on.  Saratoga 
(now  Schuylerville)  had  been  destroyed  in  the  previous  fall,  and 
Johnson  as  a  precautionary  measure  had  dispatched  a  company  of 
Mohawks  to  Cro^\^l  Point  to  learn  of  the  intentions  of  the  French; 
they  reported  that  a  raid  was  to  be  expected  against  Schenectady, 
which  news  was  immediately  sent  to  the  governor.  Sir  George  Clin- 
ton. He  was  also  informed  that  Sir  William,  himself,  with  his  prop- 
ert}',  including  eleven  thousand  bushels  of  wheat,  was  in  danger, 
and  that  a  guard  was  needed  for  protection.  The  governor  in  re- 
sponse sent  a  detachment  of  thirty  men  to  guard  the  home  and  prop- 
erty of  Sir  William,  ^\'ith  whom  he  became,  through  official  corres- 
pondence and  the  recommendation  of  Chief  Justice  James  De  Lan- 
cey,  on  terms  of  friendship  and  intimacy.  At  this  time,  in  1746, 
Governor  Clinton  was  very  desirous  of  enlisting  the  Six  Nations  in 
the  cause  of  the  English  against  the  French,  but  was  having  no  suc- 
cess in  his  proposition  for  a  council,  the  French  having  encouraged 
the  Indians  to  remain  neutral  in  the  strife.  The  Governor,  knowing 
the  power  over  the  savages  which  Johnson  exercised,  now  appointed 
him  manager  of  the  Indian  department  in  the  hope  that  he  would  be 
able  to  induce  the  Six  Nations  to  take  up  arms  against  the  French. 
There  was  thus  given  into  the  control  of  Sir  William  the  work  which 
had  been  carried  on  by  the  Board  of  Indian  Commissioners,  com- 
posed largely  of  Albany  traders,  and  who  had  employed  their  offices 
for  their  personal  financial  benefit. 

Johnson  now  redoubled  his  efforts  to  ingratiate  himself  into  the 
good  favor  of  the  Indians  with  a  view  of  inducing  them  to  join  arms 
with  the  English  in  the  war;  arraying  himself  in  their  primitive 
garb,  he  w^ent  in  and  out  among  them,  addressing  them  in  their  o^^^l 
language,  conforming  to  their  customs,  arranging  athletic  events 
for  their  entertainment  and  encouraging  them  to  take  part  in  war 
dances  for  the  purpose  of  stimulating  their  fighting  propensities. 
This  policy  had  its  desired  effect,  for  the  savages,  pleased  to  have  so 
prominent  a  man  come  familiarly  among  them  with  tokens  of  gen- 

121 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSOX 

erous  friendship,  listened  favorably  to  his  proposition,  while  the  Mo- 
hawks adopted  him  into  their  tribe,  elevating  him  to  be  their  chief 
and  leader.  His  Indian  name  thus  derived  was,  War-ragh-i-ya-gey, 
or  "he  who  has  charge  of  alt  airs."  Johnson's  success  in  this  diplo- 
matic attempt  was  the  more  remarkable  in  that  the  Six  Nations  at 
this  time  were  themselves  divided  into  two  factions,  each  party  be- 
ing composed  of  three  tribes.  Though  Johnson  had  so  far  succeeded 
as  to  prevail  upon  them  to  send  delegations  to  the  council  to  be  held 
in  Albany  by  Governor  Clinton  with  the  view  of  eiitering  into  an  al- 
liance with  the  colonial  government,  such  was  the  ill-feeling  between 
the  two  Indian  parties  that  they  marched  towards  Albany,  one  fol- 
lomng  the  north  and  the  other  the  south  side  of  the  Mohawk  river. 
The  two  divisions,  on  August  8th,  1746,  entered  the  city  ^vith  Sir 
William,  arrayed  in  all  the  picturesque  panoply  of  a  Mohawk 
sachem,  riding  at  the  head  of  his  tribe.  In  the  councils  which  fol- 
lowed, the  Six  Nations  covenanted  to  assist  the  English,  and  having 
solemnly  enacted  the  war  dance  returned  to  their  several  territories 
and  took  up  the  hatchet.  In  this  historic  event  was  exhibited  John- 
son's extraordinary  ability  in  handling  morose,  jealous  and  divided 
Indian  tribes,  a  capacity  amounting  to  genius  and  which  has  never 
perhaps  been  equaled.  In  the  Old  French  War,  however,  the  Colony 
of  New  York  took  no  very  active  part,  and  though  Johnson  had  been 
commissioned  colonel,  and  later  advanced  to  the  command  of  the 
colonial  troops  on  the  frontier,  his  activities  consisted  chiefly  in 
equipping  and  sending  out  against  the  French  small  parties  of  mili- 
tia and  Indians,  a  wild  and  bloody  business,  concerning  which  the 
least  said  the  better  for  the  reputation  of  the  Colony.  These  atroci- 
ties, which  were  practiced  by  both  the  French  and  English,  came  to 
an  end  in  1748  A\dth  the  treaty  of  Aix  la  Chapelle. 

Though  an  era  of  peace  had  da^\Tied  on  the  distracted  country, 
the  activity  of  Colonel  Johnson  was  unremitting,  an  arduous  manner 
of  life,  however,  which  he  enjoyed,  and  deprived  of  which  he  was 
miserable.  He  had  his  immense  private  interests  to  direct ;  the  com- 
plex, ever-shifting  affairs  of  the  Iroquois  to  superintend, — to  attend 
their  councils,  appease  their  quarrels  and  mitigate  their  ferocity; 
and,  above  all,  to  prevent  the  never-ending  attempts  of  the  French 
to  seduce  the  Indians  from  their  alliance  with  the  English.  It  was, 
indeed,  an  arduous  task,  and  required  all  of  his  diplomacy  and  the 
exercise  of  all  the  peculiar  gifts  of  conciliation  which  he  possessed,  to 


kLy^ 


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■y^  .■-^■..— ...... >^;^^-k-i 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON 

maintain  the  fealty  of  the  Six  Nations.  Besides  all  this,  he  was  un- 
der contract  to  furnish  supplies  to  the  garrison  at  Oswego,  and  had 
the  direction  of  other  important  public  interests  which  had  been  in- 
trusted to  him.  In  the  year  1750  he  received  the  appointment  by  the 
C^o^^^l  to  the  distinguished  place  of  a  member  in  the  Colonial  Coun- 
cil of  New  York.  But  it  will  be  in  the  capacity  of  Superintendent  of 
Indian  AlTairs  that  Sir  William  will  be  longest  and  most  favorably 
remembered.  He  trusted  these  children  of  the  forest  and  they  re- 
posed faith  in  his  word,  which  he  never  violated.  He  never  took  ad- 
vantage of  their  ignorance  and  credulity,  and  refused  to  deal  with 
them  when  they  were  intoxicated.  He  recognized  the  evil  influence 
among  them  of  strong  drink,  and  strove  to  keep  it  from  them.  It  is 
impressive  to  realize  the  confidence  he  had  in  their  fidelity  to  their 
word  when  once  given ;  this  is  evidenced  by  his  ever  striving  to  have 
them  assemble  in  conclave  and  solemnly  commit  themselves  through 
their  traditional  and  strange  ceremonials  to  a  certain  course  or  poli- 
cy. All  this  is  creditable  to  the  Six  Nations,  who  were  the  most  po- 
litically advanced  of  the  Indians  of  North  America,  who  occupied  the 
most  strategic  territory,  and  who  extended  their  conquests  to  the 
most  distant  fields. 

Following  the  close  in  1748  of  the  Old  French  War  to  1755,  when 
the  strife  in  America  between  England  and  France  was  renewed,  an 
era  of  comparative  peace  prevailed  in  the  Colonies,  though  hostili- 
ties were  never  in  the  interval  wholly  remitted ;  the  embers  of  war 
were  smoldering,  ready  to  burst  into  flame  when  the  incipient  hurri- 
cane of  dissension  should  become  sufiiciently  strong.  The  activities 
of  the  French  in  the  Ohio  Valley  left  no  doubt  in  the  mind  of  the 
British  government  that  they  intended  to  hold  that  fertile  territory 
and  the  vast  lands  in  the  west,  and  in  the  northwest  to  the  lakes. 
Commissioners  from  seven  northern  colonies  v>-'ere  therefore  dele- 
gated to  meet  representatives  of  the  Six  Nations  at  Albany,  in  order 
to  devise  means  of  driving  back  the  enemy.  The  convention  con- 
vened on  June  19th,  1754,  and  was  notable  as  being  the  germ  of  the 
Constitution  and  Government  of  the  United  States,  in  that  a  scheme 
for  the  union  of  the  Colonies  was  proposed  here  by  Benjamin  Frank- 
lin and  unanimously  adopted,  though  the  plan  was  denied  by  the 
British  government,  and  was  rejected  by  the  Assemblies  of  the 
Colonies  themselves. 

The  influence  of  Johnson  in  securing  the  attendance  of  delegates 

123 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON 

from  the  Six  Nations  to  this  Congress  was  indispensable,  and  had  it 
not  been  for  his  power  of  control  over  the  Indians  they  might  have 
fallen  in  with  the  flattering  overtures  of  the  French.  Colonel  John- 
son, however,  was  no  longer  the  beloved  superintendent  of  these 
proud  and  warlike  tribes,  ho  having  resigned  about  four  years  pre- 
vious on  account  of  the  Colonial  Assembly  refusing  to  liquidate  his 
just  claims  for  services  and  private  moneys  advanced  for  the  public  ' 
defense.  The  affairs  of  the  Indians  in  the  meantime  had  been  man- 
aged in  a  manner  very  unsatisfactory  to  the  Six  Nations  and  they 
were  now  in  an  ugly  mood,  requiring  all  the  persuasive  talent  of 
Colonel  Johnson  to  induce  them  to  renew  their  fealty  to  the  English. 
It  was  at  this  critical  juncture  in  the  convention  that  old  King  Hen- 
drik,  chief  of  the  Mohawk  tribe  and  devoted  friend  of  Colonel  John- 
son, delivered  what  is  said  to  have  been  the  greatest  and  most  elo- 
quent address  ever  uttered  by  an  American  Indian.  Under  his  bur- 
den of  more  than  eighty  years  he  stood  up  and  with  his  majestic 
presence  flung  burning  expressions  of  reproach  into  the  brilliant  au- 
dience before  him,  accusing  them  of  the  neglect  which  the  Indians 
had  suffered  during  the  past  few  years.  It  was,  indeed,  a  dramatic 
event,  with  this  venerable  sachem,  with  the  chiefs  of  the  other  Iro- 
quois tribes  sitting  around  him  and  all  arrayed  in  picturesque  appar- 
el, and  \vith  the  governor  and  commissioners  respectfully  listening 
to  this  unlettered  but  truly  great  orator.  But  Colonel  Johnson  held 
the  heartstrings  of  this  old  Indian  worthy,  and  through  him  the  Six 
Nations  were  regained  for  the  English.  However,  Johnson  was 
soon  to  be  restored  to  his  previous  position  of  Superintendent  of  In- 
dian Affairs,  for  in  April  of  the  follo\\ing  year  he  was  reappointed 
to  this  place  by  General  Braddock,  commander-in-chief  of  the  Brit- 
ish forces  in  the  colonies,  who  also  commissioned  him  major-general 
to  command  the  movement  against  Cro^\m  Point. 

Throughout  what  is  kno^\m  as  the  ''last  French  War,"  General 
Johnson  played  a  distinguished  part,  discovering  a  talent  for  cam- 
paigning and  military  strategy.  His  first  battle  was  at  Lake  George, 
on  September  8,  1755,  when  he  defeated  the  French  and  Indians  un- 
der Baron  Dieskau.  In  this  battle,  King  Hendrik,  chief  of  the  ]Mo- 
hawks,  was  killed,  he  having  been  ordered  by  Johnson  against  his 
better  counsel  to  advance  beyond  the  lines,  where  he  fell  into  an  am- 
bush. An  episode  of  the  war  which  is  not  prominently  noticed  by 
historians  reflects  credit  ujDon  General  Johnson  and  proves  his  enter- 

124 


'-'■  -r 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON 

prise  and  courage.  ^Yhile  engaged  in  a  council  with  the  Indians  at 
his  home  on  the  Mohawk,  he  learned  of  the  movement  of  I^Iontcalra 
toward  Fort  Edward,  and  dismissing  the  meeting  and  collecting  a 
force  of  militia  and  Indians,  marched  immediately  for  the  support  of 
General  Webb,  commanding  at  that  place.  Finding  that  Colonel 
Monroe  was  besieged  by  Montcalm  in  Fort  William  Henry  on  Lake 
George,  and  frantically  calling  for  aid,  General  Johnson  implored 
the  privilege  of  leading  a  body  of  troops  for  his  relief,  a  march  of 
but  fourteen  miles.  After  gaining  a  reluctant  consent  and  having 
proceeded  a  short  distance,  he  was  called  back  and  Monroe  was  thus 
left  with  no  alternative  but  surrender,  which  involved  a  fearful  mas- 
sacre of  many  of  his  men  by  the  savages  in  the  army  of  the  French. 
This  occurred  on  August  9,  1757. 

General  Johnson  served  with  Abercrombie  in  his  unfortunate 
campaign  against  Fort  Ticonderoga  in  1758,  and  was  second  in 
command  under  General  Prideaux  in  the  following  year,  when,  dur- 
ing the  siege  of  Fort  Niagara,  Prideaux  having  been  killed,  Johnson 
assumed  command  and  brilliantly  defeated  the  French  army  n:arch- 
ing  to  the  relief  of  the  garrison  and  received  the  surrender  of  the 
stronghold.  After  serving  conspicuously  throughout  the  v/ar,  he 
had  a  part  under  General  Amlierst,  in  compelling  the  capitulation 
of  Montreal  and  Canada  on  the  8th  of  September,  1760. 

From  now  on,  the  career  of  Sir  William  was  one  of  comparative 
peace,  though  the  burden  of  the  superintendency  of  the  Indian  Af- 
fairs hung  heavily  upon  him,  while  the  development  of  the  village  of 
Johnsto\\Ti  and  the  management  of  his  great  estate  occupied  much 
of  his  time.  He  was  now  a  very  wealthy  man,  having  accumulated 
much  from  his  mercantile  pursuits  and  having  derived  vast  gifts  of 
lands  from  the  Indians  and  the  British  government.  He  received  as 
a  reward  for  his  victory  over  Dieskau  at  Lake  George  the  sum  of 
five  thousand  pounds,  and  the  title  of  baronet. 

In  the  Revolution,  with  the  exception  of  the  Oneidas  and  Tus- 
caroras,  the  Iroquois  espoused  the  cause  of  Great  Britain,  pillaging 
the  settlers  along  the  frontier  and  massacring  the  defenseless  people. 
The  hostility  of  the  Indians  was  due  to  the  influence  of  Sir  John 
Johnson,  who,  with  but  little  of  his  father's  tact  and  ability,  had  been 
invested  with  his  office  of  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs.  In  the 
summer  of  1779,  so  great  had  become  the  atrocities  of  the  savages, 
that  the  government  directed  General  John  Sullivan  to  annihilate 

125 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON 

all  the  Iroquois  tribes  who  had  taken  up  arms  against  the  colonists. 
This  movement,  famous  in  history  as  "Sullivan's  Expedition,"  was 
composed  of  three  divisions  operating  primarily  in  separate  terri- 
tories, and  their  merciless  retaliation  from  the  Mohawk  to  Lake  Erie 
proved  the  death-blow  of  the  proud  Iroquois  Confederacy.  After 
the  war  they  feared  to  return  to  their  ancient  hunting  grounds,  and 
with  broken  spirits  fled  into  the  forests  of  the  west  or  the  woods  of 
Canada.  Thither  went  Sir  John  Johnson,  with  the  brand  of  traitor 
upon  his  name  and  the  blood  of  innocent  meu,  women  and  children 
upon  his  reputation,  hated  and  despised  by  a  nation  of  free  people, 
and  his  father's  great  landed  estate  was  confiscated. 

But  let  us  in  closing  turn  from  this  dark  and  bloody  picture  to 
Sir  "William,  who  it  is  hard  to  believe  would  have  ever  involved  the 
Indians  in  such  an  unhappy  and  ruinous  situation,  for  he  was  a 
kindly  soul,  and  though  living  always  midst  strife  was  of  a  concilia- 
tory disposition.  Today,  out  of  gratitude  for  his  important  public 
services,  the  two  mansions  which  he  erected  still  have  hospitable 
doors;  for  these  buildings  have  been  purchased  and  set  apart  for- 
ever as  memorials  of  Sir  William  Johnson.  Within  their  walls,  un- 
changed but  little  from  the  days  of  his  prosperity  and  fame,  may  be 
seen  the  collected  souvenirs  of  the  aboriginal  and  early  colonial 
days, and  w^e  may  almost  fancy  the  presence  of  the  genial  and  forceful 
proprietor,  who,  as  described  by  Mrs.  Julia  Grant  in  her  "Memoirs 
of  an  American  Lady,"  was  "five  feet  eleven  and  a  half  inches  tall, 
neck  massive,  broad  chest  and  large  limbs,  great  physical  strength, 
the  head  large  and  shapely,  countenance  open  and  beaming  with 
good  nature,  eyes  grayish  black,  hair  bro^\^l  with  tinge  of  auburn. 
Conversation:  recollections  of  dealings  with  Indians,  or  classic  au- 
thors or  literature  of  the  day.  Lives  like  an  Enghsh  gentleman.  In- 
dian chiefs  at  table  among  many  castes.  Indians  speak  English  and 
dress  like  them.  Fifty  or  sixty  servants,  besides  negroes.  His 
habits  most  methodical." 

This  is  an  excellent  pen-picture  by  oue  who  knew  him  and  paint- 
ed his  portrait.  There  was  a  rough  element  in  his  character,  and  he 
loved  the  stirring,  primitive  life  and  was  wretched  when  not  en- 
gaged in  it.  He  possessed,  however,  enough  education  and  culture 
to  maintain  himself  much  above  his  contemporaries  in  tlie  Mohawk 
Valley  and  to  make  himself  available  for  the  British  government  in 
the  management  of  the  Indians.    While  he  was  honest  and  upright  in 

126 


V    . 


:.*.-  S„~^'liNacaJ&^5SSkfifi:zr. 


S;.  John's  Ei)isc..i,al  Clu.rch  on  >itc  n,   ori'-^mal  clninli  Im.li  Uy  Sir  W.lli.ini  Juhn>n„ 
dt;>troyed  b\    hrc  in  183O,  as  shown  m  the  niscrt 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON 

all  his  business  transactions  and  ever  true  to  his  word  ^\4th  the  In- 
dians, he  was  utterly  indifferent  to  certain  domestic  moralities  here- 
in referred  to,  and  lived  throughout  his  career  an  unblushing  volup- 
tuary. He  loved  and  labored  for  riches,  was  fond  of  great  mansions 
and  aristocratic  display.  He  was  not  cherished  in  the  best  sense  of 
the  word ;  he  lacked  that  indefinable  something  called  magnetism;  his 
character  did  not  appeal  to  the  hearts  of  the  people.  Yet  he  was  a 
great  man,  a  man  of  destiny,  peculiarly  adapted  for  the  important 
work  he  so  ably  performed,  and  his  name  will  ever  be  epochal  in  the 
colonial  history  of  America. 

Editor's  Note — The  foregoing-  admirable  narrative  by  Dr.  Ingraham  is  most  timely, 
following  so  closely  after  the  }vIemorial  Celebration  at  Johnstown.  New  York,  September 
8-9,  1922,  in  commemoration  of  the  one  hundred  and  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the  "setting 
up"  of  Tryon  county.  For  the  accompanying  excellent  illustrations  we  are  under  obliga- 
tions to  the  courtesy  of  the  Committee  in  Charge  of  the  Celebration,  as  represented  by 
Mr.  Edward  Wells,  chairman  of  the  general  committee,  and  Mr.  J.  Clarence  Hennelly, 
chairman  of  the  publicity  committee. 

In  the  course  of  the  celebration,  historical  scenes  were  enacted  in  costume,  begin- 
ning with  the  scenes  at  Fort  Johnstown  ;  commemorative  services  at  the  Cross  in  the 
Colonial  Cemetery  and  at  the  grave  of  Sir  William  Johnson;  and  addresses  were  de- 
livered by  Governor  Nathan  L.  Miller;  Hon.  Edmund  F.  Machold,  Speaker  of  the  New 
York  State  Assembly;  Hon.  James  Sullivan,  State  Historian;  and  Mrs.  Corinne  Roose- 
velt Morrison,  sister  of  the  late  Theodore  Roosevelt,  and  mother  of  State  Senator 
Theodore  Douglas  Robinson. 


127 


William  Bingham,  Founder  of  City  of  Binghamton 

By  William  F.  Seward,  Librarian  of  Binghamton 
(Neny  York)  Public  Libr.ary. 

HE  greater  part  of  the  City  of  Binghamton  stands  on  land 
once  owned  by  Vrilliain  Bingham.  On  June  27,  1786,  the 
State  granted  a  patent  for  a  tract  of  land  comprising 
30,600  acres,  to  Robert  Lettis  Hooper,  James  Wilson 
and  William  Bingham.  Lying  on  both  sides  of  the  Susquehanna 
river,  this  tract  included  parts  at  least  of  the  present  to^\^lS  of 
Union,  Vestal,  Binghamton,  Conklin  and  Kirkwood. 

In  less  than  four  years  the  proprietors  decided  to  partition 
these  lands  among  themselves.  A  certain  deed  of  indenture  exe- 
cuted on  February  11,  1790,  between  Robert  Lettis  Hooper,  of  the 
State  of  New  Jersey,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  and  James  Wilson, 
granted  and  conveyed  to  William  Bingham  in  fee  simple  a  tract  com- 
prising 13,747  acres.  Wilson  retained  for  himself  7,100  acres,  while 
to  Hooper,  or  perhaps  jointly  to  him  and  Wilson,  fell  the  remaining 
9,773  acres. 

The  Bingham  tract,  occupying  the  eastern  end  of  the  entire  pur- 
chase, included,  as  already  stated,  nearly  all  the  land  whereon  the 
city  now  stands.  Some  time  or  at  different  times  within  ten  years 
after  the  division  referred  to,  Mr.  Bingham  must  have  added  to  his 
land  holdings  in  this  region  some  1,293  acres,  for  in  the  midsummer 
of  1800  they  amounted  to  15,040  acres  ''and  three  roods,  or  there- 
abouts." 

South  of  the  Bingham  tract  vv^as  one  of  the  Sidney  tracts,  patent- 
ed to  Robert  Morris,  December  13,  1787,  and  which  included  land 
now  within  the  confines  of  portions  of  the  Fifth  and  Sixth  wards. 
The  north  part  of  the  city,  east  of  the  Chenango  river,  covers  a  small 


Editor's  Note— This  narrative  is  a  chapter  from  a  work  now  in  press,  Binpham- 
ton  and  Broome  County:  A  History,"  Lewis  Historical  Pubhshmg  Co..  New  \ork  an^ 
Chicago.  Binghamton  is  the  county  seat  of  Broome  County.  .New  \ork.  It  tak-es  us 
name  from  Colonel  John  Broome,  who  was  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  btate  oi  New 
York  at  the  time  of  the  institution  of  Broome  County.  March  28  1806  His  Portrait, 
which  appears  as  the  frontispiece  of  this  number  of  -Americana,  is  also  reproduced 
from  Mr.  Seward's  History. 

128  •  IV. 


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kd  < 


L^, 


J 


WILLIAM    HLXCiHAM 


WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

portion  of  the  commonly  called  Clinton  and  Melcher  tract,  which 
was  patented  to  James  Clinton  and  Isaac  Melcher,  March  19,  17S0. 

Then  there  was  the  so-called  Boston  Purchase,  otherwise  known 
as  the  Boston  Ten  Towns.  As  every  student  of  our  early  history 
knows,  many  disputes  arose  over  land  grants,  patents,  titles,  and 
ownership,  and  the  charters  by  the  Crown  led  to  conflicting  claims 
between  Massachusetts  and  New  York  as  to  boundary  lines.  Finally, 
by  way  of  compromising  those  differences,  it  was  determined  by  the 
commissioners,  who  met  at  Hartford,  Conn.,  December  IG,  1786,  that 
New  Y^ork  State  should  retain  sovereignty  and  jurisdiction  over  its 
own  territory,  while  to  Massachusetts  "was  ceded  the  right  of  pre- 
emption of  the  soil  (that  is,  the  right  of  first  purchase  from  the 
Indians)  of  substantially  all  the  territory  west  of  a  line  drawn  due 
north  from  the  S2nd  milestone  on  the  Pennsylvania  north  line,  and 
extending  north  through  Seneca  lake  to  Sodus  bay,  in  Lake  Ontario. 
New  Y^ork  also  ceded  to  Massachusetts  the  pre-emption  right  to 
230,400  acres  of  land  lying  between  Owego  creek  and  the  Chenango 
river." 

It  was  this  vast  tract  last  named  that  eleven  residents  of  Berk- 
shire county,  Massachusetts,  bought  in  1787  at  a  cost  of  twelve  and 
one-half  cents  per  acre,  and  subject  to  whatever  title  might  be  fur- 
nished by  the  Indians.  To  this  association  the  original  grantees 
afterward  admitted  forty-nine  other  members,  some  of  them  influ- 
ential Boston  men,  so  that  it  numbe.       sixty  in  all. 

Judge  Avery,  in  some  of  his  well-considered  sketches  of  local 
annals,  asserts  that  the  first  meeting  for  a  treaty  with  the  Indians 
was  held  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Chenango  river,  about  three  miles 
above  the  present  city,  but  nothing  definite  seems  to  have  been  ac- 
complished on  that  occasion.  At  a  subsequent  meeting,  held  at 
Ochenang  (the  Indian  village  situated  just  east  of  the  confluence  of 
the  Chenango  mth  the  Susquehanna  and  on  land  that  became  a  part 
of  the  city  tract)  the  Indians  were  induced  to  sign  away  their  do- 
main, after  which,  toward  nightfall,  they  sampled  so  freely  the  New 
England  rum  placed  at  their  disposal  that  the  usual  orgies  ensued, 
or,  in  modern  phase,  ''a  good  time  was  had  by  all,"  at  least  by  the 
redskins.  They  had  been  shrewd  enough,  however,  to  reserve  the 
right  to  hunt  and  fish  on  the  ceded  tract  for  a  term  of  seven  years, 
also  a  half-mile  square  of  land  for  their  o^^^l  use  at  the  mouth  of  Cas- 
tle creek.    It  is  related  on  good' authority  that  they  occupied  the 

129 


WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

tract  during  the  full  term  of  their  reserved  privileges,  and  that  no 
small  number  of  those  Indians  remained  in  this  region  for  many 
years  afterward. 

Only  a  small  part  of  the  city  lies  within  the  Boston  Purchase, 
whose  southern  boundary,  according  to  our  local  historian,  the  late 
William  S.  LaA\yer,  extended  due  east  and  west  betv/een  the  mouth 
of  the  Owego  creek  and  a  point  about  a  mile  above  the  mouth  of 
the  Chenango.  The  line  in  fact  began  about  500  feet  north  of  the 
north  line  of  Prospect  street,  and  thence  ran  across  the  northeast 
corner  of  Spring  Forest  cemetery,  onward  through  land  now  cov- 
ered by  Johnson  City,  then  after  crossing  and  recrossing  the  Susque- 
hanna river,  it  ended  at  the  mouth  of  Owego  creek. 

A  certain  area  within  the  Bingham  tract  was  set  oif  for  a  to\vn 
site  and  called  "Bingham's  Patent."  A  map  of  it,  as  resurveyed  in 
1811  by  Michael  R.  Tharp,  is  here  republished.*  On  this  part  of  Mr. 
Bingham's  holdings  Joshua  Whitney,  acting  under  full  instructions 
as  a  legally  accredited  agent,  began  in  August,  ISOO,  to  lay  out  a 
section  of  Court  and  South  Water  streets.  By  reason  of  favors  he 
had  received  from  his  friend  and  benefactor,  the  great  lando^\^ler, 
he  was  the  more  eager  to  carry  out  the  vision  and  desire  of  William 
Bingham,  namely,  to  found  a  prosperous  community  in  which  trade, 
industries  and  the  arts  would  flourish,  though  probably  neither  the 
principal  nor  his  agent  ever  dreamed  that  it  would  grow  into  the 
teeming  metroi^olis  of  the  Southern  Tier. 

For  the  first  time  is  here  reproduced  in  facsimile  a  form  of 
agreement  given  on  July  4th,  1800,  by  William  Bingham  to  Joshua 
"Whitney  to  act  as  his  land  agent  in  the  proposed  new  settlement — 
soon  to  be  kno\\^i  as  Chenango  Point,  but  a  few  years  later  to  be 
called  Binghamton,  in  honor  of  William  Bingham — and  to  dispose 
of  or  lease  the  outlying  i:»roperties  that  belonged  to  his  employer. 
Whitney's  compensation  for  his  services  was  a  commission  of  four 
per  cent,  on  sales  of  lots  and  lands  belonging  to  William  Bingham, 
or,  less  than  four  years  afterward,  to  his  estate. 

In  the  same  document  we  find  mentioned  a  deed  in  fee  simple 
from  Bingham  to  Whitney  of  land  for  a  To\ni  Square,  *' marked 
in  the  Plat  of  the  said  To^^^l  No.  45,  and  containing  five  acres,  two 
roods  and  thirty-nine  perches."  This  is  the  i3lot  now  knowm  as 
Court  House  Square. 


♦This  map  and  the  facsimile  mentioned  farther  down  on  this  page,  appear  in  Mr. 
Seward's  History,  and  are  not  reproduced  here. 

130 


..    .--■     -       -T     -    -■ 

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WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

On  the  same  day,  July  4,  1800 — as  another  document  shows — 
in  consideration  of  the  sum  of  $1,075 — or  at  the  reduced  rate  of  five 
dollars  an  acre — William  Bingham  and  his  wife  deeded  215  acres  of 
farm  land,  within  the  Bingham  patent,  to  Joshua  Whitney,  the  ad- 
vantageous location  of  which  for  conversion  into  town  lots  is  clearly 
indicated  in  the  accompanying  facsimile  agreement.  In  two  cash 
payments,  the  first  one  amounting  to  three  hundred-odd  dollars, 
''Josh"  Whitney,  as  he  was  then  familiarly  called,  became  the  o^^^le^ 
of  what  was  to  prove  some  valuable  real  estate. 

Judging  by  what  the  Boston  Purchase  cost  per  acre,  it  appears 
likely  that  Bingham  and  his  associates  acquired  their  tract  at  an 
extremely  low  figure — probably  under  twenty  cents  an  acre,  though 
exact  information  on  that  point  is  not  accessible — at  least  to  the 
preseiit  writer.  In  the  autumn  of  1800  Joshua  Whitney  sold  lots  on 
the  Bingham  patent  at  prices  apparently  ranging  from  ten  to  fifteen 
dollars  an  acre,  according  to  location. 

By  1815,  the  most  desirable  lots  in  the  village  were  selling  at  the 
rate  of  twenty  dollars  or  more  an  acre.  Records  of  a  still  later  time, 
in  the  office  of  the  City  Engineer,  show  that  37  lots  north  of  the  Sus- 
quehanna sold  for  $59,285.99,  and  21  lots  south  of  the  river  sold  for 
$30,067.10. 

With  the  passing  years  and  the  steady  gro^\i:h  of  Binghamton, 
all  lots  within  the  city  limits  have  increased  enormously  in  price, 
and  the  estimated  value  of  land  and  improvements  on  the  Bingham 
patent  to-day  is  $200,000,000. 

William  Bingham  was  a  native  of  Philadelphia,  where  his  fam- 
ily had  lived  for  several  generations.  His  grandfather,  James  Bing- 
ham, for  many  years  a  blacksmith,  died  in  1714,  leaving  considerable 
landed  property,  and  was  buried  at  Christ  Church,  on  December  22 
of  that  year.  Little,  if  anything,  appears  to  be  known  regarding 
the  antecedents  of  the  progenitor  of  this  family,  James  Bingham  the 
blacksmith.  A  careful  search  through  the  massive  tomes  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Plistorical  Society  at  Philadelphia  has  revealed  noth- 
ing to  the  point,  so  that  it  is  extremely  doubtful  whether  any  one  can 
trace  this  branch  of  the  Binghams  any  farther  back.  It  is  quite  safe 
however,  to  infer  that  they  were  from  English  stock. 

James,  a  son  of  the  blacksmith,  added  to  the  possessions  of  the 
family  by  marrying  a  daughter  of  William  Budd,  of  Burlington, 

131 


WILLIAM  BIXGHAM.  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

N.  J.  William,  another  son,  added  still  more  by  marrying,  in  1745, 
Mary,  daughter  of  Mayor  John  Stamper.  A  certain  mV.  Black,  who 
evidently  was  a  warm  admirer  of  Molly  Stamper,  as  she  was  called 
before  her  marriage,  wrote  in  am.usingly  extravagant  praise  of  her 
charms,  when  as  Mrs.  Bingham  she  figured  on  the  early  lists  of  the 
Philadelphia  Dancing  Assembly.  ^'I  cannot  say  that  she  was  a  Reg- 
ular Beauty,"  he  drolly  explains,  ''but  she  was  such  that  few  coufd 
find  any  fault  with  what  Dame  Nature  had  done  for  her. 
When  I  view'd  her  I  thought  all  the  statues  I  ever  beheld  were  so 
much  inferior  to  her  in  beauty  that  she  was  more  capable  of  convert- 
ing a  man  into  a  statue,  than  of  being  imitated  by  the  greatest  mas- 
ter of  that  art,  and  I  surely  had  as  much  delight  in  surveying  her 
as  the  organs  of  sight  are  capable  of  conveying  to  the  soul." 

Her  son— our  William  Bingham— was  born  in  Philadelphia, 
April  8,  1752.  He  was  graduated  at  the  College  of  Philadelphia  in 
1768 ;  and  three  years  later  was  appointed  consul  under  the  British 
Government  to  Martinique.  He  remained  at  St.  Pierre  during  most 
of  the  American  Revolution,  also  acting  there  as  agent  for  the  Conti- 
nental Congress.  Living  in  that  place  then  was  a  young  girl  who 
was  afterward  to  be  celebrated  as  Josephine,  the  first  wife  of  Napo- 
leon Bonaparte. 

There  are  long-settled  Irish  Binghams  in  Philadelphia— one  of 
them,  Henry  H.  Bingham,  having  been  a  prominent  public  man  there 
some  years  ago ;  but  William  Bingham  did  not  belong  to  the  Irish 
branch.  The  fact  that  he  represented  Great  Britain  in  the  West 
Indies  has  without  question  lent  color  to  the  false  assumption  of 
some  of  his  biographers  that  he  was  an  Englishman  by  birth. 

Soon  after  his  return  from  the  tropics,  William  Bingham  mar- 
ried the  beautiful  Anne  Willing,  then  in  her  seventeenth  year,  on 
October  26,  1780.  As  a  daughter  of  Thomas  W.  Willing,  the  partner 
of  Robert  Morris  and  a  wealthy  merchant,  she  brought  to  her  hus- 
band a  family  prestige  that  was  second  to  none  in  the  Quaker  City. 
But  in  addition  to  this,  she  helped  to  establish  the  standard  of  fem- 
inine fashion  and  elegance  in  that  flourishing  town.  William  Bing- 
ham, a  sagacious  man,  a  natural  money-maker,  had  amassed  great 
affluence  while  in  the  West  Indies,  and  it  may  as  well  be  said  in  this 
place  that  he  also  inherited  money  from  his  father  and  later  man- 
aged a  large  amount  of  property  belonging  to  his  wife. 

The  records  show  that  William  Bingham  was  the  warrantee  of 

132 


WILLIAM  BLNGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BLXGHAMTON 

125  tracts  of  Land  in  Pennsylvania  on  the  Last  Purchase  from  the 
Indians,  which  was  made  October  23,  1784.  These  warrants  each 
called  for  1,000  acres,  but  the  surveys  returned  upon  them  in  almost 
every  instance  were  for  1,100  acres,  and  allowance  of  six  per  cent, 
so  the  acreage  in  the  aggregate  amounted  to  140,000  in  round  fig- 
ures. Of  these  tracts,  75  were  patented  to  William  Bingham  and  the 
balance  were  patented  to  Alexander  Baring,  et  al.  It  is  believed 
these  lands  were  situated  in  what  are  now  Potter,  Tioga  and 
McKean  counties  in  the  Keystone  State. 

In  1784  the  personable  young  couj^le  made  a  trip  to  Europe,  and 
being  close  friends  of  our  American  Ministers,  were  accorded 
special  distinction  at  various  courts.  John  Adams,  Franklin,  and 
Jefferson  were  among  our  diplomatists  abroad  at  that  period  and 
through  their  good  offices  and  those  of  General  Lafayette,  the  Bing- 
hams  gained  the  entree  to  the  best  society  in  France  and  England. 

Mrs.  Bingham  is  frequently  mentioned  in  the  letters  from  Mrs. 
John  Adams  and  others  as  highly  esteemed  for  her  winsome  social 
qualities.  "She  is  coming  quite  into  fashion  here,"  John  Adams' 
daughter  wrote  of  her  from  London,  "and  is  very  much  admired. 
The  hairdresser  who  dresses  us  on  court  days  inquired  of  mamma 
whether  she  knew  the  lady  so  much  talked  of  here  from  America, 
Mrs.  Bingham.  He  had  heard  of  her  from  a  lady  who  had  seen  her 
at  Lord  Duncan's." 

As  may  well  be  believed,  the  court  circle  of  London  societ}'  was 
not  any  too  favorably  disposed  toward  Americans  at  that  time. 
Even  so,  the  impression  created  by  the  verve  and  character  of  Mrs. 
Bingham  insured  for  her  the  most  gracious  sort  of  a  reception; 
nor  was  the  husband,  a  noble  and  handsome  type  of  manhood,  who 
had  served  England  in  the  AVest  Indies  and  taken  no  aggressive  part 
against  her  in  the  Eevolution,  less  welcome.  Not  that  his  real  sym- 
pathies were  with  England  in  that  desperate  struggle;  nothing  in 
his  career  attests  that  he  was  other  than  an  American  patriot  of  the 
highest  order. 

William  Bingham  had  not  been  in  diplomacy  for  his  health, 
though  he  had  not  acquired  his  fortune  as  the  Napoleonic  Prince  of 
Benevento  (Talleyrand)  got  his.  He  saw  many  legitimate  chances 
to  augment  his  riches  and  he  availed  himself  of  them.  While  in 
England  he  probably  used  no  little  tact ;  certainly  he  did  not  pro- 
claim from  the  housetops  that  had  he  been  in  Pennsylvania  at  the 

133 


WILLIAM  BINGHA:M.  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

outbreak  of  the  war  he  would  have  joined  the  Continental  army  and 
fought  tooth  and  nail  against  the  redcoats.  But  it  is  not  obvious 
that  there  was  much  for  his  conscience  to  reckon  with  because  he  had 
not  resigned  his  double  billet  and  rushed  home  to  become  a  trooper ; 
for  many  loyal  colonists  would  not  enter  into  lethal  conflict  if  they 
could  help  it;  many  good  men  in  those  parlous  times  wavered 
between  royalist  and  American  sentiment.  And  even  if  the  British- 
ers did  not  find  in  Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Bingham  partisans,  what 
tory  of  tories  in  the  English  metropolis  could  have  had  any  pro- 
nounced prejudice  against  so  attractive  and  aristocratic  a  couple, 
especially  since  Mrs.  Bingham  was  one  of  the  first  Americans  to  seek 
a  presentation  at  the  Court  of  George  III,  after  our  separation  from 
the  mother  country? 

Apropos  of  Mrs.  Bingham  it  has  been  written:  ''Her  striking 
beauty  of  face  and  form,  her  easy  deportment  that  had  all  the  pride 
and  grace  of  high  breeding,  the  intelligence  of  her  countenance,  and 
the  entire  affability  of  her  attitude,  disarmed  every  feeling  of  un- 
friendliness and  converted  everyone  into  admiration."  Thus  Mrs. 
John  Adams. 

Their  pleasant  sojourn  in  England  was  cut  short  by  the  election 
of  Mr.  Bingham  (in  1786)  as  a  member  of  the  Congress  of  the  Con- 
federation, in  which  he  served  for  two  years.  In  the  meantime  he 
built  in  Philadelphia  what  was  then  considered  a  superb  dwelling 
upon  a  lot  of  three  acres  on  the  west  side  of  Third  street,  between 
Walnut  and  Spruce  streets,  and  furnished  it  with  much  elegance. 
From  England  he  had  brought  over  not  only  the  plan  of  the  house, 
but  nearly  all  the  furniture  and  decorations.  The  house  was  mod- 
eled after  that  of  the  Duke  of  Manchester  but  on  a  larger  scale. 
Standing  back  about  forty  feet  from  the  street,  it  was  approached 
through  two  iron  gates  by  a  semi-circular  drive.  It  was  very  wide, 
and  three  stories  high  .  A  low  wall  with  balusters  extended  in  front, 
and  the  grounds  were  laid  out  with  skill  and  taste.  The  whole  of 
Third  and  Fourth  streets  from  Spruce  to  Willing 's  Alley  was  occu- 
pied by  the  houses  and  property  of  Mrs.  Bingham's  relatives.  Her 
father's  residence  seems  to  have  been  a  large  double,  venerable- 
looking  house,  surrounded  by  trees,  among  them  some  fine  specimens 
of  the  sycamore  or  buttonwood. 

The  Bingham  mansion  finally  became  a  well-kept  and  popular 
hotel  and  for  many  years  was  kno^vn  as  "Head's  Mansion  House." 

134 


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WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

An  early  morning  fire,  toward  the  latter  part  of  the  '40 's,  ruined  the 
roof  and  damaged  the  interior.  It  was  pulled  do^\^l,  and  a  Mr. 
Bouvies,  mahogany  dealer,  erected  on  the  lot  several  brownstone- 
front  residences  in  1S50.  Besides  this  luxurious  towai-house,  Mr. 
Bingham  owned  a  country-seat  west  of  the  Schuylkill  and  north  of 
the  Lancaster  road.  As  captain  of  the  Dragoons*  in  the  latter  part 
of  May,  17S9,  he  escorted  Mrs.  Washington  from  Chester  to  Phila- 
delphia, when  on  her  journey  to  New  York  to  join  her  husband,  who 
had  taken  the  oath  of  office  as  President  of  the  United  States  on  the 
preceding  30th  day  of  April. 

The  next  year  Mr.  Bingham  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  and  chosen  Speaker.  •  It  was  early  in 
this  year  that  several  tracts  of  land  in  this  region,  that  is,  in  the 
Susquehanna  Valley,  came  into  William  Bingham's  exclusive  posses- 
sion, as  related  in  the  beginning  of  this  chapter. 

It  will  be  noted  that  the  land  patent  originally  held  in  what  be- 
came Broome  county  by  Messrs.  Bingham,  Hooper  and  Wilson,  was 
a  mere  bagatelle  compared  to  Mr.  Bingham's  domains  in  Pennsyl- 
vania and  his  still  more  immense  holdings  in  Maine.  One  of  his 
purchases  in  that  province  was  about  half  of  Mount  Desert,  which 
comprises  60,000  acres.  The  island  was  afterward  divided  and  the 
eastern  part,  including  the  site  of  Bar  Harbor,  now  one  of  the  most 
fashionable  summer  resorts  in  the  country,  was  set  otf  to  William 
Bingham.  The  trustees  of  his  estate  still  own  land  on  Mount  Desert 
and  in  other  parts  of  Maine,  which  has  not  as  yet  been  sold. 

In  short,  Mr.  Bingham  apparently  owned  nearly  one-ninth  of 
the  total  area  of  Maine.  For  many  years  the  descendants  of  French 
pioneers  in  the  province  sought  to  gain  possession  of  certain  tracts. 
Once  more  they  appeared  upon  the  scene,  in  the  persons  of  Monsieur 
and  Madame  de  Gregoire,  the  latter  a  granddaughter  of  Cadillac; 
and  in  1785  they  laid  claim  to  the  lands  of  their  ancestor  before  the 
General  Court  of  Massachusetts.  The  property  had  been  included 
in  the  estate  of  Governor  Bernard,  and  though  confiscated  during  the 
Revolution,  had  been  restored  to  his  son.  Nevertheless,  such  was 
then  the  amicable  feeling  toward  France,  that  the  General  Court, 
"to  cultivate  mutual  confidence  and  union  between  the  subjects  of 
His  most  Christian  Majesty  and  the  citizens  of  this  State,"  listened 
to  the  appeal,  naturalized  Monsieur  and  Madame  Gregoire  and  quit- 
claimed to  them  all  but  lots  of  one  hundred  acres  each  for  actual  set- 

135  . 


WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

tiers.  It  is  doubtful  if  they  had  the  sturdy  endurance  essential  to 
success  on  such  soil  in  such  a  climate,  for  within  ten  years  they  sold 
most  of  the  land  to  AVilliam  Bingham;  but  they  continued  to  live  for 
the  rest  of  their  lives  at  Hull's  Cove,  which  they  made  their  home. 

We  learn  from  Mrs.  Clara  Barnes  Martin,  author  of  a  vohime 
entitled  ''Mount  Desert,"  that  "this  gentleman  (William  Bingham) 
had  previously  acquired  considerable  possessions  in  this  part  of  the 
Province  of  Maine.  One  of  the  earliest  grants  in  what  is  now  Han- 
cock county  v/as  of  six  townships  on  the  condition  of  their  being 
settled  within  a  specified  time  by  Protestants,  a  curious  little  re- 
minder that  the  earliest  settlers  had  been  good  Roman  Catholics. 
In  17S6,  the  General  Court  put  into  a  lottery  fifty  towiiships  between 
Penobscot  Bay  and  Passamaquoddy.  According  to  Mrs.  Martin, 
165,280  acres  were  dra^\m  at  an  average  price  of  fifty-two  cents  per 
acre.  The  greater  portion  of  what  was  left  was  bought  by  Mr.  Bing- 
ham. Of  the  land  purchased  from  the  Gregoires,  a  piece  bordering 
the  Schooner  Head  road  was  in  1SS3  still  in  possession  of  his  heirs. 

In  1794,  Mr.  Bingham  published  a  ''Letter  from  an  American 
on  the  Subject  of  the  Eestraining  Proclamation,"  but  other  relics  of 
his  literary  performances  are  very  few,  and  the  same  may  be  said 
of  his  oratorical  efforts.  Yet  he  must  have  spoken  often  in  public 
and,  judging  by  his  education  and  ability  in  other  directions,  he  must 
have  spoken  well.  Elected  L'nited  States  Senator  in  1793,  Mr.  Bing- 
ham held  that  office  for  the  full  term  of  six  years,  and  served  in 
1797  as  President  of  the  Senate  pro  tempore.  The  Binghanis  were 
intimate  with  nearly  all  the  leaders  of  the  new  American  Republic, 
including  the  Washingtons,  and  it  was  they  who  persuaded  Wash- 
ington to  sit  to  Gilbert  Stuart. 

There  is  a  strange  lack  of  agreement  among  art  writers  as  to  the 
order  in  which  Stuart's  three  portraits  of  Washington  from  life 
were  painted.  A  special  investigation  of  the  subject  enables  xis  to 
present  here  a  version  which  is  believed  to  be  authentic  in  every  de- 
tail. We  know  that  Stuart  returned  to  his  native  land  in  1793,  with 
the  avowed  purpose  of  painting  Washington,  for  whom  his  admira- 
tion was  intense.  He  arrived  in  Pliiladelphia  in  179-i,  while  Con- 
gress was  in  session,  to  present  a  letter  from  John  Jay.  The  nation 
was  in  a  tumult  over  various  matters  and  Washington  was  not  dis- 
posed to  comply  with  Stuart's  request  for  a  sitting.     He  had  al- 


WILLIA^r  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

ready  sat  to  Peale  and  other  painters,  and  to  Jean  Antoine  Houdon, 
the  greatest  portrait  sculptor  of  the  eighteenth  century,  whose  ma- 
jestic statue  of  Washington  is  the  most  priceless  possession  in  the 
State  Capitol  of  Virginia,  Besides  being  weighed  do^\^l  with  many 
cares,  Washington  disliked  to  pose  for  the  brush  or  the  chisel.  Fin- 
ally, however,  he  yielded  to  the  repeated  entreaties  of  the  Binghams, 
who  were  not  only  interested  in  the  welfare  of  the  painter,  but  be- 
lieved that  a  much  better  portrait  of  Washington  than  any  extant 
might  be  produced  by  Gilbert  Stuart. 

No  one  disputes  that  Stuart's  first  attempt  at  a  portrait  of  his 
idol  was  a  failure.  "The  artist  rubbed  it  out,"  says  Charles  H.  Cof- 
fin. *'Tlie  anecdotes  with  which  he  had  beguiled  other  men  into  re- 
vealing their  innerselves  were  of  no  avail  to  unmask  the  impressive 
calm  of  Washington. ' '  But  having  discovered  that  upon  experiences 
of  the  late  war  Washington  would  expand,  the  artist  began  a  second 
portrait ;  and  at  these  sittings  was  produced  the  familiar  head  from 
which  Stuart,  mth  one  exception,  painted  all  his  other  portraits  of 
Washington,  and  which  has  long  been  regarded  as  the  standard 
likeness. 

The  critic  already  quoted  tells  us  that  ''it  came  nearest  to 
Stuart's  conception  of  his  subject,  and  he  delayed  to  finish  it,  that 
he  might  not  have  to  part  with  it.  After  his  death  it  was  sold  by  his 
widow,  and  presented  to  the  Athenaeum,  Boston."  It  now,  how- 
ever, hangs  in  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  there,  while  the  famous  re- 
plica which  the  artist  painted  from  this  original  study  is  o^\'ned  by 
the  i\Ietropolitan  Museum  of  Art.  Ever^^vhere  in  the  civilized  vrorld 
may  be  seen  chromo  and  lithographic  copies  of  it — and  should  we 
not  be  duly  grateful  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Bingham  for  their 
zealous  aid  in  making  possible  the  existence  of  this  favorite  and,  say 
experts,  most  life-like  portrait  ever  painted  of  Washington? 

As  to  the  third  sitting  in  1796 — the  true  story  of  that  is  also 
worth  telling.  It  appears  that  the  Marquis  of  Lansdowne — a  very 
warm  friend  of  the  Willing  family,  including  Mrs.  Bingham— had 
ordered  a  full-length  portrait  of  Washington;  that  at  Mr.  Bing- 
ham's solicitation,  Stuart  allowed  him  to  pay  for  it,  and  that  the 
portrait  was  sent  to  England  as  a  present  to  his  lordship.  This  so- 
called  Lansdo\\me  portrait  is  a  full-length  with  left  hand  on  the 
sword-belt  and  the  other  extended — ''a  pose,"  remarks  Mr.  Coffin, 
** which  suggested  to  the  flippancy  of  certain  minds — for  Washing- 

137 


WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

ton  at  that  time  was  a  focus  point  of  ridicule  and  rancor  as  well  as 
of  devotion — a  resemblance  to  the  handle  and  spout  of  a  teapot, 
and  procured  it  the  nickname  of  the  teapot  portrait." 

As  already  stated,  Stuart  made  from  life  only  three  portraits  of 
Washington,  and  one  of  them  was  destroyed,  the  numerous  others  he 
executed  being  either  replicas  of  these  or  imaginary  i)ortraits,  such 
as  ''Washington  on  Dorchester  Heights,"  etc. 

Within  a  short  time  after  the  Lansdowne  portrait  was  sent  to 
England,  Heath,  the  celebrated  English  engraver,  reproduced  it  in 
pure  line.  When  Stuart,  who  had  neglected  to  copyright  the  por- 
trait, saw  a  copy  of  the  engraving  in  a  shop  window  and  learned  of 
its  immense  sale,  he  was  very  much  exasperated.  He  had  a  quarrel 
•with  Mr.  Bingham  about  it  and  refused  to  iinish  a  portrait  of  the  lat- 
ter that  he  had  begun.  He  had  already  painted  the  head  of  Mrs. 
Bingham,  which  is  o^^^led  by  George  Harrison  Fisher  of  Philadel- 
phia. The  Lansdowne  portrait  of  Washington  was  sent  over  and 
exhibited  in  the  Great  Britain  department  of  the  art  collection  in 
Memorial  Hall  in  1876 ;  also  a  portrait  of  Mr.  Bingham  by  an  Eng- 
lish artist.  Washington  presented  to  Mrs.  Bingham  a  small  por- 
trait of  himself  painted  by  the  Marchioness  de  Brehan. 

The  principal  Centennial  buildings  in  Philadelphia,  by  the  way, 
were  erected  on  what  was  called  the  Lansdo^vne  estate,  now  embod- 
ied in  Fairmont  Park,  and  just  where  still  stands  Horticultural  Hall, 
formerl}^  stood  one  of  the  grandest  and  most  historic  mansions  in 
the  land.  It  was  in  cimmbling  ruins  when  razed  to  the  ground  by  the 
commissioners,  who  made  no  effort  to  restore  it  to  its  former  ap- 
pearance because  of  its  glorious  associations.  Only  the  name — given 
in  compliment  to  the  Marquis  of  Lansdo^\^le — remains  to  mark  the 
estate  once  so  royally  adorned  and  the  home  of  so  much  hospitality 
and  festivity.  Originally  owned  by  Rev.  William  Smith,  Provost  of 
the  College  of  Philadelphia,  it  was  sold  in  1773  to  John  Penn,  part 
Proprietary  of  Pennsylvania  and  Governor,  who  increased  the  es- 
tate by  other  tracts  to  about  200  acres.  Here  a  stone  mansion  of  im- 
posing proportions,  mainly  in  the  Italian  style,  was  erected  by  Penn. 
The  main  building  was  flanked  by  two  recessed  wings,  from  each 
end  of  which  projected  a  large  bay  window;  in  front  was  a  two- 
storied  portico,  each  story  supported  by  Ionic  columns,  surmounted 
with  a  pediment.  A  long  avenue  of  trees  formed  a  charming  ap- 
proach to  the  manor-house.  The  undulating  grounds  were  laid  out  by 


WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

an  expert  landscape  gardener,  fine  old  trees  and  romantic  ravines 
being  among  its  features.  Landsdowne  Glen  remains  today  in  some- 
wliat  of  its  pristine  wildness.  Governor  Penn  died  in  1793,  and  his 
widow,  formerly  Ann  Allen,  deeded  the  property  to  the  husband  of 
her  niece,  James  Greenleaf.  A  leading  merchant,  closely  identified 
with  Robert  Morris  in  hea\y  real  estate  speculations,  James  Green- 
leaf  was  supposed  to  be  a  man  of  great  wealth,  but  he  failed  when 
Morris  collapsed  in  business,  and  the  estate  was  sold  at  mortgage 
foreclosure  by  the  sheriff,  April  11,  1797,  to  William  Bingham  for 
$50,100.  Madame  Bonaparte,  uce  Elizabeth  Patterson,  who  married 
Napoleon's  youngest  brother,  Jerome,  but  was  not  allowed  to  live 
with  him  for  long,  must  have  had  this  magnificent  abode  in  mind 
when  she  wrote  from  Paris  to  her  father  in  1823 :  "It  is  to  be  hoped 
that  in  future  there  will  be  no  more  palaces  constructed,  as  there 
appears  to  be  a  fatality  attending  their  owners,  beginning  with  Rob- 
ert Morris  and  ending  with  Lem  Taylor.  I  do  not  recollect  a  single 
instance,  except  that  of  Bingham,  of  any  one  who  built  one  in  Amer- 
ica not  dying  a  bankrupt." 

Under  the  Bingham  regime  this  palace— not  built  but  improved 
upon  by  the  Senator— was  devoted  to  scenes  of  lavish  hospitality 
and  cultured  diversion.  Its  wealthy  and  fashionable  owners  had 
among  their  guests  the  highest  worthies  in  the  land— such  men  as 
Washington,  Adams,  Jefferson,  and  other  distinguished  American 
and  foreign  statesmen.  The  Binghams  were  listed  in  all  the  swag- 
ger gayeties  of  the  hour,  their  balls  and  sumx^tuous  entertainments 
being  scarcely  eciualed  by  those  at  the  home  of  Mrs.  Adams  and 
Lady  Listen. 

With  such  women  as  Mrs.  William  Bingham,  Miss  Sallie 
McKean  and  Mrs.  Samuel  Blodget  among  the  native  beauties,  and 
IMrs.  Ralph  Izard,  ^Irs.  Elbridge  Gerry,  and  Mrs.  John  Jay,  who 
had  once  been  mistaken  by  the  audience  in  a  French  theatre  for  the 
beautiful  queen  Marie  Antoinette,  among  the  sojourners,  there  was 
perhaps  little  exaggeration  in  the  Due  de  la  Rochefoucauld's  gal- 
lant observation  that  ''in  the  numerous  assemblies  of  Philadelphia 
it  is  impossible  to  meet  ^viih.  what  is  called  a  plain  w^oman."  In  a 
word,  Mrs.  William  Bingham  shared  with  Mrs.  John  Jay  the  dis- 
tinction of  being  the  most  beautiful  and  charming  woman  in  Amer- 
ica. ''Honors  seem  to  have  been  easy  between  these  two  highborn 
dames,  as  both  were  beloved,  admired,  and  feted  at  home  and 
abroad. ' ' 

139 


WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

Mr.  Bingham  was  offered  and  could  have  had  any  foreign 
embassy  within  the  patronage  of  the  President,  but  he  preferred  to 
remain  at  home  among  his  AVhig  friends.  Moreover,  as  a  financier 
iu  the  best  sense  of  the  term,  a  director  of  the  famous  Bank  of  North 
America,  he  realized  that  he  must  keep  a  close  eye  on  the  diverse 
undertakings  in  which  his  capital  was  involved. 

At  least  one  great  grief  came  into  the  lives  of  the  Binghams. 
They  had  three  children — Anne  Louisa,  Maria  Matilda,  and  William. 
Anne  Louisa  married  the  Hon.  Alexander  Baring,  August  23,  179S, 
and  everybod}^  called  it  a  good  match.  But  Maria  ]\Iatilda — a  pretty 
girl  of  16,  and  much  more  romantic  than  ^\^se — eloped,  April  11, 
1799,  with  Comte  de  Tilly,  a  man  of  good  birth  and  ignoble  charac- 
ter. Before  the  piquant  gossip  over  this  affair  had  abated,  the  in- 
dignant parents  of  the  bride  are  said  to  have  bought  off  the  shady 
nobleman  and  got  a  divorce  for  Maria.  Her  second  husband  was 
Henry  Baring,  the  brother  of  Alexander,  who  had  married  her 
sister. 

Poor  Maria  again  misbehaved,  and  at  last  Henry  Baring  di- 
vorced her.  Thirdly,  she  married  a  Marquis  de  Blaisell  of  the  Aus- 
trian embassy  at  Paris,  where  she  lived  the  rest  of  her  life.  The 
lady  can  not  be  said  to  have  done  credit  to  her  family.  Nor  could 
any  more  be  said  for  the  third  child  and  only  son  of  the  Senator,  who 
was  born  in  ISOO.  Twenty-two  years  later  he  married,  at  Montreal, 
a  Miss  Vandreiul.  I  have  seen  it  stated  somewhere  that  the  lady 
was  a  ** baroness  in  her  own  right" — a  statement  not  so  fully  verified 
as  it  might  be,  though  had  she  been  the  daughter  of  a  hundred  earls, 
she  apparently  was  not  one  to  be  desired.  This  William  Bingham 
was  very  inferior  morally  and  intellectually  to  his  father,  and  his 
wife  was  much  talked  about.  He  died  in  Paris  in  1855.  One  finds  no 
mention  of  children  of  this  union. 

It  has  been  liinted  that  Mrs.  Bingham,  wife  of  the  Senator, 
never  recovered  from  the  shock  of  her  daughter's  escapade.  xVt  all 
events,  she  was  not  destined  for  a  long  life.  Returning  one  night 
from  a  party  in  a  sleigh,  she  took  a  severe  cold,  which  settled  on  her 
lungs,  and  she  was  taken  to  Bermuda,  but  died  there,  I\[ay  11,  1801, 
at  the  early  age  of  thirty-seven.  Much  broken  in  health  and  spirits 
by  his  bereavement,  ^Ir.  Bingham  went  to  Europe  shortly  afterward, 
and  died  at  Bath,  England,  January  30,  1804,  in  his  fifty-second 
year.     Among  the  five  executors  named  in  his  will  were  his  two 

140 


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WILLIAM  BL\GHAM.  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BIXGHAMTOX    ' 

sons-in-law — x\lexander  Baring  and  Henry  Baring,  the  others  being 
Thomas  Mayne  Vvllling,  Kobert  Gilmer  and  Charles  AVilling  Hare. 

The  Lansdo^\^le  mansion  was  more  or  less  occupied  by  the  Bar- 
ings, and  at  various  times  by  Joseph  Bonaparte,  the  elder  brother 
of  Napoleon,  and  ex-King  of  Spain.  Then  for  a  number  of  years  it 
remained  vacant,  and  was  finally  burned  by  fireworks  in  the  hands 
of  small  boys.  The  ruins  stood  for  a  long  time,  until  the  property 
was  bought  by  a  number  of  public-spirited  gentlemen,  ceded  to  the 
city,  and  incorporated  with  the  Park. 

From  the  marriage  of  William  Bingham's  elder  daughter  a 
number  of  lords  and  ladies  and  other  titled  personages  date  their 
lineage.  Alexander  Baring  was  the  son  of  the  great  banker,  Sir 
Francis  Baring.  From  a  partner  he  became  on  the  death  of  his 
father,  in  1810,  the  head  of  the  banking  house  of  Baring  Brothers, 
and  was  a  member  of  Parliament  from  1S12  to  1835,  when  he  was 
raised  to  the  peerage  under  the  title  of  Baron  Ashburton. 

The  northeastern  boundary  question  had  long  been  in  contro- 
versy, and  difiicult  matters  pertaining  to  it  had  embarrassed  the 
relations  of  the  two  countries— England  and  the  United  States— 
for  sixty  years.  The  unsettled  conditions  of  that  question  led  Sir 
Robert  Peel  to  send  Lord  Ashburton  to  the  LTnited  States  to  nego- 
tiate a  treaty  which  was  finally  concluded  August  9,  1842,  and  known 
as  the  Ashburton- Webster  treaty.  The  opposition  in  England,  led 
by  Lord  Palmerston,  assailed  it  as  the  "Ashburton  Capitulation," 
while  in  the  United  States  Daniel  Webster,  then  Secretary  of  State, 
was  charged  with  having  allowed  himself  to  be  hoodwinked.  Since 
then,  though,  on  both  sides  of  the  water,  this  treaty  has  been 
accepted  by  the  foremost  public  men  as  a  fair  and  honorable  adjust- 
ment of  a  very  perplexing  difference  between  the  two  nations. 

Yet  one  wonders  whether  Lord  Ashburton,  when  he  came  over 
here  to  negotiate  the  treaty  that  bears  his  name  jointly  with  that  of 
Webster,  had  not  some  personal  interest  on  his  side  of  the  matter— 
his  wife  and  children  being  heirs  of  William  Bingham  and  to  his 
lands  in  Maine. 

On  motion  of  ^Ir.  Hume  in  the  House  of  Commons,  and  of  Lord 
Brougham  in  the  House  of  Lords,  the  extraordinary  compliment  of 
a  vote  of  thanks  for  a  diplomatic  achievement  was  paid  to  Lord  Ash- 
burton. He  was  naturally  pleased  with  this,  but  declined  the  earl- 
dom that  was  offered  to  him.    It  is  not  a  hard  thing  to  account  for 

141 


WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

the  success  of  Lord  Asbburton  as  a  diplomatist.  To  high  charac- 
ter and  intelligence  were  united  affable  and  sufficiently  democratic 
manners,  and  a  disposition  as  kind  as  it  was  lively.  Another  prime 
advantage  to  him  was  his  friendly  personal  relations  with  Daniel 
Webster,  one  of  whose  grandsons  was  named  after  him. 

Lord  Asbburton  was  a  D.  C.  L.  of  Oxford,  a  trustee  of  the  Brit- 
ish Museum,  and  a  pri\^'  councillor.  At  one  time  Talleyrand  con- 
tided  to  him  the  custody  of  his  memoirs,  and  presented  him  with  a 
bust  of  Xapoleon  carved  by  Canova.  He  was  at  the  country  seat  of 
his  daughter  Harriet,  the  widow  of  the  Marquis  of  Bath,  when  he 
died,  in  1848.  His  wife,  nee  Anne  Louisa  Bingham,  a  notably  refined 
woman,  died  about  six  months  after  him.  His  eldest  son,  William 
Bingham  Baring,  the  second  Lord  Asbburton,  who  for  seventeen 
years  was  a  member  of  Parliament  and  held  various  official  posi 
tions,  died  March  23,  1864.  As  bankers,  it  will  be  recalled,  the  Bar- 
ings for  nearly  a  century  represented  the  financial  interests  of  this 
country. 

Of  other  titled  and  blue-blooded  persons  allied  to  the  Bingham, 
children  and  to  their  children  by  marriage,  several  readable  chap- 
ters might  be  written.  ]Much  information  about  them  may  be  found 
in  Burke's  Peerage.  Senator  Bingham's  remote  descendants — 
they  are  all  now  English  or  French — have  profited  enor- 
mously by  his  land  purchases,  and  it  is  interesting  to  know  that 
seventy  or  eighty  years  after  his  death  they  began  to  get  large 
sums  from  Pennsylvania  oil  lands  as  well  as  from  land  on  Mount 
Desert. 

The  second  Baron  Asbburton,  the  eldest  of  seven  children,  mar- 
ried, for  his  first  wife,  Harriet  Mary,  eldest  daughter  of  George 
John,  sixth  Earl  of  Sandwich.  Lady  Harriet  Asbburton,  a  woman  of 
remarkable  brunette  loveliness,  was  Carlyle's  friend  and  vrill  be 
remembered  by  all  readers  of  Thomas  Carlyle.  This  friendship 
caused  much  bitter  jealousy  on  the  part  of  Janet  Welsh  Carlyle  and 
a  good  deal  of  mischievous  tattle.  Says  Froude :  "It  was  not  that 
Lady  Asbburton  had  ever  been  devoted  to  Carlyle.  Quite  evidently 
the  feeling  ran  the  other  way.  Carlyle  had  sat  at  the  feet  of  the  fine 
lady,  adoring  and  worshipping,  had  made  himself  the  plaything  of 
her  caprices,  had  made  Lady  Asbburton  the  object  of  the  same 
idolatrous  homage  which  he  had  once  paid  to  his  wife.  There  are 
in  existence,  or  there  were,  masses  of  extravagant  letters  of  Carlyle 

142 


WILLIAM  BINGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BINGHAMTON 

to  the  great  lady,  as  ecstatic  as  Don  Quixote's  to  Dulcinea."  She 
died  in  1S57,  and  then  lier  husband  married  Lady  Louisa  Maekensie, 
wlio  continued  to  show  Carlyle  the  same  kindness  as  her  predecessor 
had  done,  for  he  was  a  frequent  visitor  in  the  household. 

The  second  Baron  Ashburton  was  succeeded  by  his  brother 
Francis,  who  had  married  Hortense  Eugenie  Claire,  daughter  of 
Ilugues  Bernard  Maret,  Duke  of  Bassano,  one  of  the  most  trusted 
and  most  trustworthy  Ministers  of  Napoleon  I.  Their  oldest  son, 
Alexander  Hugh,  became  the  fourth  Lord  Ashburton  on  the  death  of 
his  father  in  18G8.  This  fourth  Baron  married  Leonora  Carolina, 
second  daughter  of  Edward  St.  Vincent,  ninth  Lord  Digby.  His 
lordship  (the  fourth  Lord  Ashburton)  died  July  18,  1889,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  eldest  son,  Francis  Denzil  Edward  Baring,  the 
present  peer.  He  was  formerly  a  lieutenant  in  the  Hampshire  Im- 
perial Yeomanry.  His  first  viife,  who  died  in  1904,  was  Hon.  Mabel 
Edith  Hood,  eldest  daughter  of  the  fourth  Viscount  Hood,  and  the 
mother  of  his  five  children,  Alexander  Francis  St.  Vincent  being  the 
eldest.  In  1905  this  fifth  Lord  Ashburton  met  Miss  Donnelly — 
known  on  the  stage  as  Frances  Belmont — who  was  born  in  Dublin 
and  grew  up  in  a  Boston  tenement.  They  were  married  in  February, 
1906,  in  the  chapel  of  the  British  Embassy  in  Paris,  and  soon  after- 
ward started  on  a  leisurely  honejTnoon  trip  around  the  world.  One 
of  the  sisters  in  the  original  cast  of  **Floradora"  at  the  Casino 
Theatre,  New  York,  the  new  Lady  Ashburton  has  found  a  welcome 
place  in  high  circles  of  English  society,  as  though  she  had  been  born 
in  it. 

That  "certain  condescension  in  foreigners,"  of  which  the  poet 
Lowell  wrote  so  wittily,  has  often  been  exemplified  in  the  hunting  of 
the  American  heiress  by  some  impoverished  nobleman  of  Europe. 
But  the  fifth  Lord  Ashburton  is  not  that  kind  of  a  lord — being  the 
owner  of  30,000  acres  in  Hampshire,  England,  a  domain  of  almost 
fabulous  value.  Therefore  he  has  not  been  tempted  to  marry  for 
money. 

In  the  attempt  here  made  briefly  to  mention  scions  of  the  British 
peerage  that  have  descended  from  Alexander  Baring  and  his  wife, 
Anne  Louisa  Bingham,  the  names  of  other  progeny — and  data  as  to 
their  births,  marriages,  and  deaths — have  been  benevolently  omitted. 
The  three  sons  and  two  daughters  of  Henry  Baring  and  Maria  Ma- 
tilda, and  their  children,  are  mentioned  in  Burke.     These  children 

143 

t 


WILLIAM  BIXGHAM,  FOUNDER  OF  CITY  OF  BIXGFIAMTOX 

are  among  the  living  heirs  who  receive  an  income  from  the  estate  of 
AVilliam  Bingham. 

Let  us  not  forget  that  William  Bingham  once  owTied  the  land- 
including  the  angled  area  formed  by  the  confluence  of  the  Chenango 
^vith  the  Susquehanna— whereon  most  of  the  city  of  Binghamton 
now  stands ;  that  the  name  of  the  city  is  borrowed  from  his  ovn\.  Nor 
should  we  forget  that  William  Bingham  did  actually  donate  the 
land  for  the  site  of  a  court  house  and  other  public  buildings,  and 
that  his  representative  carried  out  most  of  his  wishes  very  soon 
after  Chenango  Point  became  the  county  seat  of  Broome. 

We  must  give  William  Bingham  credit  for  having  been  a  good 
deal  of  a  man.  In  shaping  the  material  of  biographical  research  one 
is  often  conscious  that  less  than  half  enough  is  recorded  of  the 
splendid  spirit  of  men  like  the  one  here  so  inadequately  sketched. 
Of  such  intimate  disclosures  as  to  William  Bingham,  we  have  too 
few.  Yet  proofs  of  his  generosity,  as  to  the  squatters  on  his  land, 
for  instance,  are  to  be  found  in  our  o^vn  local  chronicles.  And  in  the 
larger  community  where  he  lived,  w^e  may  be  sure  that  many  bless- 
ings from  the  lips  of  the  poor  were  evoked  by  his  modest  deeds  of 
charity, 

"His  little,  nameless,  unremembered  acts 
Of  kindness  and  of  love." 


144 


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'^yttNiiMd 


The  Story  of  Arlington  National  Cemetery 

By  Cakson  C.  Hathaway,  Wasiii^-gtox,  D.  C. 


^^^^jO  THOSE  who  love  human  iiitorGst,  a  military  cemetery 
1t^;yr  'J  is  not  merely  a  burial  ground.  It  is  a  place  to  stir  the 
f^§'^\'''.  4  imagination  and  to  arouse  living  memories  of  the  past. 
!i22i^Ej^  Amid  such  surroundings,  Lincoln  gave  to  the  world  his 
Gettysburg  Address,  America's  greatest  contribution  to  literature. 
Even  the  peaceful  silence  of  a  country  churchyard  could  inspire  the 
most  sublime  poem  in  the  English  language,  "Gray's  Elegy."  If 
we  would  know"  the  real  spirit  of  our  country,  we  need  not  turn  to  the 
halls  of  legislation.  Among  the  millions  in  the  throbbing  centers  of 
commerce  we  would  search  for  it  in  vain.  We  shall  find  it  rather  in 
Arlington  National  Cemetery,  the  last  home  of  our  most  heroic  dead. 

The  Arlington  estate  is  situated  in  northeastern  Virginia,  across 
the  Potomac  river  from  Washington,  D.  C.  It  has  one  of  the  most 
romantic  histories  of  any  plot  of  ground  in  America.  In  1669,  Gov- 
ernor William  Berkeley  presented  the  estate  to  Eobert  Ilowsen,  who 
Boon  sold  it  to  John  Alexander  for  six  hogsheads  of  tobacco.  It  re- 
mained in  his  family  until  Christmas  Day,  1778,  when  it  was  sold  by 
Gerard  Alexander  to  John  Parke  Custis.  During  the  century  that 
followed  it  was  associated  with  two  of  the  most  famous  names  in 
American  history.  John  Parke  Custis  Vv^as  the  son  of  Martha  Custis, 
who,  after  the  death  of  her  first  husband,  married  George  Washing- 
ton. The  first  Custis  proprietor  died  in  17S1,  of  a  fever,  near  York- 
towm,  Virginia.  His  two  children  were  adopted  by  George  Washing- 
ton, and  went  to  live  at  Mount  Vernon ;  they  stayed  there  for  many 
years,  until  the  death  of  Martha  Washington.  The  son,  George 
Washington  Park  Custis,  then  removed  to  his  father's  estate  on  the 
banks  of  the  Potomac  and  built  there  a  beautiful  colonial  mansion. 
It  contained  seventeen  rooms,  and  its  majestic  Doric  pillars  were 
visible  for  many  miles.  The  building  was  begun  in  1S04  but  was  not 
completed  until  after  the  War  of  1812. 

The  estate  had  previously  been  called  Abingdon,  but  its  name 
Avas  now  changed  to  Arlington.    It  is  said  that  the  first  Custis  who 

M5 


THE  STORY  OF  ARLINGTON  NATIONAL  CEMETERY 

was  born  in  Virginia  erected  a  mansion  in  Northampton  county  and 
called  it  Arlington  in  honor  of  Henry,  Earl  of  Arlington,  to  whom 
Charles  II  had  given  extensive  grants  of  land  in  Virginia.  The  new 
estate  on  the  Potomac  was  christened  after  the  other  Custis  estate 
in  Northampton  county. 

Washington  himself  never  lived  in  Arlington,  but  George  Wash- 
ington Parke  Custis  brought  to  his  new  mansion  many  household 
furnishings  from  Mount  Vernon,  as  well  as  personal  reminders  of 
the  Revolution's  greatest  general.  One  particularly  famous  relic, 
now  in  the  National  Museum  in  Washington,  was  the  sleeping  tent 
in  which  Cornwallis  was  received  as  a  prisoner.  This  was  often  set 
up  in  the  grounds  at  Arlington,  and  people  were  glad  to  pay  a  small 
fee  to  sit  for  a  few  moments  in  the  tent.  The  money  was  turned 
over  to  charitable  purposes,  and  it  is  said  that  three  churches  were 
built  from  the  funds  thus  acquired.  George  Washington  Parke  Cus- 
tis died  on  October  10,  1857.  His  grave  and  that  of  his  wife  may 
still  be  seen  a  little  distance  from  the  mansion. 

He  ^\'illed  the  estate  to  his  only  child,  Mary  Ann  Randolph  Lee, 
for  her  lifetime,  and  directed  that  after  her  death  it  should  go  to 
George  Washington  Custis  Lee,  his  eldest  grandson.  Many  years 
before  the  death  of  George  Washington  Parke  Custis,  his  daughter 
had  married  Robert  E.  Lee.  The  wedding  took  place  in  the  Arling- 
ton mansion  on  June  30,  1831.  Lee  at  the  time  was  a  soldier  in  the 
army  of  the  United  States.  His  home  was  at  Alexandria,  Virginia, 
only  a  few  miles  from  Arlington.  It  is  interesting  to  remember  that 
this  historic  city  was  named  after  the  Alexander  family  who  in  pre- 
R evolutionary  days  o^^^led  the  Arlington  estate.  After  the  wed- 
ding, Lee  took  up  his  residence  at  Arlington  and  lived  here  for  over 
a  quarter  of  a  century,  although  his  profession  as  a  soldier  took  him 
on  frequent  journeys,  his  most  important  work  coming  during  the 
Mexican  War.  He  was  residing  at  Arlington  when  he  received  or- 
ders to  go  and  suppress  the  raid  of  John  Brown  at  Harper's  Ferry. 

From  the  veranda  of  the  beautiful  mansion  he  could  see  the 
dome  of  the  National  Capitol  rising  majestically  to  the  East.  Per- 
haps to  his  mind  there  came  dreams  of  the  day,  when,  like  other 
military  leaders  of  the  past,  he  would  assume  a  place  of  ^eno^\^l  in 
that  home  of  the  nation's  statesmen.  It  was  not  to  be.  The  Civil 
War  broke  in  all  its  fury.  The  command  of  the  Northern  Army  was 
olfered  to  Lee.    He  was  torn  between  loyalty  to  the  Union  and  loy- 

146 


THE  STORY  OF  ARLINGTON  NATIONAL  CEMETERY 

alty  to  his  native  State.  Finally  the  call  of  the  South  conquered.  He 
turned  his  back  on  all  possibilities  of  Northern  fame,  hurriedly  left 
Arlington,  and  took  command  of  the  Southern  armies.  The  estate 
was  seized  by  Northern  troops.  Fortifications  were  thrown  up  to  as- 
sist in  the  defense  of  the  city  of  Washington.  The  old  mansion  was 
turned  into  a  hospital,  and  here  many  men  from  both  the  Nortli  and 
the  South  died.  On  January  11,  1864,  the  Federal  government  sold 
the  property  for  unpaid  taxes  of  $92.07.  The  estate  was  sold  at 
auction,  and  was  bid  in  by  the  United  States  government  for  $26,800. 

On  May  13,  1864,  President  Lincoln  and  General  Meigs  visited 
the  estate  and  were  told  that  a  number  of  soldiers  had  died  there  and 
were  awaiting  burial.  They  gave  orders  that  the  men  be  buried  on 
the  grounds,  and  this  was  the  beginning  of  Arlington  National  Cem- 
etery. An  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  dated  June  15,  1864, 
officially  set  aside  a  portion  of  the  grounds  for  burial  purposes. 
The  first  soldier  laid  to  rest  in  this  historic  spot  was  said  to  be  a 
North  Carolina  soldier  in  the  Confederate  army  by  the  name  of 
Reinhardt,  whose  body  was  later  removed  to  soil  farther  South. 
By  June  30,  1865,  the  estate  contained  5,003  bodies,  and  others  were 
being  buried  daily. 

Some  time  after  the  war  was  over,  Mrs.  Lee  having  died,  her 
son,  George  Washington  Custis  Lee,  brought  suit  against  the  United 
States  for  the  recovery  of  the  property.  It  was  a  very  embarassing 
situation.  According  to  the  law  in  the  case,  he  had  a  clear  title  to 
the  estate,  and  highest  courts  so  decreed;  but  in  the  meantime  the 
place  had  been  made  sacred  by  the  burial  of  thousands  of  soldiers. 
It  was  finally  agreed  that  the  United  States  government  should  pay 
him  $150,000  in  settlement  of  all  claims  against  the  property.  On 
March  25, 1884,  the  final  payment  of  $25,000  was  made,  and  the  whole 
estate  became  the  undisputed  property  of  the  United  States. 

The  original  estate  is  now  divided  into  three  parts.  Four  hun- 
dred and  eight  acres  are  inclosed  as  the  National  Military  Ceme- 
tery. To  the  west  is  Fort  Myer,  where  thousands  of  soldiers  were 
trained  for  the  World  War.  This  is  a  permanent  military  fort  of 
the  United  States.  To  the  east,  approaching  the  Potomac  river,  is 
the  experimental  farm  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture,  which  can 
easily  be  added  to  the  burial  grounds  should  the  occasion  arise.  The 
original  estate  consisted  of  about  1,100  acres. 

■  147 


1 

THE  STORY  OF  ARLINGTON  NATIONAL  CEMETERY 

Near  the  center  of  the  grounds  there  has  been  erected  a  beauti- 
ful amphitheatre  costing  $825,000,  with  a  seating  capacity  of  five 
thousand.  It  is  the  only  memorial  of  its  kind  in  the  United  States, 
dedicated  to  the  soldiers  and  sailors  of  all  the  wars  in  which  Ameri- 
ca has  taken  part.  It  is  built  entirely  of  white  marble,  and  is  open  to 
the  sky.  On  each  Memorial  Day,  services  will  be  held  here  to  honor 
the  heroic  dead.  Arlington's  first  Memorial  Day  was  celebrated  on 
May  30,  186S,  General  Logan,  commander-in-chief  of  the  Grand 
Army  of  the  Republic,  having  issued  orders  that  all  graves  were  to 
be  decorated  on  that  date.  James  A.  Garfield,  then  an  eloquent  mem- 
ber of  Congress,  delivered  the  address  of  the  day.  Since  that  time 
the  spirit  of  Memorial  Day  has  been  liighly  commended  by  many  of 
our  national  leaders.  In  1880  General  Ulysses  S.  Grant  wrote  feel- 
ingly of  the  necessity  for  properly  decorating  the  graves  of  our  sol- 
diers and  sailors  on  each  Memorial  Day.  His  letter  on  that  occasion, 
addressed  personally  to  the  present  editor  of  this  magazine,  is  re- 
produced in  this  connection.  Remembering  him  as  the  utterer  of 
that  touching  prayer,  ''Let  Us  Have  Peace,"  we  may  well  believe 
that  had  he  lived  to  the  World  War  day,  he  would  have  included  its 
soldiers  in  his  benediction. 

Of  the  more  than  thirty-three  thousand  persons  now  buried  in 
Arlington,  nearly  five  thousand  are  numbered  among  the  unkno^vn 
dead.  The  graves  of  the  known  dead  are  marked  by  marble  slabs 
rounded  at  the  top,  while  the  unknown  dead  bear  slabs  with  flat 
tops.  Near  the  Mansion  stands  a  large  monument  bearing  tliis  in- 
scription: w  '  ;  1 

Beneath  this  stone  repose  the  bones  of  2,111  Unknown 
Soldiers  gathered  after  the  war  from  the  fields  of 
Bull  Run  and  the  route  to  the  Rappahannock.     Their 
remains  could  not  be  identified,  but  their  names  and 
deaths  are  recorded  in  the  archives  of  their  country. 

Within  the  cemetery  there  are  now  three  hundred  and  seventy- 
eight  Confederate  graves.  Near  the  western  wall  there  stands  a 
beautiful  monument  erected  by  the  Daughters  of  the  Confederacy. 
It  has  been  called  the  most  striking  allegorical  monument  in  the 
world,  and  bears  the  words  : 

To  our  Dead  Heroes.     Not  for  fame  or  reward, 
not  for  place  or  rank,  not  lured  by  ambition  or  goaded 
by  necessity,  but  in  simple  obedience  to  duty  as  they 
understood  it,  these  men  suffered  all,  sacrificed  all, 
dared  all  and  died. 

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THE  STORY  OF  ARLINGTON  NATIONAL  CEMETERY 

The  monument  was  designed  by  Moses  J.  Ezekiel,  a  Confederate  sol- 
dier who  later  became  a  famous  sculptor.  It  is  interesting  to  note 
that  at  the  foot  of  his  masterpiece,  the  monument  in  Arlington,  the 
sculptor  himself  now  lies  buried  with  his  comrades. 

Here  and  there  throughout  the  Civil  War  section  may  be  seen 
monuments  to  some  of  the  most  famous  heroes  of  that  conflict,  in- 
cluding Admiral  Porter,  who  commanded  the  fleet  on  the  Missis- 
sippi river;  General  Joseph  Wheeler,  w^ho  served  in  the  Confederate 
cavalry,  and  later  was  a  United  States  soldier  in  the  Spanish-Ameri- 
can War;  General  Kosecrans;  and  General  Philip  Sheridan,  who 
made  the  immortal  ride  from  Winchester. 

A  short  distance  from  the  Confederate  monument  may  be  seen 
the  ruins  of  Fort  McPherson,  one  of  a  chain  of  forts  which  were 
hastily  thro^vn  up  as  a  defense  of  Washington  during  the  Civil  War. 
It  is  one  of  the  last  reminders  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Capital  of  the 
danger  from  Southern  invasion  during  the  War  of  the  States.  It 
was  never  actually  used  in  battle,  and  now  consists  merely  of  a  series 
of  grass  covered  mounds. 

Second  in  importance  to  the  Civil  War  area  is  the  Spanish  War 
section,  and  here  the  chief  point  of  interest  is  the  monument  to  the 
heroes  of  the  battleship  Maine.  It  calls  to  mind  that  tragic  night  on 
February  15,  1898,  w^hen  a  fearful  explosion  in  Havana  Harbor 
snuffed  out  the  lives  of  over  two  hundred  and  fifty  sailors  of  that 
famous  ship.  The  first  victims  were  buried  in  Arlington  on  Decem- 
ber 28,  1899,  and  on  March  23,  1912,  after  the  remains  of  the  battle- 
ship had  been  raised  from  Havana  Harbor,  sixty-four  others,  who 
could  not  be  identified,  were  buried  in  the  Maine  plot.  On  the  first 
occasion.  President  McKinley  delivered  the  memorial  address,  and 
in  1912  it  was  given  by  President  Taft.  The  Maine  monument  is  an 
imposing  structure  of  great  historic  interest,  for  it  is  surmounted  by 
the  original  mast  of  the  Maine,  while  at  one  side  rests  an  anchor  of 
the  ill-fated  battle-ship. 

In  the  Spanish  War  section  are  the  graves  of  Admiral  vSampson 
and  his  adversary  in  the  famous  verbal  conflict  which  followed  the 
war,  Admiral  Schley.  Here  are  also  buried  ''Fighting  Bob"  Evans, 
who  led  the  battleship  fleet  around  the  world ;  General  Lawton,  the 
hero  of  the  fighting  during  the  Philippine  insurrection ;  and  here  is 
also  a  monument  to  Roosevelt's  Eough  Riders.    On  a  hilltop  far  to 

149 


THE  STORY  OF  ARLINGTON  NATIONAL  CEMETERY 

the  east  is  the  mausoleum  of  the  famous  admiral  of  the  Spanish- 
American  War.    On  it  there  appears  the  simple  inscription, 

GEOPtGE  DEWEY,  ADMIRAL  OF  THE  XA\^^ 

Finally,  there  is  the  World  War  section.  Here  are  buried  over 
five  thousand  American  soldiers,  most  of  them  veterans  from  the 
fields  of  France.  Near  the  memorial  amphitheatre  is  a  spot  destined 
to  become  one  of  the  most  sacred  shrines  in  the  United  States,  the 
tomb  of  America's  Unknown  Soldier.  There  is  an  atmosphere  of 
romance  and  mystery  in  the  strange  story  of  the  soldier  who  re- 
ceived the  greatest  honors  of  any  American  who  died  during  the 
world  conflict. 

One  day  in  the  month  of  October,  1921,  four  coffins  were  brought 
into  Chalons,  France,  and  deposited  in  the  city  hall.  They  had  been 
taken  from  four  military  cemeteries  at  Belleau  Wood,  Bony,  Thian- 
court  and  Romagne,  and  each  contained  the  body  of  an  uiikno\\Ti 
American  soldier.  Corporal  Edward  Y^ounger  had  been  selected  to 
make  the  final  choice  of  the  one  who  was  to  receive  the  name  of  THE 
UrLkno^^l  Soldier.  He  entered  the  room,  looked  at  all  of  the  cofifins 
for  a  few  moments,  and  then  placed  a  bunch  of  white  roses  on  the 
top  of  one.  The  other  three  were  then  borne  quietly  away  to  be 
buried  in  Romagne  cemetery,  where  most  of  the  American  dead  in 
France  now  lie.  The  coffin  on  which  the  white  roses  rested  was 
marked  ^viih  the  inscription,  ''An  Unkno\\ni  American  Soldier  ^Mio 
Gave  His  Life  in  the  Great  War."  It  then  began  its  triumphal 
march  toward  Arlington.  Wiieii  it  arrived  at  Washington  it  was 
taken  reverently  to  the  Capitol,  where  before  it  filed  nearly  one  hun- 
dred thousand  American  citizens.  The  next  day  it  was  borne  do^vn 
Pennsylvania  avenue,  followed  by  the  greatest  funeral  procession  of 
notables  the  countiy  had  ever  seen.  The  President  of  the  United 
States,  former  Presidents  Taft  and  Wilson,  the  Supreme  Court  of 
the  United  States,  the  members  of  Congress,  and  the  veterans  who 
had  been  awarded  the  Congressional  Medal  of  Honor,  our  highest 
military  decoration,  all  paid  silent  tribute  to  the  Unknown  Hero. 
When  the  procession  reached  Arlington  the  address  was  delivered 
by  the  President  of  the  United  States.  There  were  then  placed 
upon  the  casket  the  highest  military  decorations  of  the  allied  nations. 
The  Victoria  Cross,  a  decoration  never  before  given  to  any  save  a 
British  subject,  was  bestowed  by  Admiral  Beatty  of  the  British 

150 


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THE  STORY  OF  ARLINGTON  NATIONAL  CEMETERY 

Xa\T.  Marshal  Foch,  the  great  French  general,  bestowed  the  Croix 
de  Guerre  and  the  French  military  cross.  At  last  the  body  of  the 
Unkno^^Ti  Soldier  was  laid  to  rest. 

There  are  also  in  Arlington  the  graves  of  many  military-  and 
naval  heroes  who  fought  against  no  foreign  foe,  but  who  are  hon- 
ored for  some  signal  achievement  in  civic  endeavors.  In  one  beau- 
tiful spot  in  front  of  the  Lee  mansion  is  the  grave  of  Pierre  Charles 
L 'Enfant,  engineer,  artist  and  soldier,  who,  under  the  guidance  of 
George  Washington  and  Thomas  Jefferson,  designed  the  plan  for 
the  city  of  Washington.  The  setting  is  a  wonderfully  appropriate 
place  for  his  grave.  Standing  close  by  his  monument,  one  can  see 
just  across  the  Potomac  the  new  Lincoln  Memorial.  A  little  farther 
in  the  distance  are  the  White  House  and  the  Washington  Monument, 
while  on  the  hills  to  the  east  stand  the  Library  of  Congress  and  the 
Capitol  of  the  United  States.  If  L 'Enfant  could  see  the  view  from 
his  grave,  he  would  know  that  dreams  come  true. 

Far  in  the  eastern  portion  of  Arlington  rises  a  sturdy  shaft 
over  the  grave  of  Lieutenant  Thomas  E.  Selfridge,  a  martyr  to  the 
science  of  aviation.  On  September  17,  1908,  a  flight  was  planned  to 
test  one  of  the  new  Wright  airplanes.  The  experiment  was  con- 
ducted at  Fort  Myer,  a  part  of  the  Arlington  estate.  In  the  plane 
were  Selfridge  and  Orville  Wright.  All  went  well  for  a  short  time, 
but  suddenly  the  plane  collapsed  and  dashed  to  the  earth  like  a 
wounded  bird.  Selfridge  was  killed,  but  in  his  death  he  helped  to 
bring  nearer  to  realization  the  hope  of  Professor  Langley,  the 
*' father  of  the  airplane,"  that  ''the  great  overhead  highway  shall  at 
Inst  be  opened  for  the  use  of  mankind."  He  lies  buried  only  a  few 
hundred  yards  from  the  spot  where  the  fatal  accident  occurred. 

A  short  distance  down  the  slope  from  his  grave  is  that  of  Louis 
Henry  Maxfield,  commander  in 'the  United  States  Navy,  who  was 
killed  near  Hull,  England,  in  the  explosion  of  the  Z  R  2,  the  largest 
airship  ever  constructed.  On  a  trial  flight  which  was  being  made 
preparatory  to  sailing  in  the  huge  craft  to  America,  the  bag 
exploded  and  hurled  the  occupants  of  the  ship  to  their  death.  A  lit- 
tle to  the  north  on  an  inconspicuous  hillside  is  a  marble  globe  mark- 
ing the  grave  of  Eobert  E.  Peary,  discoverer  of  the  Xorth  Pole.  He 
finally  achieved  the  goal  of  many  a  hardy  explorer  before  him,  and 
pave  to  iVmerica  the  honor  of  one  of  the  greatest  feats  of  explora- 
tion.   Close  at  hand  is  the  grave  of  Dr.  Walter  Reed,  surgeon  and 

151 


THE  STORY  OF  ARLINGTON  NATIONAL  CEMETERY 

major  in  the  United  States  Army.  For  many  years  the  South  had 
been  ravaged  by  yellow  fever,  and  Dr.  Reed  was  sent  down  into 
Cuba  to  discover  the  cause  of  the  disease.  He  found  that  it  was 
caused  by  the  bite  of  a  variety  of  mosquito,  and  as  a  result  of  his 
research  the  disease  was  conquered.  His  work  marked  one  of  the 
most  important  milestones  in  bacteriological  science.  His  monu- 
ment bears  the  words,  *'He  gave  to  man  control  over  that  dreadful 
Bcourge,  yellow  fever." 

The  Engineer,  the  Aviator,  the  Explorer  and  the  Physician 
were  all  splendid  representatives  of  the  United  States.  Their  work 
was  not  to  destroy,  but  to  assist  mankind. 

One  important  step  remains  in  the  development  of  this  wonder- 
ful estate.  At  present  it  is  almost  isolated  from  "Washington,  and 
must  be  reached  by  a  roundabout  trip  over  a  Potomac  bridge  nearly 
a  mile  and  a  half  away.  On  Armistice  Day,  1921,  when  the  L^nknown 
Soldier  was  buried,  the  roadway  to  the  cemetery  was  blocked  by  a 
surging  throng  of  humanity.  Passage  in  either  direction  became 
impossible.  The  President  of  the  United  States,  hurrying  to  Arling- 
ton to  deliver  the  memorial  address,  was  delayed  for  nearly  an  hour 
waiting  for  the  passage  to  be  cleared.  To  prevent  the  repetition  of 
Buch  an  incident  and  to  link  up  the  Capital  City  with  the  sacred 
home  of  the  dead,  a  new  memorial  bridge  is  to  be  constructed  which 
will  lead  from  the  Lincoln  ^ylemorial  to  the  cemetery  at  Arlington. 

Arlington  is  one  of  the  most  impressive  spots  in  America,  and 
it  is  destined  to  become  even  more  beautiful  as  time  goes  on.  As  a 
national  cemetery  it  has  been  in  existence  for  little  more  than  half  a 
century.  In  the  years  to  come  it  will  guard  the  graves  not  of  the 
present  thirty-three  thousand  of  the  nation's  defenders,  but  of  hun- 
dreds of  thousands.  All  of  the  four  million  soldiers,  sailors  and 
marines  of  the  Great  War  have  the  privilege  of  being  buried  within 
its  walls. 

The  spirit  of  Arlington  is  best  revealed  in  the  inscriptions  on 
the  tombs  of  the  dead.  One  of  these  bears  the  dying  words  of  a  lieu- 
tenant in  the  United  States  Xavy:  "Do  not  bother  any  more  with 
me,  doctor,  look  after  the  others."  Another  may  be  said  to  express 
the  message  of  Arlington  to  the  world : 

"Go  on  fighting;  that  is  what  you  are  here  for." 


Note — The   monument  views    with    this    narrative   are    from   photos   taken    by    the 
author  of  the  article. 


Bust  of  William  Pitt 

Pkesented  to  the  City  of  Pittsburgh 

pN  Thursday,  September  14tli,  1922,  the  City  of  Pittsburgh 
?r^?\\Vi;  ^.^g  ii^Q  scene  of  a  most  interesting  ceremony  which  had 
direct  relation  to  its  practical  founding  and  naming  a 
^  hundred  and  sixty-four  years  ago.  This  was  the  presen- 
tation to  the  City  by  Sir  Charles  Wakefield,  former  Lord  Mayor  of 
London,  of  a  fine  bronze  bust  of  William  Pitt,  Earl  of  Chatham,  the 
great  English  statesman  who  was  primarily  responsible  for  the  tak- 
ing of  the  City  of  Pittsburgh  from  the  French  on  November  25,  1758, 
and  in  whose  honor  the  place  was  named  on  that  day  by  General 
John  Forbes. 

Sir  Charles  Wakefield  was  induced  to  make  his  generous  gift 
through  the  efforts  of  the  Sulgrave  Institute,  an  organization  named 
after  the  home  of  the  ancestors  of  George  Washington  and  composed 
of  Englishmen  and  Americans  desirous  of  promoting  good  feeling 
between  their  respective  countries.  He  therefore  decided  to  present 
to  this  country  two  busts  of  gi-eat  Englishmen  noted  for  their  s>Tn- 
pathy  with  America,  Edmund  Burke  and  William  Pitt.  The  first 
of  these  was  presented  to  Washington,  D.  C,  after  his  visit  to  Pitts- 
burgh. 

Upon  notification  of  his  intention  as  to  Pittsburgh,  the  matter 
was  taken  up  by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  which  enlisted  the  inter- 
est of  Mayor  William  A.  ^lagee,  who  appointed  a  committee  of 
arrangements  headed  by  William  H.  Stevenson,  President  of  the 
Historical  Society  of  Western  Pennsylvania  and  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Historical  Commission.  The  other  members  of  the  executive 
committee  were:  Wm.  M.  Furey,  Robert  Garland,  L.  H.  Burnett, 
Mrs.  E.  V.  Babcock,  W.  M.  Jacoby,  Gen.  Albert  J.  Logan,  H.  C. 
McEldowney,  George  S.  Oliver,  A.  C.  Terry,  E.  X.  Jones,  secretary 
to  the  Mayor,  James  Francis  Burke,  Charles  W.  Danziger,  Wm.  H. 
French  and  Harry  C.  Graham. 

The  164th  anniversary  of  the  battle  of  Grant's  Hill  fought 
between  the  British  and  Colonial  forces  and  the  French  and  Indians 

153 


BUST  OF  WILLIAM  PITT 

was  chosen  as  the  date  for  the  ceremony,  the  scene  being  the  Pitts- 
burgh City-County  building  situated  on  the  hill.  The  battle  was 
fought  for  the  possession  of  Fort  Duquesne,  but  resulted  in  the 
defeat  of  the  British  and  Colonials.  Xearly  a  month  later,  how- 
ever, on  October  12th,  175S,  they  were  successful  in  the  battle  of 
Loyalhanna,  as  a  result  of  which  Fort  Duquesne  was  abandoned  by 
the  French  and  taken  possession  of  by  the  British  and  Colonials  on 
November  25th  following. 

Sir  Charles  Wakefield  and  his  party  reached  Pittsburgh  on  the 
morning  of  September  13th.  He  was  given  a  luncheon  at  the  Cham- 
ber of  Commerce,  where  he  spoke  pertinently  and  forcefully,  as  did 
his  companion,  Sir  Arthur  A.  Haworth,  of  Manchester,  at  a  meet- 
ing in  the  auditorium  presided  over  by  William  H.  Stevenson,  where 
he  was  introduced  by  President  William  M.  Furey,  of  the  Chambei. 
In  the  afternoon  the  party  was  taken  for  an  automobile  ride  through 
the  city,  visiting  the  residence  of  ex-Mayor  E.  V.  Babcock  in  Val- 
encia, and  in  the  evening  attended  a  dinner  at  the  William  Penu 
Hotel.  In  his  remarks  before  the  Chamber  o'f  Commerce,  Sir 
Charles  Wakefield  said  in  part:  ''We  must  increase  the  output  of 
comradeship  of  both  employer  and  employee."  He  expressed  the 
thanks  of  the  visiting  delegation  for  the  cordial  welcome,  told  how- 
he  had  spoken  to  the  combined  forces  of  British  and  the  United 
States  on  the  battle  line  in  Belgium  during  the  World  War,  and 
spoke  with  deep  feeling  of  hearing  how  the  American  soldiers 
responded  with  "Fight  the  Good  Fight."  "I  should  like  to  see 
those  good  old  times  come  again  in  one  respect,"  he  said.  "I  mean 
the  unity  of  the  trenches,  the  comradeship.  I  wish  we  might  see  the 
world's  spiritual  forces  united  as  were  our  military  forces  in  those 
great  days." 

In  the  party  with  Sir  Charles  Wakefield  were  Lady  Wakefield, 
Miss  Freda  W^akefield,  Sir  Arthur  A.  Haworth,  president  of  the 
Merchants'  Exchange  of  Manchester,  and  Lady  Haworth,  Lieuten- 
ant Governor  McCallum  Grant,  of  Nova  Scotia,  and  Mrs.  Grant, 
Hon.  D.  B.  Edwards,  Deputy  High  Commissioner  of  Australia,  H.  S. 
Perris,  a  director  of  Sulgrave  Institution,  Harold  Spender,  writer. 
Captain  M.  L.  DeVoto,  John  A.  Stew^art  of  New  York,  chairman  of 
the  American  Branch  of  the  Sulgrave  Institution,  W.  L.  Humphrey, 
secretary  of  the  Institute,  and  Miss  Ethel  Armes,  secretary  of  the 
American  Branch  of  the  Sulgrave  Institution. 

154 


BUST  OF  WILLIAM  PITT 

At  the  dinner  in  the  evening  at  the  "William  Penn  Hotel,  Chair- 
man Stevenson  presented  James  Francis  Burke  as  the  toastmaster. 
Speeches  were  made  by  Lieutenant  Governor  Grant,  on  "Our  Next 
Door  Neighbor ;"  by  John  A.  Stewart,  on  ''The  Sulgrave  Institution 
in  Its  Relation  to  the  English  Speaking  Race;"  by  Hon.  D.  B.  Ed- 
wards, on  ''Hands  Across  the  Sea;"  and  by  Sir  Charles  AVakefield, 
Mayor  W.  A.  Magee,  Harold  Spender  and  H.  S.  Ferris.  Dr.  Hugh 
M.  Kerr  delivered  the  invocation.  Andrew  B.  Humphrey  proposed 
a  toast  to  President  Harding,  Mayor  Magee  proposed  a  toast  to  King 
George  IV,  and  Mrs.  Perris  proposed  a  toast  to  Mrs.  Harding. 

The  next  day,  September  14th,  at  noon,  the  bust  of  Pitt  was 
presented  at  a  meeting  held  in  front  of  the  City-County  building, 
presided  over  by  AVilliam  H.  Stevenson,  vrho  introduced  the  various 
speakers.  Addresses  were  made  by  William  C.  Sproul,  Governor  of 
Pennsylvania,  Sir  Charles  Wakefield,  and  Mayor  William  A.  Magee. 
Dr.  William  J.  Holland  delivered  the  invocation. 

Sir  Charles  Wakefield,  in  presenting  the  bust,  which  was 
wrapped  Vyith  British  and  American  colors,  told  briefly  the  story  of 
Pitt's  life,  and  paid  glowing  tribute  to  the  American  and  British  Sul- 
grave Institution  through  which  the  bust  was  presented.  In  part  he 
said: 

It  is  my  great  privilege  to  offer  this  bust  of  William  Pitt,  Earl 
of  Chatham,  prime  minister  of  England  and  champion  of  American 
rights,  to  the  City  of  Pittsburgh,  as  a  token  of  friendship  from  the 
British  to  the  American  people. 

They  will,  I  am  sure,  prize  this  fine  bust  of  William  Pitt,  as 
much  as  we  in  London  value  that  magnificent  statue  of  Abraham  Lin- 
coln, which  stands  in  the  verA^  shadow  of  our  House  of  Parliament. 
The  controversies  in  which  Chatham  played  his  heroic  part  are 
dead ;  the  healing  hand  of  time  has  smoothed  out  all  the  roughness 
and  bitterness  of  that  great  struggle  for  liberty.  English  historians 
and  the  English  people  have  long  since  condemned  the  mistaken 
policy  of  George  III  and  his  subser\-ient  ministers,  which  alienated 
the  affection  of  the  American  colonies. 

The  triumph  of  the  cause  of  liberty  in  America  was  a  trumpet 
call  to  its  lovers  everj-where,  and  in  winning  freedom  for  themselves, 
your  ancestors  helped  to  win  it  for  us  also.  They  were  Englishmen 
and  appealed  to  English  principles  of  liberty  and  justice  in  their 
uprising.  And  this  appeal  has  been  allowed,  and  their  victory  ac- 
claimed by  Englishmen  throughout  the  world  for  many  generations 
past. 

In  honoring  the  great  figure  of  Pitt  today  our  thoughts  are,  in 

155 


BUST  OF  WILLIAM  PITT 

a  small  measure,  and  by  way  of  gratitude  and  admiration  for  him, 
in  the  past ;  but  in  a  greater  measure  they  are  turned  to  the  present 
and  the  future. 

There  are  now  no  hereditary  misunderstandings,  or  lingering 
jealousies  or  antagonism,  between  the  British  and  the  American 
people. 

Our  mission  to  America  and,  to  your  splendid  city  of  Pitts- 
burgh, is  to  bring  a  message  of  comradeship  and  fraternity,  an  as- 
surance of  good  will  and  of  our  desire  for  every  kind  of  cooperation 
between  our  two  great  nations. 

Our  ceremony  today  reminds  us  that  we  have  great  memories 
in  common.  We  too,  have  more  recent  memories  of  our  common 
sacrifices  to  secure  the  victory  of  democracy  in  arms  against  the  op- 
pressor. 

When  we  look,  therefore,  at  this  statue,  let  us  remember  how 
easy  is  our  journey  along  the  road  which  Pitt  so  well  pointed  out, 
and  resolve  that  we  will  do  all  in  our  power  to  maintain  the  price- 
less boon  of  Anglo-American  comradeship. 

Governor  Sproul  in  his  speech  lauded  Pennsylvania  for  its  key- 
stone part  in  every  great  American  crisis,  and  said  that  of  all  the 
vast  tonnage  of  munitions  which  went  forward  in  the  World  War, 
Pennsylvania  contributed  eighty  per  cent,  and  Allegheny  county 
sixty  per  cent.  He  declared  that  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  and  the 
city  of  Pittsburgh  are  honored  in  two  monuments  that  are  everlast- 
ing—the name  given  the  former  in  honor  of  its  founder,  William 
Penn,  and  the  latter  the  name  of  William  Pitt.  Had  the  advice  of 
the  latter  been  heeded,  said  the  Governor,  many  struggles  in  the 
State  and  Allegheny  county  might  have  been  avoided  in  after  years. 
Such  gatherings  as  that  of  the  day,  he  said,  serve  to  better  relations 
between  nations,  creating  a  clearer  understanding  and  knowledge, 
each  for  and  of  the  other,  and  by  that  bringing  a  boon  to  all  man- 
kind. The  relationship  between  the  United  States  and  Canada,  the 
speaker  said,  with  a  frontier  of  several  thousands  of  miles 
imguarded  and  unfortified,  'is  the  sort  of  relationship  which  should 
prevail  among  all  nations.  The  Governor  spoke  in  glowing  words 
of  the  part  Canada  had  taken  in  the  World  War,  and  with  a  touch  of 
pathos  mentioned  the  large  proportion  of  the  population  which 
enlisted  in  the  ser\ice  and  who  made  the  supreme  sacrifice  on  the 
field  of  battle. 

Mayor  William  A.  Magee  said  in  part: 

156 


BUST  OF  WILLIAM  PITT 

The  gift  which  we  are  receiving  today  is  one  which  the  people  of 
Pittsburgh  will  appreciate  to  tlie  full.  It  symbolizes  the  relationship 
of  our  community  to  one  of  the  outstanding  fig-ures  of  the  history  of 
modern  times.    We  are  pjroud  of  our  name.  " 

The  possession  of  the  strategic,  military  and  economic  point  at 
the  headwaters  of  the  Ohio  River  was  the  cause  of  the  great  Seven 
Year's  war,  the  only  war  previous  to  the  last  war  that  was  waged  on 
a  nation-wide  scale.  The  decision  of  arms  at  this  place  hastened  the 
growth  of  democratic  ideals  by  perhaps  generations  if  not  centuries. 

Our  great  patron  saint,  the  outstanding  figure  of  his  lime,  was 
foremost  in  support  of  poi:>ular  government.  The  American  nation 
was  his  child.  We  are  proud  in  being  known  to  the  world  by  his 
name.  We  are,  in  physical  embodiment,  his  commemoration.  This 
statue  will  remain  in  this  building,  the  seat  of  our  municipal  govern- 
ment, a  silent  witness,  constantly  reminding  those  who  follow  after 
us  not  only  of  the  glorious  days  which  were  the  fruit  of  his  deep 
wisdom  and  boundless  energ;;;-,  but  of  much  more  still,  the  enduring 
effect  upon  the  lives  of  untold  millions  of  people  determined  by  the 
events  that  transpired  here  more  than  one  hundred  and  sixty  years 
ago. 

In  introducing  the  speakers,  Chairman  Stephenson  made  the 
following  remarks : 

The  tie  that  binds  the  English  speaking  people  together  is  the 
history  of  their  achievements  in  the  civilization  of  the  world. 

Our  gathering  here  today  is  signalized  by  an  appropriateness  of 
time  as  well  as  of  location  and  above  all  of  purpose.  That  purpose 
is  to  forge  another  link  in  the  strong  and  unbroken  chain  of  friend- 
ship that  has  for  more  than  a  century  united  the  English  speaking 
peoples,— Britons  and  Americans,  — common  descendants  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  race  and  equal  heirs  to  its  great  constitutional  prin- 
ciples and  traditions.  For  near  here  and  within  sight  of  the  win- 
dows of  the  graceful  tower  which  rises  to  my  right  over  the  temple 
of  justice,  is  the  point  where  Fort  Duquesne  stood  and  where  Fort 
Pitt  arose,  the  filial  possession  of  which  decided  the  destiny  of  the 
vast  territory  lying  between  the  Alleghenies  and  the  Rockies  and 
made  sure  the  creation  of  this  great  nation. 

Upon  the  exact  spot  where  we  are  now  standing,  just  164  years 
ago  today  one  of  the  notable  conflicts  waged  for  the  possession  of  the 
Forks  of  the  Ohio  was  fought.  Here  on  the  14th  of  September,  1758, 
Major  James  Grant,  a  British  officer  with  about  GOO  Highlanders 
and  about  200  Pennsylvanians  and  Virginians,  fought  a  losing  bat- 
tle with  the  French  Canadians  and  Indians. 

British  and  American  blood  was  shed  in  a  common  cause.  This 
battle  was  the  culmination  of  French  success  and  power  in  a  strug- 

157 


BUST  OF  WILLIAM  PITT 

gle  ^vhicll  finally  resulted  in  the  raising  of  the  British  flag  over  Fort 
Pitt,  which  thus  assured  the  domination  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  race  in 
North  America  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific  and  from  the  xVrctic 
to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

Added  to  the  appropriateness  of  the  time  and  location  of  this 
great  gathering  is  that  its  special  object  is  the  reception  of  a  life- 
like and  artistic  bust  of  the  great  English  statesman,  a  tnie  and  cour- 
ageous friend  of  America,  ^Yilliam  Pitt,  Earl  of  Chatham,  whose 
name  this  great  city  of  ours  ap^jropriately  bears.  It  is  he  who  thun- 
dered in  the  English  Parliament,  ''We  may  bind  the  Colonists' 
trade,  confine  their  manufacturers  and  exercise  every  power  what- 
ever except  taking  their  money  out  of  their  pockets  without  their 
consent."  He  also  said,  "A-dopt  more  gentle  methods  in  dealing 
with  Aonerica  for  the  day  is  not  far  distant  when  America  may  vie 
with  this  Kingdom  not  only  in  arms  but  in  arts."  On  May  30th, 
1777,  he  said,  "You  may  ravage,  you  cannot  conquer.  It  is  impos- 
sible, you  cannot  conquer  the  Americans,  and  from  that  day,  one 
hundred  and  forty-five  years  ago  to  this  day,  the  Star  Spangled 
Banner  has  never  been  lowered  to  a  foreign  enemy. 

The  donor  of  this  bust  of  the  Peerless  statesman,  William  Pitt, 
is  a  distinguished  Englishman  who  has  the  honor  of  being  the  chief 
executive  of  the  great  English  metropolis,  London. 

But  this  bust  of  the  foremost  English  advocate  of  freedom  and 
constitutional  rights  will  not  stand  here  alone  as  an  evidence  that  we 
remember  and  revere  the  memory  of  William  Pitt.  It  can  be  truly 
said,  ''If  you  seek  his  monument  look  around."  George  Bancroft, 
the  historian,  wrote,  "Pittsburgh  is  the  most  enduring  monument  of 
William  Pitt.  As  long  as  the  Monongahela  and  Allegheny  shall  flow 
to  form  the  Ohio,  as  long  as  the  English  tongue  shall  be  the  language 
of  freedom  in  the  boundless  valley  which  their  waters  traverse,  his 
name  shall  stand  inscribed  on  the  Gateway  of  the  West." 

Our  honored  guest.  Sir  Charles  Wakefield,  v,4th  Lady  Wakefield 
and  friends,  has  journeyed  across  the  Atlantic  to  present  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Sulgrave  Institution  his  gift  to  the  city  of  Pittsburgh, 
this  bust  of  the  great  friend  of  America,  so  that  his  features  may  be 
constantly  before  us,  and  also  to  inspire  us  with  the  high  and  lofty 
purpose  of  fostering  a  fraternal  spirit  and  good  feding  between 
the  English  speaking  people  of  America  and  Great  Britain.  _ 

This  great  audience  is  a  credit  to  the  memory  of  William  Pitt 
and  an  expression  of  irratitude  to  the  distinguished  Englishman  for 
this  beautiful  lifelike^bust  of  William  Pitt,  which  will  now  be  un- 
veiled by  the  donor's  daughter.  Miss  Freda  Wakefield. 

The  bust  was  then  unveiled  by  Miss  Freda  Wakefield,  daughter 
of  the  donor.  Following  the  ceremony  there  was  a  luncheon  at  the 
William  Penn  Hotel,  then  the  partv  was  taken  to  the  Block  House, 

158 


BUST  OF  WILLIAM  PITT 

where  they  were  met  by  a  reception  committee  of  the  Daughters  of 
the  American  Eevolution.  From  there,  the  visitors  proceeded  to  the 
Carnegie  Institute,  where  they  were  received  by  the  president,  Sam- 
uel H.  Church,  Mrs.  Church,  and  officials  of  the  Institute.  In  the 
evening,  there  was  a  dinner  at  the  Pittsburgh  Golf  Club  presided 
over  bj'  Samuel  H.  Church,  after  which  the  visitors  departed  for 
Washington,  D.  C. 

Editor's  Note— The  foregoing  is  reproduced  from  "The  Western  Pennsylvania 
Historical  Magazine,"  Pittsburgh,  wherein  it  appeared  as  a  contribution  presented  by 
the  chairman  of  the  publication  committee  of  that  periodical.  In  July  of  1922  was 
presented  in  the  July  number  of  "Americana,"  an  excellent  article,  "I  have  Called  the 
Place  Pittsburgh,"  (the  words  of  John  Forbes  when  in  1758  he  stood  upon  the  spot 
whereon  was  to  rise  a  great  city),  being  a  condensation  from  "A  History  of  Pittsburgh 
and  Its  Environs,"  from  the  pen  of  Mr.  George  T.  Fleming,  and  published  that  year 
by  the  American  Historical  Society,  Inc.,  the  publishers  also  of  "Americana."  Our 
reproduction  from  the  "Western  Pennsylvania  Historical  Magazine"  would  seem  to 
be  altogether  appropriate  as  a  sequel  to  the  narrative  referred  to. 


t59 


The  Beginnings  of  Education 

CONXECTICUT   THE   FlEST    SxATE   TO  INSTITUTE   COMMON    ScHOOLS 

By  Henry  A.  Tierell,  Peixcip.aj.  of  Free  Academy,  Xorwich 


^^  DUG ATIOX  is  the  process  bv  wliich  an  individual  comes 
^0^     into  possession  of  some  part  of  hmnan  progress  and 
•iPi^^tjjj     ^^^^  ^^^  himself  to  take  part  in  the  life  of  his  o^vll  gen- 
^^^-^i     eration.     This  process,  in  a  normal  person,  is  taking 


place  most  of  the  time  from  birth  to  death.  We  are  all  creatures  of 
the  past;  in  physical  appearance,  in  traits  of  body  and  mind,  in  de- 
sires, and  in  powers,  we  are  the  ''heirs  of  all  the  ages"  of  human  ev- 
olution. As  there  is  abundant  evidence  that  man  has  improved  from 
his  original  condition,  we  may  fairly  say  that  the  inheritance  of  each 
generation  from  the  preceding  one  has  steadily  increased  in  value  as 
human  experience  has  covered  new  fields  of  action.  Each  generation 
progresses,  first  by  acquiring  the  gains  of  former  generations,  then 
by  new  experiences  of  its  own. 

Somewhat  after  the  beginning  of  written  language  the  accumu- 
lation of  records  of  the  past  became  so  great  that  specially  trained 
men  were  needed  to  preserve  and  interpret  these  records.  And  so 
great  has  been  the  increase  in  the  amount  and  complexity  of  human 
progress,  that  great  institutions  have  arisen  to  secure  for  humanity 
the  perpetual  possession  of  its  most  valuable  gains.  These  gains 
may  be  grouped  under  two  heads:  first,  gains  in  aims;  secondly, 
gains  in  powers.  Under  these  two  topics  may  be  grouped,  I  believe, 
all  the  progress  of  every  epoch  of  history  as  well  as  that  of  every  in- 
dividual in  any  epoch.  Let  us  then  briefly  subdivide  human  aims 
and  human  powers. 

In  so  far  as  man's  aims  are  affected  by  a  belief  in  the  supernat- 
ural, we  group  them  under  the  name  of  Religion.  In  so  far  as  his 
aims  affect  his  dealings  with  his  fellow  men  we  may  group  them  un- 
der the  head  of  Morality.  The  moral  code  has  on  the  one  side  the 
sanction  of  the  institution  of  Religion,  and  on  the  other  side  the 
support  of  the  institution  of  Government. 

i6o 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION        .v 

Human  powers  may  be  subdivided  into  knowledge,  or  power  in 
understanding;  efficiency,  or  power  in  action;  emotion,  or  power  to 
feel  and  appreciate.  It  is  evident  then  that  the  great  institutions  of 
mankind  exist  for  the  purpose  of  educating  man  in  these  aims  and 
powers.  The  progress  of  humanity  is  the  aggregate  gain  of  individ- 
uals in  spiritual  inspiration,  in  moral  desires,  in  respect  for  law,  in 
power  to  enjoy  what  is  best,  in  sympathy  for  others,  in  the  virtues 
and  habits  that  promote  efficiency,  in  the  understanding  necessary  to 
direct  one's  efforts  intelligently. 

The  School  is  that  institution  which  exists  primarily  for  the  dis- 
tribution of  knovrledge.  Now  the  mass  of  human  knowledge  has  be- 
come so  great  that  no  one  can  hope  to  put  into  practice  more  than  a 
very  small  part  of  it.  It  is  necessary  therefore  that  the  indiWdual 
choose  a  time  when  he  "will  begin  to  put  his  attention  on  the  details 
of  his  life  work  rather  than  on  the  broader  understanding  of  human 
progress.  This  point  of  time  marks  the  division  between  his  liberal 
culture  and  his  technical  training. 

"\\"hen  shall  technical  training  begin?  No  one  knows.  The  an- 
swer will  vary  with  the  individual's  powers  and  opportunities.  It  is 
fair  to  say  that  liberal  culture  should  be  prolonged  until  its  further 
continuance  would  interfere  with  the  technical  efBciency  of  the  indi- 
vidual. But  even  technical  information  vnW  be  of  little  use  to  an  in- 
dividual unless  he  has  the  personal  virtues  that  make  him  efficient. 
Strength  of  will,  tact,  good  habits,  and  many  other  qualities,  are  to 
be  ranked  even  higher  than  understanding.  In  modern  times,  there- 
fore, the  school  has  become  in  miniature  a  world  of  itself,  in  which 
the  right  minded  pupil  may  learn  lessons  of  morality,  lessons  of  per- 
sonal power,  as  well  as  lessons  in  understanding  and  appreciation. 

Besides  the  four  great  institutions,  there  are  other  tremendous 
forces  at  work  moulding  the  lives  of  individuals  and  communities ; 
—Literature,  Painting,  Music,  the  Press,  and  too  many  other  forces 
to  mention,  have  today  a  greater  influence  than  ever  before  in  the 
history  of  the  world.  A  full  definition  of  education,  then,  in  its 
broadest  sense,  would  be  something  like  this :  — Education  is  the  pro- 
cess whereby  the  individual,  through  the  Home,  the  Church,  the 
State,  the  School,  and  through  all  the  remainder  of  his  enviromnent, 
learns  his  own  noblest  capabilities,  learns  to  obey  moral  law,  gains 
power  to  do,  and  understanding  to  direct  that  power.  In  treating 
those  facts  which  it  is  most  advisable  ^that  a  man  entering  into  life 
should  accuratelv  know,  Kuskin  says: 

i6i 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

I  believe  that  he  ought  to  know  three  things :  First,  Where  he  is ; 
secondly,  "Where  he  is  going;  thirdly,  ^Miat  he  had  best  do,  under 
those  circumstances. 

First :  Where  he  is. — That  is  to  say,  what  sort  of  a  world  he  has 
got  into ;  how  large  it  is ;  what  kind  of  creatures  live  in  it,  and  how; 
what  it  is  made  of,  and  what  may  be  made  of  it. 

Secondly :  Where  he  is  going. — That  is  to  say,  what  chances  or 
reports  there  are  of  any  other  world  besides  this ;  what  seems  to  be 
the  nature  of  that  other  world.     .     .     . 

Thirdly:  What  he  had  best  do  under  the  circumstances. — That 
is  to  say,  what  kind  of  faculties  he  possesses ;  what  are  the  present 
state  and  wants  of  mankind ;  what  is  his  place  in  society ;  and  what 
are  the  readiest  means  in  his  power  of  attaining  happiness  and  dif- 
fusing it.  The  man  who  knows  these  things,  and  who  has  had  his 
vdU  so  subdued  in  the  learning  them,  that  he  is  ready  to  do  what  he 
knows  he  ought,  I  shall  call  educated ;  and  the  man  who  knows  them 
not,  uneducated — though  he  could  talk  all  the  tongues  of  Babel. 

The  men  who  settled  Connecticut  believed  that  every  one  should 
be  able  to  read  the  word  of  God.  Every  church  therefore  had  its 
teacher  as  well  as  its  preacher.  In  advance  of  any  Colonial  legisla- 
tion relating  to  common  schools,  almost  every  settlement  had  its 
teacher  for  part  of  the  year  at  the  most.  The  first  laws  did  little 
more  than  guarantee  the  practice  common  in  most  towns.  The  set- 
tlers realized  that  the  system  of  government  dimly  outlined  in  the 
*' Mayflower  Compact"  of  1619,  expanded  in  the  Fundamental 
Orders  of  1639,  which  to  us  of  today  stands  forth  as  the  ''first  writ- 
ten constitution  knoYvm  to  history"  and  the  foundation  for  repub- 
lican form  of  government,  made  universal  education  essential  to 
self-preservation. 

The  first  law  relating  to  common  schools  in  Connecticut  was 
enacted  by  the  town  of  New  Haven  in  1641,  and  pro^'ided  for  a  free 
school  to  be  supported  out  of  "the  Common  Stock."  The  next  law 
was  passed  in  Hartford  in  1643,  providing  a  free  school  for  the  poor 
children,  with  tuition  charge  for  those  able  to  pay.  In  1646  a  com- 
pilation of  laws  of  the  colony  shows  that  every  township  of  fifty 
families  should  maintain  a  school,  and  any  town  of  one  hundred 
families  a  grammar  school.  After  the  union  of  New  Haven  and 
Comiecticut  under  the  charter  of  1662,  many  acts  were  passed  relat- 
ing to  common  schools.  In  1700,  every  towTi  of  seventy  families  was 
required  to  keep  constantly  a  schoolmaster  able  to  teach  reading  and 
writing.    Towns  of  smaller  size  had  to  keep  a  school  half  the  year. 

162 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

A  pri-ammar  school  was  required  in  every  shire  town.  The  rate  for 
school  expenses  was  fixed  at  a  minimum  of  forty  shillings  for  every 
1,000  in  the  county  lists,  and,  if  insufficient,  was  to  be  further  secured 
by  joint  le^y  on  inhabitants  and  parents  of  children.  School  com- 
mittees, as  distinct  from  other  town  officers,  are  first  mentioned  in 
170S. 

Parishes  were  recognized  as  school  districts,  though  under  gen- 
eral control  of  the  towns.  The  close  connection  between  churches 
and  schools  was  possible  because  the  population  was  homogeneous. 
But  gradually  came  about  a  system  of  the  separation  of  the  church 
and  school.  By  179S,  schools  were  managed  by  themselves  as  school 
societies  or  districts.  The  gradual  return  to  town  management 
by  the  consolidation  of  school  districts  followed  the  change  of  school 
laws  in  1856.  The  types  of  schools  of  course  changed  as  school  laws 
became  better  adjusted  to  the  needs  of  growing  communities.  In 
the  various  communities  grew  up  private  schools  alongside  the  com- 
mon elementary  school.  As  types  of  such  schools  may  be  mentioned 
those  described  by  Miss  Caulkins  in  her  "History  of  Xorwich": 

The  schools  in  Norwich  were  neither  intermitted  or  neglected 
during  the  Revolutionary  War.  An  institution  of  higher  grade  than 
elementary  was  sustained  in  the  town-plot  through  all  the  distrao 
tions  of  the  country.  It  called  in  many  boarders  from  abroad,  and 
at  one  period,  with  Mr,  Goodrich  for  its  principal,  acquired  con- 
siderable poinilarity.  This  school  is  endorsed  by  its  committee 
Andrew  Huntington  and  Dudley  Woodbridge,  in  1783,  as  furnishing 
instruction  to  *' young  gentlemen  and  ladies,  lads  and  misses,  vj 
every  branch  of  literature,  viz.,  reading,  writing,  arithmetic,  the 
learned  languages,  logic,  geograj^hy,  mathematics,"  &c.  Charles 
White,  teacher. 

The  exhibitions  of  the  school  were  connnonly  enlivened  with 
scenic  representations  and  interludes  of  music.  A  taste  for  such 
entertainments  was  prevalent.  The  young  people,  even  after  their 
emacipation  from  schools,  would  sometimes  take  part  in  theatri- 
cal representations.  We  learned  from  the  town  newspaper  that  ii) 
February,  1792,  a  select  company  of  young  ladies  and  gentlemen 
performed  the  tragedy  of  "Gus'tavus"  and  "The  Mistakes  of  a 
Night"  at  the  court-house. 

The  school-ma'am  of  fonner  times,  with  her  swarming  hives  of 
pupils,  was  an  institution  of  which  no  sample  remains  at  the  pres- 
ent day.  She  was  a  life-long  incumbent,  never  going  out  of  one 
round  of  performance :   always  teaching  little  girls  and  boys  to  sit 

163 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

up  straight  and  treat  their  elders  with  respect;  to  conquer  the 
spelling-book,  repeat  the  catechism,  never  throw  stones,  never  tell  a 
lie;  the  boys  to  write  copies,  and  the  girls  to  work  samplers.  If 
they  sought  higher  education  than  this,  they  passed  out  of  her 
domain  into  finishing  schools.  Almost  every  neighborhood  had  its 
school-ma'am,  and  the  memory  is  still  fresh 'of  Miss  Sally  Smith  at 
the  Landing,  and  Miss  Molly  G rover  of  the  Town-plot. 

Dancing-schools  were  peculiarly  nomadic  in  their  character; 
the  instructor  (generally  a  Frenchman)  circulating  through  a  wide 
district  and  giving  lessons  for  a  few  weeks  at  particular  points. 
Reels,  jigs  and  contra-dances  were  most  in  vogue  :  the  hornpi]je  and 
rigadoon  were  attempted  by  only  a  select  few ;  cotillions  were  grow- 
ing in  favor;  the  minuet  much  admired.  In  October,  1787,  Griffith's 
dancing-school  was  opened  at  the  house  of  Mrs.  Billings  in  the  town- 
plot.  He  taught  five  different  minuets,  one  of  them  a  duo,  and 
another  a  cotillion-minuet.  His  lessons  were  given  in  the  morning, 
with  a  scholars '  ball  once  a  fortnight.  Ten  years  later,  J.  C.  Dever- 
eux  was  a  popular  teacher  of  the  dance.  He  had  large  classes  for 
several  seasons  at  the  court  house,  and  at  Kinney's  hotel  in  Chelsea. 

In  1799,  a  school  for  young  ladies  was  opened  in  the  house 
of  Major  ^ATiiting  upon  the  Little  Plain,  by  Mrs.  Brooks,  who  de- 
voted herself  especially  to  feminine  accomplishments,  such  as  tam- 
bour, embroidery,  painting  in  water-colors,  instrumental  music,  and 
the  French  langiiage.  She  had  at  first  a  large  number  of  pupils 
from  this  and  the  neighboring  towns,  but  the  attendance  soon  de- 
clined, and  the  school  was  relinquished.  In  general  the  young  ladies 
at  such  schools  only  remained  long  enough  to  practice  a  few  tunes 
on  the  guitar,  to  tambour  a  muslin  shawl  and  apron,  or  embroider  a 
scripture  scene,  and  this  gave  the  finishing  stroke  to  their  educa- 
tion. 

It  was  common  then,  as  it  is  now,  for  parents  with  liberal  means 
to  send  both  their  sons  and  daughters  from  home  to  obtain  greater 
educational  advantages.  Young  ladies  from  Xor^dch  often  went  to 
Boston  to  finish  their  education,  and  now  and  then  one  was  placed 
Tinder  the  guardian  care  and  instruction  of  the  Moravian  sisterhood 
in  their  seminary  at  Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania.  In  1782  an  academ- 
ical association  was  formed  in  the  western  part  of  the  to^^^l-plot, 
consisting  of  fortv-one  subscribers  and  one  hundred  shares  of  rights. 
The  old  meeting-house  of  the  Separatists  was  purchased  and  re- 
paired for  the  use  of  this  institution.  The  first  principal  was  Samuel 
Austin,  and  the  range  of  studies  included  Latin  and  Greek,  naviga- 
tion and  the  mathematics.  Two  popular  school-books  then  just  is- 
sued were  introduced  bv  Mr.  Austin  into  this  school— A\  ebster 's 
"Grammatical  Institutes,"  and  ''Geography  Made  Easy,"  by  Jed- 
idiah  Morse.  Mr.  Morse  was  himself  subsequently  a  teacher  m  this 
institution,  which  was  continued  with  varying  degrees  of  prosperity 

164 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

for  thirty  years  or  more.  Alexander  Macdonald,  author  of  a  school- 
book  called  '*Tlie  Youth's  Assistant,"  was  one  of  its  teachers.  He 
died  May  4,  1792,  aged  forty.  Newcomb  Kinney  was  at  one  time  the 
principal,  and  had  for  his  usher  John  Russ  of  ^Hartford,  afterward 
member  of  Congress  from  1819  to  1823.  In  1800,  Sebastian  C.  Ca- 
bot was  the  chief  instructor.  This  school  was  kept  in  operation 
about  thirty  years.  After  it  ceased,  the  lower  part  of  the  building 
was  occupied  by  the  public  school,  and  the  upper  part,  being  suitably 
prepared,  was  in  use  for  nearly  twenty  years  as  a  Methodist  chapel. 

Dr.  Daniel  Lathrop,  who  died  in  1782,  left  a  legacv  of  £500  to 
the  town  for  the  support  of  a  free  grammar  school,  upon  certain 
conditions,  one  of  which  was  that  the  school  should  be  kept  during 
eleven  months  of  each  year.  A  school  upon  this  foundation  was 
opened  in  1787,  and  continued  for  about  fifty  years.  The  brick 
school-house  upon  the  green  was  built  for  its  accommodation.  Its 
first  teacher  was  Ebenezer  Punderson.  But  the  most  noted  of  its 
preceptors  and  the  one  who  longest  held  his  place  w^as  Mr.  William 
Baldwin,  an  excellent  instructor,  faithful  and  apt  to  teach,  but  a 
rigid  disciplinarian,  and  consequently  more  respected  than  beloved 
by  his  pupils,  until  after-life  led  them  to  reverse  the  decisions  of 
earlier  days.  The  young  have  seldom  judgment  and  generosity  suf- 
ficient to  make  them  love  those  who  control  them  for  their  good. 

In  1843  the  Lathrop  donation  was  relinquished,  with  the  consent 
of  the  legislature,  to  the  heirs-at-law  of  Thomas  Coit,  a  nephew  of 
Dr.  Lathrop,  to  whom  by  the  provision  of  the  testator's  ^\ill  it  was  in 
such  case  to  revert.  The  investment  had  depreciated  in  value,  and 
the  restrictions  with  which  the  legacy  was  incumbered  made  it,  in  the 
advanced  state  of  educational  institutions,  more  of  a  hindrance  than 
a  help.  The  school  had  been  for  many  years  a  great  advantage  to  the 
to-wn,  but  having  accomplished  its  mission,  it  quietly  ceased  to  be. 

Evening  schools  of  short  duration,  devoted  to  some  special 
study,  w^ere  not  uncommon.  The  object  was  usually  of  a  practical 
nature,  and  the  students  above  childhood.  The  evening  school  of 
Consider  Sterry,  in  1798,  covered,  according  to  his  program,  the  fol- 
lowing range  of  instruction : ' 'Bookkeeping  in  the  Italian.  American 
and  English  methods,  mathematics,  surveying  and  plotting  of  lands; 
price  Is.  6d.  per  week.  Navigation  and  the  method  of  finding  longi- 
tude by  lunar  observations  and  latitude  by  the  sun's  altitude,  one 
dollar  for  the  complete  knowledge." 

Few  men  are  gifted  by  nature  with  such  an  aptitude  for  scien- 
tific research  as  Consider  Sterry.  His  attainments  were  all  self-ac- 
quired under  great  disadvantages.  Besides  a  work  of  lunar  observa- 
tions, he  and  his  brother  prepared  an  arithmetic  for  schools,  and  in 
company  ^\ith  Nathan  Daboll,  another  self-taught  scientific  genius, 
he  arranged  and  edited  a  svstem  of  practical  navigation,  entitled 
"The  Seaman's  Universal  Dailv  Assistant,"  a  work  of  nearly  three 

165 


THE  BEGIXXIXGS  OF  EDUCATION 

hundred  pages.  He  also  published  several  small  treatises,  vrrote 
political  articles  for  the  papers,  and  took  a  profound  interest  in  free- 
masonry. 

Ill  June,  1800,  a  school  was  inaugurated  at  the  brick  house  on 
the  Little  Plain,  with  Mr.  William  AVoodbridge  for  the  principal. 
The  assembly  room  was  fitted  up  with  desks  and  benches  for  an  aca- 
demical hall;  both  sexes  were  admitted,  and  the  whole  was  under  the 
supervision  of  a  board  of  four  citizens— Joseph  Howland,  Samuel 
AVoodbridge,  Thomas  Fanning,  Thomas  Lathrop.  But  the  situation 
was  too  remote  from  the  centers  of  population,  and  after  a  trial  of 
two  or  three  years  this  school  was  relinquished  for  want  of  patron- 
age. 

A  select  school  for  young  persons  of  both  sexes  was  long  sus- 
tained in  the  to^\ni-plot,  but  with  varying  tides  of  prosperity  and  de- 
cline. After  a  void  of  two  or  three  years,  it  was  revived  in  1S03  by 
Pelatiah  Perit,  who  had  just  then  graduated  from  Yale  College,  and 
Avas  only  eighteen  years  of  age.  Lydia  Huntley,  afterwards  Mrs. 
Sigourney,  was  one  of  his  pupils. 

Among  other  teachers  of  the  town-plot,  who  were  subsequently 
honorable  and  noted  in  their  several  callings,  the  following  are  well 
remembered:  Daniel  Haskell,  president  of  the  Vermont  University; 
Henry  Strong,  LL.D.,  eminent  in  the  law;  John  Hyde,  judge  of  coun- 
ty court,  judge  of  probate,  etc. ;  Dr.  Peter  Allen,  a  physician  in  Ohio; 
Rev.  Joshua  L.  Williams,  of  Middletown;  J.  Bates  Murdock,  after- 
wards an  ofiScer  of  the  Second  War  with  Great  Britain ;  Phineas  L. 
Tracy,  who  from  1827  to  1833  was  Member  of  Congress  from  Gene- 
see county,  New  York. 

A  proprietary  school  w^as  established  at  the  Landing  in  1797, 
by  twenty-seven  heads  of  families.  The  school-house  was  built  on 
the  slope* of  the  hill  above  Church  street,  and  the  school  was  assem- 
bled and  organized  by  the  Eev.  Walter  King.  David  L.  Dodge  was 
the  first  regular  teacher.  In  1802,  the  Kev.  Thomas  Williams  was 
the  preceptor.  He  was  noted  for  his  assiduous  attention  to_  the 
health  and  morals  as  well  as  the  studies  of  his  pupils.  He  drilled 
them  thoroughly  in  the  ''Assembly's  Catechism,"  and  used  ^dth  his 
younger  classes  a  favorite  manual  called  ''The  Catechism  of  Na- 
ture." Other  teachers  of  this  school  were  Mr.  Scarborough,  Eben- 
ezer  Witter,  John  Lord  (president  of  Dartmouth  College),  George 
Hill,  and  others.  But  no  one  retained  the  office  for  so  long  a  terin  as 
Dvar  T.  Hinckley,  of  Vrindham,  a  man  of  earnest  zeal  in  his  profes- 
sion, who  was  master  of  desk  and  bench  in  Norwich  for  twenty  years 
or  more,  vet  never  removed  his  family  or  obtained  a  regiilar  home 
in  the  place.  He  was  a  schoolmaster  of  the  old  New  England  type, 
devoted  to  his  profession  as  an  ulterior  pursuit,  and  expending  his 
best  energies  in  the  performance  of  its  duties. 

Schools  at  that  period  consisted  uniformly  of  two  sessions  a 

i66 


THE  BECxINXIXGS  OF  EDUCATIOX 

<iay,  of  three  hours  each,  \Wth  a  half-holiday  on  Saturday.  Mr. 
Hinckley,  in  addition  to  this,  had  sometimes  an  evening  or  morning 
school,  or  both,  of  two  hours  each,  for  pupils  not  belonging  to  the 
day-school.  The  morning  hours  were  devoted  to  voung  ladies,  and 
from  an  advertisement  of  May,  1S16,  giving  notice  of  a  new  term,  we 
ascertain  the  precise  time  when  the  class  assembled:  ''Hours  from 
5  o'clock  to  7  A.  M."  Let  no  one  hastily  assume  that  this  earlv  sum- 
mons would  be  neglected.  Living  witnesses  I'emain  to  testify  "that  it 
drew  a  goodly  number  of  young  aspirants  who  came  out,  fresh  and 
vigorous,  at  sunrise  or  a  little  later,  to  pursue  their  studies. 

Another  institution  that  made  its  mark  upon  society  was  the 
Chelsea  Grammar  School,  organized  in  1S06,  but  not  incorporated 
till  1821,  when  it  was  empowered  to  hold  real  estate  to  the  value  of 
$20,000.  The  school-house  was  on  the  side-hill  opposite  the  Little 
Park,  in  Union  street.  This  institution  continued  in  operation,  with 
some  vacant  intervals,  about  forty  years,  securing  for  its  patrons  the 
benefits  of  an  academical  education  for  their  children  without  send- 
ing them  home.  Many  prominent  citizens  of  Xorv^ich  here  received 
their  first  introduction  to  the  classics,  the  sons  in  numerous  in- 
stances taking  possession  of  seats  once  occupied  by  their  fathers. 

No  complete  list  of  the  preceptors  has  been  obtained ;  btit  among 
the  remembered  names  are  several  that  have  since  been  distin- 
guished in  literary  and  professional  pursuits — Dr.  Jonathan  Knight, 
of  New  Haven;  Charles  Griswold,  of  L^mie;  Jonathan  Barnes, 
Wyllis  Warner,  Roswell  C.  Smith,  Kev.  Horace  Bushnell,  D.  D.,  and 
Hev.  AVilliam  Adams,  D.  D.  These  men  were  all  young  at  the  time. 
The  preceptors  of  most  schools,  here  and  elsewhere,  at  that  period, 
vere  college  graduates,  accepting  the  office  for  a  year,  or  at  most  for 
two  or  three  years,  between  taking  their  degree  and  entering  upon, 
some  other  profession.  But  teachers  to  whom  the  vocation  is  but  a 
stepping-stone  to  something  beyond  on  which  the  mind  is  fixed, 
however  faithful  and  earnest  in  their  present  duties,  can  never  raise 
an  institution  to  any  permanent  standard  of  excellence.^  It  is  well 
therefore  that  these  temporary  undertakings  should  give  way  to 
public  schools  more  thoroughly  systematized  and  conducted  by  per- 
sons who  make  teaching  a  profession. 

In  Chelsea,  beginning  about  1825,  a  series  of  expedients  for  en- 
larging the  bounds  of  knowledge  afford  pleasing  e%'idence  of  the 
gradual  expansion  of  intellect  and  enterprise.  A  lyceum,  a  circu- 
lating library,  a  reading  club,  a  society  for  mutual  improvement,  and 
a  mechanics'^  association,  were  successively  started,  and  though  most 
of  them  were  of  brief  duration,  they  were  cheering  tokens  of  an  ad- 
vance in  the  right  path.  .  . 

The  Nor^dch  Female  Academy  was  incorporated  m  1828.  ihis 
institution  was  greatlv  indebted  for  its  origin  to  the  persevering  ex- 
■ertion  of  Mr.  Thomas  Robinson,  who  was  the  principal  agent  of  the 

167 


THE  BEGIXXIXGS  OF  EDUCATION 

corporation.  The  brick  hall  erected  for  its  accommodation  stood  on 
the  hill  facing  the  river,  higher  than  any  other  buildinc:  then  on  the 
declivity.  Neither  court-house  nor  jail  had  gained  a  foothold  on  the 
height,  which  was  well  forested,  and  toward  the  north  surmounted 
by  a  prospect  station,  overtopping  the  woods,  and  known  as  Rock- 
well's Tower.  ^  The  academy  had  the  rugged  hill  for  its  background, 
but  on  other  sides  the  view  was  varied  and  extensive ;  and  when  at 
recess  the  fair  young  pupils  spread  in  joyous  freedom  over  the 
height,  often  returning  vrixh  wild  flowers  and  oak-leaf  garlands  from 
the  neighboring  groves,  neither  poetry  nor  romance  could  exagger- 
ate the  interest  of  the  scene. 

The  most  prosperous  year  of  this  academy  was  1833,  when  the 
number  of  pupils  amounted  to  nearly  iiinety,  many  of  them  boarders 
from  other  places.  But  the  exposed  situation  of  the  building,  and 
the  rough,  steep  ascent  by  v.iiich  only  it  could  be  reached,  were  ad- 
verse to  the  prosperity  of  a  female  academy,  and  it  soon  became  ex- 
tinct— disbanded  by  wintry  blasts  and  icy  foot-paths. 

In  her  ''History  of  New  London,"  Miss  Caulkins  thus  covers 
the  early  history  of  public  education  in  New  London : 

The  toA^m  school  located  on  this  spot  was  the  free  grammar- 
school,  which  had  for  its  main  support  the  Bartlet  and  other  public 
revenues,  and  had  been  originally  established  further  up  the  hill,  on 
Hempstead  street,  but  had  descended  from  thence  about  1750.  It 
was  now  removed  a  few  rods  to  the  north,  and  placed  in  the  highway 
fronting  the  Erving  lot  (Church  street  in  that  part  not  having  been 
opened),  with  no  wall  or  inclosure  around  it,  these  not  being  deemed 
at  that  time  necessary.  The  dwelling  houses  in  this  part  of  the 
toAvn  were  few,  and  the  neighboring  hills  and  fields  were  the  play- 
ground of  the  boys.  In  the  rear  was  the  Hallam  lot,  extending  from 
Broad  street  to  the  old  meeting-house  square,  ^vith  but  one  building 
upon  it,  and  that  in  its  north-east  corner.  A  little  more  distant,  in 
the  rear  of  the  courthouse,  was  the  Coit  ''hollow-lot,"  shaded  by 
large  trees,  and  enriched  ^^-ith  a  ri\'ulet  of  pure  water  (where  Cot- 
tage street  now  runs).  Still  further  back  was  a  vacant  upland  lot 
(kno\^m  as  Fosdick's  or  :\relally's  lot),  containing  here  and  there  a 
choice  apple-tree,  well  known  to  schoolboys;  this  is  now  the  second 
burial  ground. 

We  have  heard  aged  people  revert  to  these  scenes,  the  days 
when  thev  were  pupils  of  the  free  grammar-school,  under  the  sway 
of  "Master  Owen";  when  a  house  of  worship  had  not  given  name 
and  beautv  to  Zion's  Hill,  and  only  a  cellar  and  a  garden,  tokens  of 
former  residence  of  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  the  to^^m,  were  to  be 
seen  on  the  spot  where  the  Trott  mansion  now  stands.  ( This  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  the  place  where  stood  the  house  on  Charles  Hill, 

i68 


THE  BEGIXXIXGS  OF  EDUCATION 

fortified  in  the  time  of  the  Indian  war.  The  present  house  was  built 
by  Samuel  Fosdick,  at  the  head  of  Xiantic  river,  but  taken  apart, 
brought  into  town,  and  erected  in  17S6,  It  has  been  occupied  by  J.  P. 
Trott,  its  present  owner,  more  than  half  a  century.)  Later  than  this 
(about  1796)  General  Huntington  broke  ground  upon  the  hillside 
and  erected  his  house  (now  Hurlbut's).  in  the  style  called  cottage 
ornee.  Beyond  this,  on  the  present  Coit  property,  was  a  gushing 
spring,  where  the  eager  schoolboy  slaked  his  thirst  and  cooled  his 
heated  brow;  and  not  a  quarter  of  a  century  has  elapsed  since  the 
space  now  occupied  by  the  Williams  mansion  and  grounds  was  an 
open,  irregular  hillside  over  whose  rugged  surface  troops  of  chil- 
dren, as  they  issued  from  the  school-room,  were  seen  to  scatter  in 
their  various  sports,  like  flocks  of  sheep  spreading  over  the  hills. 

In  the  year  1795,  the  old  school-house,  a  low,  red  building  of  one 
room,  with  a  garret  above,  entered  by  a  flight  of  stairs  and  a  trap 
door,  where  refractory  pupils  were  committed  for  punishment ;  and 
>Wth  desks  and  benches,  which,  though  made  of  solid  oak,  were  des- 
perately marred  by  ink  and  knife ;  was  abandoned,  and  the  school  re- 
moved to  a  larger  building  of  brick,  erected  for  its  accommodation 
in  the  highway,  south  of  the  court  house,  where  it  fulfilled  another 
period  of  its  history,  of  nearly  forty  years.  Here  the  chair  of  in- 
struction, or  more  properly  the  throne  (for  the  government  was  des- 
potic), Avas  occupied  after  ISOO  by  Dr.  Dow,  the  number  of  whose 
subjects  usually  amounted  to  about  150,  though  sometimes  rising  to 
200. 

In  1833,  a  new  and  much  superior  edifice  was  erected  for  the 
grammar  school  on  a  lot  south  of  the  Second  Congregational  Church, 
chiefly  through  the  exertion  and  liberality  of  Joseph  Hurlbut,  to 
whom  a  vote  of  thanks  was  rendered  by  the  tovni,  October  9th,  1S33. 
In  this  building  the  Bartlet  or  grammar  school  is  still  continued  un- 
der the  care  of  the  town,  but  the  fund  is  inadequate  to  its  support 
and  the  pupils  are  taxed  to  supply  the  deficiency. 

The  most  noted  teachers  of  this  school  since  1750,  those  whose 
office  covered  the  longest  term  of  years,  were  John  Owen  (the  re- 
mains of  ''Master  Owen,"  were  laid  in  the  second  burial  ground,  but 
no  memorial  stone  marks  the  spot.  If  a  sufficient  number  of  his  old 
pupils  are  yet  upon  the  stage  of  life  to  undertake  the  charge,  it 
would  be  a  creditable  enterprise  for  them  to  unite  and  raise  some 
simple  but  fitting  monument  to  his  memory.  He  was  for  many  years 
both  town  and  city  clerk)— and  Ulysses  Dow;  both  were  peculiar 
characters,  and  each  remained  in  office  nearly  forty  years.  The 
former  died  in  1801,  aged  sixty-five ;  the  latter  in  184-1-,  aged  seventy- 
eight. 

The  Union  School  was  an  establishment  incorporated  by  the 
General  Assembly  in  October,  1774.  The  petition  for  the  act  was 
signed  by  twelve  proprietors,  who  state  that  they  had  "built  a  com- 

169 


THE  BEGIXXIXGS  OF  EDUCATION 

modions  school  house,  and  for  several  years  past  hired  and  sup- 
ported a  school-master."  The  oricrinarproprietors  were  Kiehard 
Law,  Jeremiah  Miller,  Duncan  Stewart,  Silas  Church,  Thomas  Al- 
len, John  Eichards,  Kobinson  Mumford,  Joseph  Cristophers,  Mar- 
vin Wait,  Nathaniel  Shaw,  Jr.,  Roger  Gibson,  Thomas  Mumford. 

This  school  was  intended  to  furnish  facilities  for  a  thorough 
English  education  and  the  classical  preparation  necessary  for  enter- 
ing college.  The  school-house  stood  on  State  street,  and  by  the  sub- 
sequent opening  of  Union  street  was  made  a  corner  lot.  This  was  a 
noted  school  in  its  early  days,  yielding  a  larger  income  than  ordi- 
nary schools,  and  the  station  of  preceptor  was  regarded  as  a  post 
of  honor.  It  has  been  heretofore  stated  that  Nathan  Hale  held  that 
ofiSce  in  1775,  and  that  he  left  the  school  to  enter  the  army.  He  was 
the  first  preceptor  after  the  act  of  incorporation.  A  few  only  of  his 
successors  can  be  named.  Seth  Williston,  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth 
College  and  since  knowTi  as  a  diyine  of  considerable  eminence,  was 
in  charge  for  two  years.  Jacob  B.  Gurley,  from  the  same  seminary, 
succeeded  Williston  in  May,  1794,  and  was  the  principal  for  three 
years.  (Mr.  Gurley  is  a  native  of  Mansfield,  Connecticut,  but  since 
1794  a  resident  of  New  London,  where  he  began  to  practice  as  an  at- 
torney in  1797.)  Ebenezer  Learned,  a  native  of  the  to\m,  and  a 
graduate  of  Yale  College,  filled  the  chair  of  instruction  in  1799. 
Knight,  of  the  Medical  College  of  New  Haven,  Olmstead  of  Yale, 
Mitchell  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  and  many  other  names- 
of  note,  are  among  the  teachers  after  1800. 

The  school  house  was  taken  down  and  the  land  sold  after  1830, 
and  in  1833  a  reorganization  took  place,  a  new  charter  was  obtained 
and  a  brick  school  house  flourished  for  a  few  years,  but  could  not  be 
long  sustained.  The  Bartlet  and  common  schools  gathered  in  the 
great  mass  of  pupils ;  the  number  wishing  to  pursue  a  more  extensive 
system  of  education  was  small,  and  the  Union  School,  an  old  and 
venerated  establishment,  was  discontinued.  Li  1851  the  building 
was  sold  to  the  Bethel  Society,  by  whom  it  has  been  converted  into  a 
commodious  house  of  worship. 

No  provision  seems  to  have  been  made  for  the  education  of  fe- 
males in  anything  but  needle-work,  reading,  writing,  and  the  first 
principles  of  arithmetic,  until  the  year  1799.  A  female  academy 
was  then  built  by  a  company  of  proprietors,  in  Green  street,  and  in- 
corporated by  the  legislature.  It  continued  in  operation,  with  some 
intervals  of  recess,  about  thirty  years.  The  property  was  then  sold 
and  the  company  dissolved  in  1834.  A  new  female  academy  was 
built  the  same  year  on  Broad  street,  and  the  system  of  instruction 
commenced  by  Eev.  Dr.  Daniel  Huntington.  This  institution  has 
hitherto  met  -with  fair  encouragement.  Since  1841  it  has  been  in 
charge  of  H.  P.  Farnsworth,  principal.  The  pupils  are  arranged  in 
tw^o  departments,  and  for  a  few  years  past  the  average  number  has 
been  about  eighty. 

I/O 


THE  BEGIXXIXGS  OF  EDUCATION 

Private  schools  of  similar  nature  were  found  in  other  towns  of 
the  county.  Higher  education  was  sought  by  many  leading  men. 
Miss  CauUdns  gives  a  list  of  eighty-six  names  of  men  native  to  New 
London  who  had  received  a  college  education  up  to  the  year  1850.  A 
similar  list  for  Norwich  may  be  found  in  the  ''Norwich  Jubilee  Vol- 
ume," and  includes  over  130  names. 

Speaking  in  broad  terms,  the  progress  since  1856  might  be 
grouped  under  the  following  heads :  Better  trained  teachers,  better 
text  books,  better  school  buildings  and  equipment,  better  supervi- 
sion, better  teaching  methods,  compulsory  attendance  laws,  graded 
schools,  evening  schools,  continuation  schools,  trade  schools,  high 
schools,  medical  inspection,  better  financial  support  of  schools,  edu- 
cation of  the  deaf,  care  of  the  defective  and  the  orphaned  and  desti- 
tute, restriction  of  child  labor,  and  many  forms  of  welfare  work 
closely  connected  with  education. 

Connecticut  was  the  first  State  in  the  Union  to  set  apart  and 
establish  a  fund  for  the  support  of  common  schools.  This  was  done 
after  the  sale  of  the  "Western  Keserve"  lands  in  1795  for  $1,200,- 
000.  By  the  Constitution  of  1818,  Article  8,  Par.  2,  this  fund  is 
forever  set  apart  for  public  schools : 

§  2.  The  fund,  called  the  ''School  Fund,"  shall  remain  a  per- 
petual fund,  the  interest  of  which  shall  be  inviolably  appropriated  to 
the  support  and  encouragement  of  the  public  or  common  schools 
throughout  the  state,  and  for  the  equal  benefit  of  all  the  people 
thereof.  The  value  and  amount  of  said  fund  shall,  as  soon  as  prac- 
ticable, be  ascertained  in  such  manner  as  the  General  Assembly 
may  prescribe,  published  and  recorded  in  the  Comptroller's  office; 
and  no  law  shall  ever  be  made  authorizing  said  fund  to  be  diverted 
to  any  other  use  than  the  encouragement  and  support  of  public 
or  common  schools,  among  the  several  school  societies,  as  justice  and 
equity  shall  require. 

By  the  Charter  of  1662,  given  by  Charles  II.,  Connecticut  was 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Massachusetts  line,  and  on  the  south  by 
the  "sea"  (Long  Island  sound),  and  extended  from  Narragansett 
bay  to  the  "South  sea"  (Pacific  ocean).  The  parts  of  this  territory 
covered  by  the  grants  already  made  to  New  York  and  Xew  Jersey 
were  never  claimed  by  Connecticut ;  and  the  part  covered  by  Penn- 
sylvania was  given  up  to  the  claims  of  that  State ;  the  remaining  por- 
tion was  held  by  Connecticut  till  after  the  Revolutionary  War, 

171 


THE  BEGIXXIXGS  OF  EDUCATION 

when  it  was  all  ceded  to  the  United  States,  except  about  3,300,000 
acres  in  what  is  now  the  northwestern  part  of  Ohio.  The  territory 
was  known  as  the  ''Western  Eeserve,"  or  the  "Lands  west  of  Penn- 
sylvania. ' '  In  May,  1795,  an  act  was  passed  appropriating  the  inter- 
est on  the  moneys  which  should  be  received  on  the  sale  of  these  lands 
to  the  support  of  schools,  "to  bo  paid  over  to  the  said  societies  in 
their  capacity  of  school  societies  according  to  the  lists  of  idoUs  and 
ratable  estate  of  such  societies  respectively."  The  societies  here 
referred  to  were  formerly  known  as  parishes  or  societies,  and  later 
as  ecclesiastical  societies.  This  act  recognizes  them  in  a  distinct 
capacity  and  denominates  them  school  societies. 

The  "lands  west  of  Pennsylvania"  were  sold  August,  1795,  for 
$1,200,000,  by  a  committee  appointed  for  that  purpose,  and  their  re- 
port was  accepted  by  the  legislature  in  October  of  the  same  year. 
The  first  apportionment  of  the  income  of  the  school  fund  was  made 
in  1779. 

We  have  spoken  of  the  importance  placed  on  education  by  the 
early  settlers.  The  settlers  also  felt  a  responsibility  for  the  welfare 
of  the  Indians.  ]\Iany  of  these  aborigines  were  sutlering  from  drunk- 
enness and  ignorance,  and  it  was  not  easy  to  get  them  to  take  an  in- 
terest in  a  higher  life.  The  pastors  in  New  London  and  Norwich  did 
their  best.  We  submit  a  curious  document,  signed  by  the  Mohegan 
Chief,  Uncas. 

When  King  Charles  the  First  sent  his  red-faced  well-beloved 
cousin  "a  Bible  to  show  him  the  way  to  heaven,  and  a  sword  to  de- 
fend him  from  his  enemies,"  Uncas  valued  the  latter  gift  much  more 
than  he  did  the  former.  But  I  am  happy  to  bring  forward  one  new 
fact  to  show  that  he  was  not  at  all  times  indifferent  to  the  other 
present.  It  has  often  been  stated  that  Uncas  uniformly  opposed  the 
introduction  of  Christianity  among  the  people  of  his  tribe.  Within 
a  few  days  past  an  original  document  has  come  to  light  which  bears 
important  testimony  on  this  interesting  question.  It  is  nothing  less 
than  a  bond  in  which,  under  his  o\ni  signature,  the  sachem  promises 
to  attend  the  ministrations  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Fitch,  whensover  and 
wheresoever  he  may  choose  to  appoint.  This  paper  is  so  remarkable 
that  we  give  it  in  full.  If  we  cannot  call  it  the  sachem's  creed  or  con- 
fession of  faith,  it  is  at  least  his  covenant : 

172 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

Be  it  known  to  all  men  and  in  special  to  the  Antboritv  of  The 
Colony  of  Conecticott  That  I  Uncas  sachim  of  the  Munheags.  now 
resident  in  Pamechaug  doe  by  these  presents  firmlv  enga\4  and 
binde  my  selfe,  that  I  will  from  time  to  time  and  at  all  times  here- 
after, in  a  constant  way  and  manner  attend  up  Mr.  James  Fitch  Min- 
ister of  Norwich,  at  all  such  seasons  as  he  shall  appoint  for  preach- 
ing and  to  praying  with  the  Indians  either  at  my  now  residence,  or 
wheresoever  els  he  shall  appoint  for  that  holy  service,  and  further  I 
doe  faithfully  promis  to  Command  all  my  people  to  attend  the  same, 
in  a  constant  way  and  solemn  manner  at  all  such  times  as  shall  be  sett 
by  the  sayd  I\lr.  James  Fitch  minister,  alsoe  I  promis  that  I  will  not 
by  any  wayes  or  means  what  soe  ever,  either  privatly  or  openly  use 
any  plots  or  contriveances  by  words  or  actions  to  affright  or  discour- 
age any  of  my  people  or  others,  from  attending  the  Good  work  afore- 
sayd,  upon  penalty  of  suffering  the  most  grevious  punishment  that 
can  be  inflicted  upon  me,  and  Lastly  I  promis  to  encourage  all  my 
people  by  all  Good  wayes  and  means  I  can,  in  the  due  observance  of 
such  directions  and  instructions,  as  shall  be  presented  to  them  by 
the  sayd  Mr.  James  Fitch  aforesayd,  and  to  the  truth  hereof  this 
seaventh  day  of  June  in  the  year  one  thousand  six  hundred  seventy 
and  three  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  or  mark. 

Witnessed  bv  us  mark 

JohnTalcott  ,.       .      The     *     of  Uncass 

Tho:  Stanton,  Ser. 

Samuell  Mason.  '" 

Let  us  look  with  charity,  my  friends,  upon  this  promise,  remem- 
bering that  every  man,  red  face  and  pale  face  alike,  is  accepted  "ac- 
cording to  that  which  he  hath,  and  not  according  to  that  which  he 
hath  not." 

Of  interest  in  education  on  the  part  of  New  London  county  citi- 
zens, the  following  is  a  proof,  C|Uoted  from  an  address  by  Dr.  Gil- 
man.  Yale  College  is  even  more  indebted  to  Norwich.  Before  it  was 
chartered  by  the  State,  Major  James  Fitch  (another  son  of  Rev- 
erend James)  gave  to  the  new  collegiate  school  a  farm  of  637  acres 
of  land,  and  offered  the  glass  and  nails  for  a  house.  The  following  is 
his  proposal: 

Majr.  Fitch's  Generosity  Proposed  1701. — In  that  it  hath 
pleased  y  Lord  our  God  as  a  token  for  God  To  us  and  children  after 
us  to  put  it  into  the  hearts  of  his  faithful  ministers  :  to  take  soe  great 
paines,  and  be  at  soe  considerable  charge  for  setting  up  a  colegeat 
schoole  amongst  us  and  now  for  farther  promoating,  of  this  God 
pleasing  worke  I  humbly,  freely  and  heartily  offer,  on  demand  to 
provid  glass  for  a  house  and  if  people  doe  not  come  up  to  offer  what 

^72> 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

is  reasonable  and  needfull  that  I  will  than  provid  nails  of  all  sorts : 
to  be  used  in  building  a  hones  and  hall :  21y  I  give  a  farme,  637  Acrs 
of  land  and  when  I  come  home  I  will  send  Ve  draft  and  laying  out  to 
Mr.  Danl.  Taylor  that  he  may  make  such  a  Deed  proper  in  such  a 
case  the  farme  of  value  at  150.£  I  will  alsoe  take  some  pains  to  put  it 
in  a  way  of  yearely  prohtt  30  £  charge  I  hope  will  bring  20  £  p  yeare 
in  a  little  time. 

Newhaven  October  16  1701  James  Fitch. 

It>  was  this  noble  gift  which  insured  at  that  time  the  establish- 
ment of  the  now  venerable  institution — Yale  College.  Not  many 
years  after,  Dr.  Daniel  Lathrop,  beside  a  large  donation  to  the  pub- 
lic school  of  his  native  place,  gave  £500  to  the  college  without  limita- 
tions ;  and  mthin  the  memory  of  most  of  those  now  present,  Dr.  Al- 
fred E.  Perkins,  impressed  with  the  thought  that  ''a  true  university 
in  these  days  is  a  collection  of  books,"  gave  a  fund  of  $10,000  to  the 
college  library  in  New  Haven,  thus  perpetuating  his  name  in  grate- 
ful remembrance,  and  exerting  an  influence  which  ^^^ll  increase  till 
the  college  and  the  country  are  no  more.  Three  citizens  of  Nor^^^ch, 
**to  the  manner  born,"  have  thus  given  to  Yale  College  the  largest 
donations  which,  at  each  successive  time,  its  treasury  had  received 
from  any  individual,  and  their  example  has  been  followed  by  many 
others,  giving  in  proportion  to  their  means. 

The  most  remarkable  of  the  attempts  to  civilize  the  Indians  is 
doubtless  that  of  Eev.  Eleazer  Wheelock  of  Lebanon.  The  remarka- 
ble results  of  this  effort  with  Samson  Occum  is  shown  in  the  follow- 
ing account  of  the  origin  of  Dartmouth  College,  taken  from  Kurd's 
"History  of  New  London  County,  Connecticut": 

In  1735,  Eleazer  "Wheelock,  a  clergyman  of  fine  talents,  of  earn- 
est character,  and  of  devoted  piety,  was  settled  over  the  Second  Con- 
gregational Church,  in  the  north  part  of  the  town  of  Lebanon.  Like 
many  other  ministers  of  the  day  and  afterwards,  he  had  several 
young  men  in  his  family,  whom  he  taught  the  higher  branches  of 
English  and  in  the  classics. 

In  December,  1743,  a  young  Mohegan  Indian,  about  twenty 
years  of  age,  Samson  Occom,  whose  name  has  since  become  more 
famous  than  that  of  any  other  of  the  tribe,  unless  perhaps  the  first 
Uncas,  applied  to  Mr.  ^Mieeloek  for  admission  among  his  scholars.. 
Occom  was  born  in  1723,  at  Mohegan,  and  grew  up  in  the  pagan 
faith  and  the  rude  and  savage  customs  of  his  tribe.  During  the  great 
religious  awakening  of  1739-40  he  had  become  convinced  of  the 
truth  of  Christianity,  and  deeply  alarmed  for  his  o\\'n  lost  condi- 

174 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

tioii.  For  six  months  he  groaned  in  the  gloom  of  his  darkness,  but 
then  light  broke  into  his  soul,  and  he  was  seized  ^ith  an  irresistible 
impulse  to  carry  this  great  light  to  his  benighted  race,  and  to  become 
a  teacher  to  his  lost  brethren,  and  with  his  heart  swelling  with  this 
impulse  he  now  stood  before  AVheelock,  asking  to  be  instructed  for 
this  great  work. 

It  was  not  in  the  heart  of  Wheelock  to  resist  this  appeal,  and  he 
at  once  admitted  him  to  his  school  and  family  with  open  arms,  and 
in  the  spirit  of  his  mission.  Occom  had  already  learned  the  letters 
of  the  alphabet,  and  could  spell  out  a  few  words,  and  such  was  his 
zeal  and  devotion  to  study  that  in  four  years  he  was  fitted  to  enter 
college ;  but  his  health  had  been  so  impaired  by  intense  application, 
and  lacking  also  the  means,  he  never  entered.  Leaving  school,  he  re- 
turned to  his  tribe,  preaching  and  teaching  salvation  through  Christ 
alone,  with  power  and  effect,  supporting  himself  meantime,  like  the 
rest  of  his  tribe,  by  hunting  and  fishing,  and  the  rude  Indian  arts  of 
making  baskets  and  other  Indian  utensils,  and  occasionally  teaching 
small  Indian  schools,  but  during  all  this  time  still  pursuing  his  own 
studies  in  theology  and  Bible  literature. 

In  this  mission  he  visited  other  tribes.  In  1748  he  went  over  to 
Long  Island  and  spent  several  years  there  among  the  Montauk,  the 
Shenecock,  and  other  tribes,  preaching  and  teaching  with  great  suc- 
cess. At  one  time  a  great  revival  occurred  under  his  labors  there, 
during  which  many  Indians  were  converted.  August  29,  1759,  he 
was  ordained  by  the  Suffolk  Presbj'tery  of  Long  Island,  and  was  ever 
after  regarded  as  a  regular  member  of  that  ecclesiastical  body. 

The  case  of  Occom  and  its  instructive  results  attracted  wide 
attention  from  the  first  start,  and  Mr.  T^Tieelock  determined  to  open 
his  school  to  other  Indian  youths  who  desired  to  engage  in  and 
be  fitted  for  the  same  work  and  in  a  short  time  it  became  exclu- 
sively an  ''Indian  School"  for  missionary  purposes,  so  that  by  1762 
he  had  more  than  twenty  Indian  students,  preparing  for  the  conver- 
sion of  their  countrymen. 

This  new  movement  attracted  the  earnest  attention  of  the  lead- 
ing clergj-men  and  Christian  philanthropists  throughout  all  New 
England  and  the  Northern  colonies.  To  all  who  looked  with  anxiety 
for  the  conversion  and  civilization  of  the  aborigines  of  this  part  of 
North  America,  this  school  was  long  considered  the  brightest  and 
most  promising  ground  of  hope.  Notes  of  encouragement  came 
pouring  in  from  various  sources  throughout  all  the  New  England 
colonies,  from  ministers'  councils,  from  churches,  and  from  eminent 
leaders  and  philanthopists,  with  money  contributions,  cheering  on 
the  movement,  and  all  aiming  to  increase  the  numbers  in  training, 
and  to  give  to  the  school  a  wider  sweep  in  its  influence.  Probably 
no  school  in  this  or  any  other  land  or  age  ever  awakened  so  wide- 
spread and  intense  an  interest  or  seemed  freighted  with  such  a 

175 


THE  BEGIXXIXGS  OF  EDUCATION 

precious  and  hopeful  mission  as  did  then  lliis  little  parochial  school, 
kept  in  the  obscure  parsonage  of  a  country  minister. 

In  1765  a  general  conference  of  the  friends  of  the  school  was 
held,  at  which  it  was  determined  to  send  Samson  Occom  to  England 
to  show  to  our  English  brethren  there  what  Christianity  had^done 
for  him,  and  what  it  could  do  for  the  natives  of  North  America,  and 
that  Kev.  Nathaniel  AVhitaker,  of  Norwich,  should  go  with  him,  to 
enlist  co-operation  in  the  cause  and  to  solicit  contributions  in  its  aid. 
Occom  was  then  forty-three  years  old,  well  educated,  and  spoke 
English  clearly  and  fluently.  His  features  and  complexion  bore 
every  mark  of  his  race,  but  he  was  easy  and  natural  in  social  man- 
ners, frank  and  cordial,  but  modest  in  conversation,  and  his  deport- 
ment in  the  pulpit  was  such  as  to  command  deep  attention  and 
respect.  He  could  preach  extemporaneously  and  well,  but  usually 
wrote  his  sermons.  Such,  then,  was  this  son  of  the  forest,  and  such 
his  sublime  mission  to  the  English  mother-land— to  convert  the 
natives  of  a  pagan  continent  to  Christianity  and  civilization  through 
the  ministry  of  pagan  converts  of  their  own  race. 

Plis  appearance  in  England  produced  an  extraordinary  sensa- 
tion, and  he  preached  with  great  applause  in  London  and  other  prin- 
cipal cities  of  Great  Britain  and  Scotland  to  crowded  audiences. 
From  the  16th  of  February,  1766,  to  the  22nd  of  July,  1767,  he  deliv- 
ered between  three  and  four  hundred  sermons,  many  of  them  in  the 
presence  of  the  king  and  the  royal  family  and  the  great  nobles  of  the 
land.  Large  contributions  were  taken  up  after  each  of  these  dis- 
couses ;  the  king  himself  gave  £200,  and  in  the  whole  enterprise  £700 
sterling  were  collected  in  England  and  about  £300  in  Scotland. 

This  success  resulted  in  transferring  Wheelock's  Indian  School 
to  New  Hampshire,  which  it  was  thought  would  be  a  better  place  for 
an  Indian  seminary,  as  being  more  retired  and  less  exposed  to  dis- 
turbing influences  than  the  more  thickly  settled  colony  of  Connecti- 
cut. It  was  then  incorporated  as  Dartmouth  College  (taking  its 
name  from  the  pious  and  noble  Earl  of  Dartmouth,  whom  Occom 's 
mission  in  England  had  warmly  enlisted  in  the  cause),  for  the 
special  object  and  purpose  of  educating  and  training  Indian  youths 
for  the  ministry  and  missionary  work  of  their  race;  but  after  the 
death  of  Eleazer  "Wheelock,  its  founder  and  president,  and  es])ecially 
after  the  death  of  his  son.  John  Wheelock,  who  succeeded  him  as 
president,  its  original  and  distinctive  character  as  an  Indian  semin- 
ary gradually  changed  until  it  became,  as  it  still  remains,  assimil- 
ated in  character  and  purpose  with  the  other  colleges  of  the  country ; 
and  so  the  glowing  dream,  the  fervid  zeal,  and  the  sanguine  hopes 
and  expectations  of  its  great-souled  founders  faded  away. 

In  1771,  a  Mohegan  Indian,  named  Moses  Paul,  was  tried  at 
New  London  and  condemned  to  death  for  the  murder,  in  a  drunken 
brawl,  of  Moses  Clark.     A  large  assembly  of  Englisli  and  Indians 

176 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

collected  to  witness  the  execution.  At  the  request  of  the  prisoner, 
Samson  Occom  was  appointed  by  the  authorities  to  preach  a  funeral 
sermon  in  the  presence  of  the  poor  wretch,  as  was  the  custom  of  the 
time,  just  before  he  was  launched  into  eternity.  Upon  his  own  coffin, 
in  front  of  the  pulpit,  sat  the  doomed  man.  Next  around  him  were 
seated  his  brethren  of  the  Mohegan  tribe,  the  audience  filling  the 
rest  of  the  church,  a  great  crowd  surrounding  it,  and  a  military'com- 
pany  acting  as  guard. 

The  sermon  is  still  preserved  in  the  library  of  the  Connecticut 
Historical  Society  at  Hartford  (Pamphlet  No.  225) ;  the  text  from 
Romans  vi.  23:  ''For  the  wages  of  sin  is  death;  but  the  gift  of  God 
is  eternal  life  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord."  It  is  not  eloquent,  it 
is  not  grand  oratory,  but  it  is  something  higher  than  eloquence,  and 
in  its  sad  and  solemn  moaning  over  the  degraded  and  lost  condition 
of  his  race,  in  their  pagan  darlaiess,  their  wickedness,  the  awful  con- 
sequences of  drunkenness,  their  besetting  sin,  it  has  all  the  moving 
power  and  pathos  of  a  Hebrew  wail. 

The  first  part  of  the  discourse  dwells  at  length  upon  the  peculiar 
meaning  and  significance  of  the  term  "death,"  as  used  in  the  text, 
its  endless  character,  and  was  addressed  to  the  audience  at  large, 
and  rising  with  the  vastness  of  the  idea,  he  exclaimed,  "Eternity! 
0  Eternity !  Who  can  measure  it  ?  Who  can  count  the  years  there- 
of? Arithmetic  fails,  the  thoughts  of  men  and  angels  are  drowned 
in  it.  How  shall  we  describe  eternity?  To  what  shall  we  compare 
itf  Were  a  fly  to  carry  off  one  j^article  of  this  globe  to  such  a  dis- 
tance that  it  would  take  ten  thousand  years  to  go  and  return  for 
another,  and  so  continue  till  he  had  carried  off,  particle  by  particle, 
once  in  ten  thousand  years,  the  whole  of  this  globe  and  placed  it  in 
that  distant  space,  just  as  it  is  now  here,  after  all  this,  eternity 
would  remain  the  same  unexhausted  duration!  And  this  eternal 
death  must  be  the  certain  portion  of  all  impenitent  sinners,  be  they 
who  they  may,  Negroes,  Indians,  English,  or  what  nation  soever; 
honorable  or  ignoble,  great  or  small,  rich  or  poor,  bond  or  free,  all 
who  died  in  their  sins  must  go  to  hell  together,  'for  the  wages  of  sin 
is  death.'  " 

He  next  addressed  the  doomed  prisoner  upon  his  coffin,  pointed 
out  to  him  the  enormity  of  his  crime,  and  how  by  drunkenness,  and 
by  despising  the  warnings  and  counsels  of  Christian  teachers,  he 
had  been  led  to  it;  explained  to  him  the  way  of  salvation,  urging 
him  with  pathos  and  earnest  energy  at  once  to  accept  it,  and  like  the 
dying  thief  upon  the  cross  beside  the  crucified  Saviour,  to  throw 
himself  upon  the  mercy  of  that  same  Saviour,  and  so,  even  at  the 
eleventh  hour,  escape  eternal  death. 

He  then  turned  to  the  Mohegans  present:  "Mv  poor  kindred!" 
he  exclaimed,  "you  see  the  woeful  consequences  of  sin  by  seeing  this, 
our  poor,  miserable  country-man,  now  before  us,  who  is  to  die  for  his 

1/7 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

sins  and  his  groat  crime,  and  it  was  especially  the  sin  of  drunkenness 
that  brought  this  destruction  and  untimely  death  upon  him.  There 
is  a  dreadful  woe  denounced  from  the  Almighty  against  drunkards ; 
and  it  is  this  sin,  this  abominable,  this  beastly  sili  of  drunkenness 
that  has  stript  us  of  every  desirable  comfort  in  this  life.  By  this 
sin  we  have  no  name  or  credit  in  the  world;  for  this  sin  we  are 
despised,  and  it  is  right  and  just,  for  we  despise  ourselves.  By  this 
sin  we  have  no  comfortable  houses,  nor  an^iliing  comfortable  in  our 
houses,  neither  food,  nor  raiment,  nor  decent  utensils;  we  go  about 
with  ragged  and  dirty  clothing  and  almost  naked,  most  of  the  time 
talf  starved,  and  obliged  to  pick  up  and  eat  such  foods  as  we  can 
find;  and  our  poor  children  suffering  every  day,  often  crying  for 
food,  and  we  have  nothing  for  them,  and  in  the  cold  winter  shivering 
and  crying,  pinched  with  cold.  All  this  comes  from  the  love  of 
strong  drink.  And  this  is  not  all  the  misery  and  evil  we  bring  upon 
ourselves  by  this  sin,  for  when  we  are  intoxicated  with  strong  drink 
we  drown  our  rational  powers,  by  which  we  are  distinguished  from 
the  brute  creation ;  we  unman  ourselves,  and  sink  not  only  to  a  level 
with  the  beasts  of  the  field,  but  seven  degrees  beneath  them ;  yea,  we 
bring  ourselves  to  a  level  with  the  devils;  and  I  don't  know  but  we 
make  ourselves  worse  than  the  devils,  for  I  never  heard  of  a  drunken 
devil." 

He  closed  his  discourse  with  a  fervid  exhortation  to  his  Mohe^ 
gan  brethren  to  break  off  from  their  sins,  and  especially  from  their" 
"besetting  sin  of  drunkenness,  by  a  gospel  repentance;  to  "take 
warning  by  the  doleful  sight  now  before  us,"  and  from  the  dreadful 
judgments  that  have  befallen  poor  drunkards.  "You  that  have  been 
careless  all  your  day  now  awake  to  righteousness  and  be  concerned 
for  your  never-dying  souls."  Fight  against  all  sin,  and  especially 
against  your  besetting  sin,  "and  above  all  things  believe  in  the  Lord 
Jesus  Ciirist,  and  you  shall  have  eternal  life,  and  when  you  come  to 
die  your  souls  will  be  received  into  heaven,  there  to  be  with  the  Lord 
Jesus  and  all  the  saints  in  glory,  which  God  in  His  infinite  mercy 
grant,  through  Jesus  Christ,  our  Lord.    Amen." 

In  1786  he  gathered  a  few  Mohegans  and  several  other  Lidians 
from  other  tribes  in  Connecticut,  Ehode  Island,  and  Long  Island, 
and  went  \dih  them  to  Oneida  county,  New  York,  and  there  forrued 
the  nucleus  of  the  clan  afterwards  known  as  the  Brotherto\\ai  tribe 
among  the  Six  Nations.  He  continued  as  their  niinister,  acting  also 
as  a  missionarv  among  the  Six  Nations,  until  his  death,  which  oc- 
curred in  July,  1792,  more  than  three  hundred  Indians  follo^vlng 
him  mournfullv  and  tearfully  to  the  grave.  _ 

Another  voung  Mohesran,  Joseph  Johnson,  educated  in  Whee- 
lock's  school,  became  also^a  preacher  of  great  power  and  infiuonce. 
He  was  sent  early  as  a  missionary  to  the  Six  Nations  of  New  1  ork, 

178 


THE  BEGINNINGS  OF  EDUCATION 

and  afterwards  co-operated  ^\'ith  Occom  in  the  establishment  there 
of  the  Brotherto\\ii  clan.  At  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  of  the  Rev- 
olution the  Six  Nations,  a  powerful  and  warlike  Indian  confederacy, 
were  at  first  much  inclined  to  favor  the  English  side  and  to  become 
the  allies  of  the  British  forces  of  Canada,  and  to  this  end  were 
strongly  tempted  by  the  insidious  wiles  of  British  emissaries,  backed 
by  the  glittering  display  and  lavish  use  of  British  gold. 

Against  this  danger  both  Johnson  and  Occom  exerted  the  whole 
weight  of  their  great  moral  powers  and  their  wide  influence,  the 
former  especially  appealing  for  help,  in  averting  this  impending  dan- 
ger, to  Governor  Trumbull  and  other  friends  here,  and  to  the  Assem- 
bly. His  zeal  and  patriotic  eiforts  attracted  the  attention  of  Gen. 
Washington,  and  while  at  Cambridge,  directing  the  siege  of  Boston, 
he  wrote  him  a  letter  Avith  his  own  hand,  dated  Feb.  20,  1776,  thank- 
ing him  for  his  patriotic  and  important  services,  and  in  closing  he 
says,  ''Tell  the  Indians  that  we  do  not  ask  them  to  take  up  the 
hatchet  for  us  unless  they  choose  it,  we  only  desire  that  they  will  not 
fight  against  us.  We  want  that  the  chain  of  friendship  should  al- 
ways remain  bright  between  our  friends,  the  Six  Nations,  and  us. 
We  recommend  you  to  them,  and  hope  by  spreading  the  truths  of  the 
gospel  among  them  it  vdW  always  keep  the  chain  bright." 

Editor's  Note — The  latter  pages  of  the  foregoing  narrative  are  of  special  interest 
as  relating  to  the  beginnings  of  Yale  and  Dartmouth  Colleges. 


er 


179 


Misunderstood  Mythology 

By  Jacob  P.  Duxx,  Secretaey  of  Indiaxa  Historical  Society, 
Indianapolis,  Indiana 

N  THE  last  number  of  ''Americana"  (Jan.,  19'23),  in  my 
article  on  "Marquette's  Monsters,"  I  presented  the  ex- 
planation of  the  noted  pictographs  on  what  has  become 
known  as  ''Piasa  Rock."  The  average  reader  has 
probably  been  somewhat  surprised  that  such  extraordinary  delu- 
sions should  have  existed  as  have  prevailed  concerning  these  pic- 
tographs ;  and  it  may  be  of  historical  value  to  give  some  explanation 
of  the  rise  of  such  delusions.  This  will  perhaps  be  made  more  lucid 
by  reproducing  with  this  article  contemporary  illustrations  showing 
the  conceptions  that  such  Europeans  as  Champlain  and  Father  Laf- 
itau  derived  from  descriptions  by  the  Indians  of  their  Manito  of 
the  Waters;  and  also  the  modern  art  conception  derived  from  the 
same  source. 

In  one  sense  it  is  strange  that,  after  more  than  four  centuries  of 
contact  with  the  Indians,  the  American  public  should  know  so  little 
concerning  them.  In  another  sense  it  is  quite  natural,  because  the 
prevalent  ideas  are  derived  chiefly  from  poetry  and  works  of  fiction. 
Longfellow's  ''Hiawatha"  and  Cooper's  novels  are  more  responsi- 
ble for  American  opinions  of  the  Indians  and  their  customs  and  be- 
liefs than  all  of  the  scientific  works  on  the  subject  that  have  ever 
been  published. 

To  illustrate  by  a  "fundamental"  concept,  Longfellow's  Gitche 
Manito  is  the  chief  basis  for  the  almost  universal  American  belief 
that  the  Indians  of  themselves  had  arrived  at  a  conception  of  a  su- 
preme and  beneficent  being  before  the  whites  came  in  contact  \\ith 
them,  and  which  they  called  The  Great  Spirit,  which  is  what  Gitche 
Manito  means  literally  in  the  Ojibwa  language.  It  is  true  that  the 
Ojibwas  now  use  this  term  for  "God,"  but  they  got  that  concept 
from  the  missionaries,  and  the  original  Gitche  Manito  was  The 
Great  Serpent,  who  was  neither  supreme  nor  beneficent,  but  merely 

1 80 


•.  ^Uc^ft'.A«^ 


l^^ 


%^S. 


-''V--,- 


^::-^;V^     V-V/^ 


M\ 


}r% 


y* 


1^-7^' 


AM(^^^%^---- 


,/^^^s-^ 


v.-'^>>VT^-**^r- 


'^-Stfv'vSi*^- 


?2^ 


'-i^!^ 


Above,    Indians    frighteninir    off    F.clipse    of    tlu-    Moon.       Ik-low.    Dragon    and    Man-Cliild 

(Revelations.  Chap.  XII).     Fnmi  l.aiitrm's  '•.MnLiirs  dcs  Sauvaiit-s  .Aineriqnarins."  I*ari<. 

1724.     Falling  Stars  and   Flanus  of    litll  at   left  indicate  origin  of    llihK-   Dragon 


MISUNDERSTOOD  MYTHOLOGY 

the  most  powerful  of  the  manitos,  and  therefore  the  most  to  be    ,. 
feared. 

But  the  use  of  this  term  vras  not  contimied  by  all  of  the  xVlgoiikin  ». 
tribes.  The  Miamis  were  described  by  the  early  missionaries  as  the 
"most  docile"  of  the  western  tribes,  and  they  were  the  first  to  ac- 
cept Christianity.  At  the  outset,  they  used  Ki-ci-ma-net-o-wa  (which 
is  their  form  of  the  Ojibwa  term)  for  "God;"  but  when  the  mission- 
aries learned  that  this  raanito  corresponded  more  nearly  to  the  devil 
than  to  God,  they  abandoned  its  use  so  completely  that  1  have  never 
found  a  Miami  who  had  heard  the  word,  though  they  all  understood 
it  at  once  as  meaning  The  Great  Spirit.  They  use  Ka-ci-hi-wi-a,  or 
"The  Creator,"  for  "God." 

When  Count  Volney  \T.sited  the  United  States,  he  obtained  in 
1797  a  Miami  vocabulary  in  which  he  gives  for  "God"  the  alterna- 
tive "Kitchi  Manetoua,  or  Kajehelangoua."  The  latter  word — Ka- 
ci-hi-lan-gwa — means  He  Who  Made  Us  All;  but  it  refers  not  to 
the  Great  Serpent,  but  to  The  Great  Hare,  who  was  the  Algonkin 
demiurge,  and  is  known  to  various  tribes  as  Michaboo,  Nanaboush,  - 
Manabozho,  Ouisakedjak,  etc.  It  is  no  more  surprising  that  such  a  , 
confusion  should  be  made  by  a  casual  observer  than  that  there  should 
be  general  misconceptions ;  but  it  is  somewhat  surprising  that  in  two 
authoritative  works  ]\Iichaboo  is  confused  with  Micibisi,  the  Water 
Manito,  (Jesuit  Relations,  Vol.  30;  p.  328;  Brinton's  "Myths  of  the 
New  World,"  p.  197),  for  they  were  both  prominent  figures,  and 
were  traditional  enemies. 

In  fact,  the  Algonkin  creation  myth  begins  with  their  quarrel, 
which  caused  the  water  manitos  to  cover  the  earth  with  a  deluge,  a 
from  which  Michaboo  and  the  spirit  animals  took  refuge  on  a  raft 
(Jesuit  Relations,  Vol.  5,  p.  155;  Vol.  6,  p.  157);  although  the  re-  rt 
corded  legends  of  some  of  the  tribes  begin  with  this  group  on  the 
raft,  and  no  explanation  of  their  being  there.  Michaboo  told  them 
that  if  he  could  get  some  earth  from  under  the  water,  he  could  make 
an  island  on  w^hich  they  could  live.  The  beaver  first  dove  to  get  it, 
but  came  up  after  a  long  stay,  insensible  from  exhaustion,  and  unsuc- 
cessful. Then  the  otter  tried  it  with  no  better  success.  Then  the  musk- 
rat  went  do^vn,  and  came  up  insensible,  tw^enty-four  hours  later,  but 
in  one  of  his  paws  they  found  a  grain  of  sand  from  which  Michaboo 
made  an  island,  and  they  went  ashore.  This  island  he  enlarged  from 
time  to  time ;  and  when  an  animal  died,  or  a  dead  fish  was  washed 

i8i 


MISUNDERSTOOD  MYTHOLOGY 

up  on  the  beach,  he  made  a  man  of  the  carcase ;  and  this  was  the  rea- 
son given  for  the  names  of  their  various  clans. 

In  none  of  the  New  World  concepts  of  supernaturals  is  there 
any  approach  to  the  God  of  the  New  Testament,  or  of  the  Hebrews, 
or  of  Plato.  The  manitos  were  all  beings  with  supernatural  powers, 
but  with  human  characters,  like  the  gods  and  goddesses  of  the  Old 
World  mythologies.  But  in  four  centuries  there  have  been  very 
material  changes  in  the  theology  of  both  whites  and  Indians.  To  the 
early  missionaries  the  manitos  were  simply  "devils," — not  theoret- 
ical devils,  but  actual  ones.  The  early  missionaries  to  the  Peorias 
introduced  bodily  into  their  translation  of  the  story  of  Genesis  an 
account  of  the  rebellion  of  the  angels  under  the  lead  of  Lucifer,  and 
their  expulsion  from  heaven;  and  informed  the  Indians  that  these 
fallen  angels  were  their  manitos.  The  fall  of  the  angels  is  unques- 
tionably good  Bible  doctrine,  and  was  plainly  taught  by  Christ  and 
His  disciples ;  but  it  is  not  usually  given  any  practical  application  in 
modern  religious  teaching. 

In  those  earlier  days,  the  chief  function  of  the  American  "melt- 
ing-pot" was  the  adjustment  of  Old  World  and  New  World  ideas; 
and  naturally  the  Indian's  ideas  changed  most.  He  had  no  written 
nor  printed  language,  no  Scriptures,  no  fixed  creeds.  His  religion 
was  handed  down  by  the  medicine  men,  and  the  old  men  wdio  in- 
stinicted  the  youth  orally.  These  did  not  hesitate  to  adopt  a  new 
idea  if  it  seemed  to  be  an  improvement  on  previous  ones.  In  conse- 
quence, even  the  non-Christian  Indians  have  made  very  material 
changes  in  their  mythologj^  I  ran  across  a  striking  illustration  of 
this  in  a  Wis-sa-ka-tcak-wa  (all  the  "a"  sounds  as  in  "father,"  and 
the  accents  on  the  second  and  fourth  syllables)  story. 

But  first,  it  may  be  well  to  explain  that  Wissakatcakwa  is  a  sort 
of  incarnation  of  Michaboo,  and  that  the  stories  about  him  constitute 
a  large  part  of  present-day  Algonkin  folk-lore.  In  these,  however, 
the  hero  has  little  of  the  original  character  of  MichaboO,  but,  while 
he  occasionally  exercises  supernatural  powers,  and  converses  freely 
Tvith  birds  and  animals,  he  is  usually  represented  as  a  rather  silly 
fellow  who  attempts  impossible  things.  As  Brinton  aptly  puts  it : 
"This  is  a  low,  modern  and  corrupt  version  of  the  character  of 
Michaboo,  bearing  no  more  resemblance  to  his  real  and  ancient  one 
than  the  language  and  acts  of  our  Saviour  and  the  Apostles  in  the 

182 


v.*^f^ 


^'^?.>^- 


Tin;  riAsA  iuko 


Ahovc.  Conventiuiial  •■I'ia.-a  P.ird."  follow  Ihl;   Man|ucttt's  (k-crii)ii<m.     I'tiou.  tlu-  Drai^oii  a- 
incliided  in  •I-'aiina  of  Canada."  1)\   Cham, .lain 


MISUNDERSTOOD  MYTHOLOGY 

coarse  Mystery  Plays  of  the  Middle  Ages  do  to  those  revealed  by  the 
Evangelists." 

In  this  particular  story,  Wissakatcakwa  meets  a  Frenchman, 
Ma-ti-ko-ca.  This  word,  meaning  literally  ''big  ship,"  is  a  monu- 
ment to  LaSalle's  voyage  up  the  lakes  in  the  Griffon;  and,  in  all 
probability  the  ingenious  LaSalle  selected  that  name  for  his  craft  as 
the  French  counterpart  of  the  Water  Manito.  The  two  started  do\vn 
the  river  in  a  canoe,  but,  o^\ing  to  injudicious  singing  of  the  French- 
man when  near  the  Manito 's  resort,  were  sucked  into  its  lurking 
place,  and  behold,  instead  of  the  traditional  Micibisi,  it  is  a  seven- 
headed  monster — Swa-tats--\vin-da-pi-kang  ma-net-o-wa.  However, 
the  monster  finally  goes  to  sleep,  and  Wissakatcakwa  blows  it  up 
with  a  keg  of  gunpowder  that  is  conveniently  at  hand;  after  which 
the  two  adventurers  and  other  unfortunate  captives  make  their  es- 
cape. 

This  seven-headed  monster  is  not  an  Indian  concept.  There  is 
no  indication  of  more  than  one  head  in  Marquette's  description  or 
the  pictures  of  Champlain  and  Lafitau.  It  was  ob^'iously  derived 
from  the  Biblj  dragon.  For  a  terrifying  monster,  seven  heads  are 
plainly  bet^'.er  than  one,  and  the  Indian  story  tellers  altered  their 
mythology  accordingly.  On  the  other  hand,  it  was  equally  natural 
for  Champlain  to  assume  that  the  Water  Manito  was  an  actual  ani- 
mal. Nicolas  Perrot  did  the  same  when,  in  his  description  of  Indian 
divinities,  he  said:  "Those  which  are  on  the  earth  consist  of  all  qy\\ 
and  harmful  creatures,  particularly  the  serpents,  panthers,  and 
other  animals  or  birds  similar  to  griffons."  Griffons  and  dragons 
were  not  wholly  out  of  date  in  France. 

But  of  all  causes  for  misconceptions  of  Indian  mythology,  the 
most  potent  is  our  lack  of  knowledge  of  their  languages.  Anyone 
may  assure  himself  of  our  extraordinary  ignorance  in  this  field  by 
undertaking  to  learn  the  meaning  of  the  Indian  place  names,  which 
are  so  common  in  this  country,  and  tr}-ing  to  reconcile  the  conflicting 
opinions  concerning  them.  Max  ]\Iuller  expressed  surprise  that 
Americans  had  not  given  more  attention  to  the  record  and  study  of 
Indian  languages,  and  so  have  others.  The  obvious  reason  is  that 
there  is  no  practical  or  pecuniary  profit  in  it.  There  has  been  an 
occasional  Trumbull,  Brinton  or  Shea  who  did  valuable  work,  appar- 
ently from  the  love  of  knowledge,  but  their  efforts  were  never  ade- 
quately appreciated  by  the  public.    Schoolcraft  came  nearest  secur- 

183 


MISUNDERSTOOD  MYTHOLOGY 

ing  popular  appreciation ;  but  he  did  it  by  making  language  a  minor 
consideration,  and  devoting  his  attention  to  descriptive  writing. 

In  our  Indian  schools  the  use  of  Indian  languages  is  discour- 
aged, because  the  practical  object  is  to  teach  the  pupils  English,  and 
thereby  help  fit  them  for  the  struggles  of  life ;  so  that  even  among  the 
Indians  the  knowledge  of  their  native  tongue  is  dying  out.  Our  gov- 
ernmental efforts  for  the  preservation  of  Indian  languages  have 
been  curiously  perverted,  and  today  the  ranking  ethnologists  of  the 
country  are  groping  in  the  dark,  under  the  influence  of  the  canons  of 
German  philology,  which  have  no  more  application  to  Indian  lan- 
guages than  the  rules  of  English  grammar  have  to  the  Zulu  or 
Cliinese  languages. 

In  the  main,  the  real  study  of  Indian  languages  in  this  country 
has  been  by  missionaries;  but  here  again  the  practical  end  of  bene- 
fiting the  Indians  has  caused  most  of  their  printed  works  to  be  pub- 
lished in  Indian  without  translation  and  therefore  as  unintelligible 
to  the  average  American  student  as  if  they  were  in  cuneiform 
inscriptions.  There  are,  however,  scattered  over  this  country-  and 
Europe,  a  number  of  manuscript  Indian  dictionaries  and  gram- 
mars whi^h  are  the  products  of  years  of  patient  labor,  and  which 
would  give  an  entirely  new  aspect  to  this  field  for  research  if  they 
were  put  in  print.  These  manuscripts  have  never  been  printed  on 
account  of  the  lack  of  money  by  those  who  did  the  work ;  and  today, 
if  any  American  wishes  to  erect  a  monument  more  imperishable  than 
granite,  he  could  not  do  it  more  surely  than  by  endowing  a  society 
for  the  Preservation  of  Indian  Languages,  to  take  up  this  work. 
The  crying  need  is  not  for  essays  and  discussions,  but  for  the  pre- 
sentation of  the  material  in  form  available  for  the  use  of  students. 
The  opportunity  for  doing  this  work  is  decreasing  every  year.  Let 
me  cite  an  illustration. 

In  the  John  Carter  Brown  Library,  at  Providence,  Rhode 
Island,  is  preserved  a  manuscript  French-Peoria  dictionary,  made 
by  priests  in  the  Illinois  country  two  centuries  ago  or  more.  It  is  a 
veritable  mine  of  information.  John  Gilmary  Shea,  the  great  Cath- 
olic historian,  was  very  much  impressed  with  its  value,  and 
attempted  to  print  it  in  his  Cramoisy  texts  but  had  to  abandon 
it  after  printing  twenty-four  pages,  on  account  of  lack  of  financial 
support.  The  Peoria  language  is  not  now  spoken,  but  it  had  only 
slight  dialect  difference  from  the  Miami,  and  when  allowance  for 

184 


MISUNDERSTOOD  MYTHOLOGY 

tliis  difference  is  made  in  speaking,  the  ]\riamis  understand  the  text, 
which  becomes  in  fact  their  ovra  language. 

A  few  words,  however,  have  gone  out  of  use— both  French  and 
Indian  words— and  the  translators  have  occasionally  resorted  to 
expressions  that  are  not  easily  grasped  by  the  modern  Indians, 
esi)ecially  in  their  effort  to  convey  ideas  that  are  abstract,  or  that 
have  developed  a  religious  sense.  Having  no  conception  of  God  sim- 
ilar to  ours,  the  Indians  had  no  word  to  express  "worship,"  or  ''holi- 
ness," and  the  like,  in  the  sense  in  which  we  use  them.  The  concept 
of  "angel"  was  entirely  out  of  Indian  range  of  thought,  and  so  the 
missionaries  naturalized  it  in  the  word  an-ge-la,  plural  an-ge-la-ki, 
which  met  all  the  requirements  of  Miami  grammar.  For  some  ten 
years  past  I  have  given  spare  hours  to  a  translation  of  this  docu- 
ment into  English-Miami,  completing  about  one-third  of  it.  In  that 
time  I  have  found  four  Miamis  who  were  competent  for  the  transla- 
tion work.     Three  of  them  are  now  dead. 

\Vhen  one  considers  the  vast  expenditure  of  labor  and  money 
that  have  been  made  in  recovering  the  languages  of  Egj^pt  and 
Assyria,  this  neglect  of  dying  American  languages  becomes  the  more 
appalling,  for  an  Indian  language,  if  once  lost,  is  lost  forever,  as 
they  have  no  written  language.  It  is  true  that  their  pictographs  are 
usually  language;  but  these  are  wholly  ideographic,  and  have  no 
relation  to  the  spoken  languages.  To  a  speculative  mind  there  is 
gro"-:d  for  w^onder  what  future  generations  will  think  of  us  if  we 
Allow  these  languages  to  be  lost. 


t85 


Palisades  Interstate  Park,  New  Jersey 

Bt  Feank  E.  Holmes,  New  York  City 


p5c?^^'  HE  natural  scenic  beauties  of  a  country  are  amongst  its 


^J>i]-'£l     most  valuable   possessions.     For   centuries   the   river 
I  ^"   '-'^i     Rhine  has  been  exploited  by  the  brush  of  the  painter  and 


iMii'?^ 


the  pen  of  the  poet,  and  extolled  by  tourists  representing 
every  nation  of  the  world.  "What  the  Rhine  is  to  Continental  Eu- 
rope, the  Hudson  is  to  the  American  Republic;  this  naturally 
creates  a  sentiment  amongst  her  citizens  to  preserve  the  natural 
beauties  of  the  river  shores.  Commercialism  had  commenced  to 
despoil  its  western  shore  where  the  noted  cliffs  known  as  *'The  Pal- 
isades" reared  their  uncrowned  heads  towards  the  azure  of  the 
skies,  when  the  State  of  New  Jersey,  by  an  act  of  the  Legislature 
known  as  Chapter  415,  laws  of  1895,  created  a  board  of  commis- 
sioners to  confer  with  a  similar  representation  from  the  State  of 
New  York,  the  primary  object  being  the  acquisition  of  the  Palisades 
of  the  Hudson  river  by  the  United  States. 

Governor  John  "W.  Griggs  appointed  as  the  New  Jersey  Com- 
missioners, Messrs.  Henry  D.  Whiton,  Edward  P.  Murray,  and  C. 
B.  Thurston.  The  first  report  of  the  Commissioners  was  made  De- 
ceiT.be-'-  5,  1895,  in  which  it  was  suggested  that  the  States  of  New 
York  and  New  Jersey  should  assent  to  the  acquisition  of  the  United 
States  of  certain  lands  fronting  on  the  Hudson  river,  within  which 
the  cliffs  k-nowii  as  the  Palisades  were  situated.  These  lands  were 
to  be  exempted  from  all  State  taxation  and  assessments.  These  sug- 
gestions were  approved  by  the  Legislatures  of  the  two  States  and 
became  known  as  the  Laws  of  New  York,  chapter  15,  1896,  and  Laws 
of  New  Jersey,  chapter  23,  1896. 

The  Hon.  AVilliam  J.  Sewell,  then  United  States  Senator  from 
New  Jersey,  introduced  a  bill  in  the  Senate,  and  the  Hon.  Ben  L. 
Fairchild  in  the  House  of  Representatives,  which  was  referred  to 
the  Committee  on  Military-  Affairs,  and  through  its  recommenda- 
tion a  bill  was  passed  to  establish  a  military  park  upon  the  Palisades 
of  the  Hudson.    The  tract  as  far  as  its  boundaries  in  the  State  of 

1 86 


PALISADES  INTERSTATE  PARK,  NEW  JERSEY 

New  Jersey  were  described  as  follows:  ''Beginning  in  the  town- 
ship of  Ridgefield  in  the  county  of  Bergen,  New  Jersey,  at  high 
water  line  on  the  west  shore  of  the  Hudson  River  at  a  point  where 
the  south  line  of  the  lands  of  Dupont  and  Company  intersects, 
thence  in  a  southwesterly  direction  to  the  Fort  Lee  and  Hackeusack 
road,  thence  northerly  along  the  westerly  line  of  said  road  to  its 
junction  with  Hudson  Terrace,  thence  northerly  into  the  to^\-nship 
of  Englewood  to  Palisade  avenue,  thence  westerly  to  the  point  of  the 
junction  of  Palisade  avenue  with  the  westerly  side  of  Sylvan  avenue 
and  of  the  Boulevard  into  the  townships  of  Palisades  and  Harring- 
ton and  to  the  boundary  line  between  the  States  of  New  York  and 
New  Jersey."  These  boundaries  by  subsequent  purchases  and  don- 
ations have  been  enlarged  in  the  State  of  New  Jersey.  The  sum  of 
$50,000  was  appropriated  for  the  purchase  of  necessary  lands  and 
for  what  other  disbursements  that  were  necessary. 

The  Commission  was  incorporated  by  an  act  of  the  Legislature 
in  1900,  being  chapter  87  of  that  year,  under  the  title  of  the  Pali- 
sades Interstate  Park  Commission,  and  was  to  consist  of  ten  mem- 
bers, five  from  each  State,  to  be  appointed  by  the  governors.  New 
Jersey  appropriated  $5,000  and  New  Y'ork  $10,000  towards  the 
expenses  of  the  Commission.  Upon  investigation,  the  Commission- 
ers found  there  was  no  correct  survey  of  the  territory,  nor  an  accur- 
ate list  of  property  owners,  and  action  was  taken  to  make  a  complete 
survey,  also  to  obtain  an  authentic  list  of  the  owners  of  the  real 
estate.  One  of  the  first  efforts  of  the  Commission  was  the  attempt 
tc  2*^-0  the  blasting  of  rock  on  the  Palisades,  which  they  found 
could  not  be  accomplished  by  legal  methods,  therefore  the  moneys 
appropriated  by  the  Legislature  of  the  States  were  utilized  in  secur- 
ing lands  where  blasting  was  going  on.  After  months  of  negotia- 
tions, arrangements  were  entered  into,  securing  the  lands  used  for 
blasting,  for  $132,500;  also,  the  owners  of  the  lands  between  the 
base  of  the  cliffs  and  the  Hudson  river  agreed  to  accept  five  hundred 
dollars  an  acre  for  their  holdings.  The  Commissioners  further 
agreed  to  endeavor  to  establish  an  Interstate  Park  running  from 
Fort  Lee  Ferry  to  some  point  in  New  Y^ork  State  below  Piermont 
creek,  to  embrace  all  the  land  from  the  top  of  the  steep  edge  of  the 
cliffs  down  to  the  water's  edge,  and  to  construct  a  boulevard  at  the 
base  of  the  cliffs  as  speedily  as  possible.  The  appropriation  of  ten 
thousand  dollars  bv  the  Legislature  of  New  York  was  used  in  obtain- 

187 


PALISADES  INTERSTATE  PARK,  NEW  JERSEY 

ing  options  on  these  lands,  the  baLance  of  the  amount  for  the  pur- 
chasing of  the  blasting  lands  being  guaranteed  by  private  individ- 
uals of  New  York  City.  The  New  Jersey  appropriation  was  ex- 
pended in  the  survey  and  research  of  titles  and  maps  of  the  proper- 
ties purchased.  The  estimates  of  the  engineers  showed  the  total 
acreage  acquired  was  from  Fort  Lee  to  Iluyler's  Landing,  367 
acres ;  from  Huyler's  Landing  to  New  Jersey  State  Line,  332  acres ; 
and  from  the  State  Line  to  the  northern  limits,  417  acres.  The 
shore  front  represented  upwards  of  73,900  feet,  extending  from  the 
Old  Fort  Lee  Dock  in  Bergen  county.  New  Jersey,  into  Rockland 
county,  New  York.  The  Legislature  of  New  l''ork  in  1901  appropri- 
ated $400,000  without  restrictions  for  the  use  of  the  Commission. 

The  personnel  of  the  Commission  since  its  incorporation  in  1904 
was:  Edwin  A.  Stevens  of  Hoboken,  New  Jersey,  president;  D. 
McNeeley  Stauffer  of  I'onkers,  New  l^ork  vice-president;  J. 
DuPratt  White  of  Nyack,  New  York,  secretary;  Abram  De  Eonda 
of  Englewood,  New  Jersey,  treasurer;  Nathan  F.  Bassett  of  New 
Eochelle,  New  l^ork;  Abram  S.  Hewitt,  of  Kingwood,  New  Jersey; 
Franklin  W.  Hopkins,  of  Alpine,  New  Jersey;  William  L.  Linn, 
of  Hackensack,  New  Jersey;  George  W.  Perkins,  of  New  York 
City;  and  RaliDh  Trautmann,  of  New  l^ork  City.  The  death  of  Mr. 
Hewitt  caused  a  vacancy  which  was  filled  by  Governor  Murphy  of 
New  Jersey  by  the  appointment  of  William  B.  Dana  of  Englewood 
Cliffs,  New  Jersey.  On  the  death  of  Mr.  Trautmann,  November  12, 
1904,  William  H.  Porter,  of  New  Y'ork  City,  was  appointed  to  fill 
the  vacancy. 

The  entire  jurisdiction  of  the  Commission  in  19i35  extended 
along  a  river  frontage  of  13.86  miles,  of  which  11.02  miles  were  in 
New  Jersey  and  2.84  miles  in  New  l''ork.  The  Legislature  of  New 
Jersey  in  1901  appropriated  $50,000  for  the  purchases  of  lands,  all 
of  which  with  an  exception  of  $6,391.60  had  been  expended  in  1906. 
The  formal  dedication  of  the  Park  took  place  September  27,  1909, 
at  the  old  Cornwallis  Headquarters  in  the  Park  at  Alpine  Landing, 
New  Jersey.  The  Empire  State  was  represented  by  Governor 
Charles  Evans  Hughes,  and  New  Jersey  by  Governor  J.  Franklin 
Fort. 

In  the  history  of  the  preservation  of  the  scenic  beauty  of  the 
west  shore  of  the  Hudson  river,  two  years  will  always  stand  out 
prominent,  1900,  when  the  Interstate  Park  Commission  was  incor- 


PALISADES  INTERSTATE  PARK,  NEW  JERSEY 

porated  by  the  States  of  New  York  and  New  Jersey ;  and  1910,  the 
year  when  important  gifts  of  lands  and  moneys  amounting  to  $284,- 
000  were  received  and  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Commission  was 
extended  to  Newburgh,  New  York,  with  power  to  acquire  the  High- 
lands. The  gift  of  ten  thousand  acres  by  Edward  H.  Harrimau  of 
lands  situated  in  Rockland  and  Orange  counties,  supplemented  with 
a  trust  fund  of  a  million  dollars,  formed  a  basis  for  the  subscription 
of  $1,650,000  from  private  citizens  of  New  York  City,  the  list  being 
headed  with  the  names  of  John  D.  Rockefeller  and  J.  Pierpont 
Morgan  with  $500,000  each,  thus  creating  a  fund  to  enable  the  Com- 
mission to  extend  its  domains  and  beautify  it  with  landscape  archi- 
tecture. 

To  fill  a  vacancy,  Richard  V.  Lindabury,  of  Newark,  New  Jer- 
sey, was  appointed  as  successor  to  William  B.  Dana.  In  1913,  Ed- 
ward L.  Partridge,  of  New  York  City,  succeeded  D.  McNeely  Stauf- 
fer  as  vice-president ;  Frederick  C.  Sutro,  of  Basking  Ridge,  New 
Jersey,  succeeded  Abram  De  Ronda  as  treasurer;  and  Charles 
Whiting  Baker,  of  Montclair,  New  Jersey,  was  appointed  to  replace 
William  A.  Linn  as  a  commissioner.  The  retirement  of  Edwin  A. 
Stevens  as  president  caused  the  choice  of  Richard  V.  Lindabury  to 
fill  that  office.  To  fill  other  vacancies  in  the  Commission,  Mornay 
Williams,  of  Englewood,  New  Jersey,  John  J.  Voorhees,  of  Jersey 
City,  New  Jersey,  and  W.  Averill  Harriman,  of  New  York  City,  were 
appointed. 

The  construction  of  the  Henry  Hudson  Boulevard  was  com- 
menced in  1912.  The  State  Legislature  of  New  Jersey  in  1910 
appropriated  $500,000  towards  its  construction,  payable  in  yearly 
Instalments  of  $100,000,  and  in  1914  $200,000  of  this  amount  had 
been  paid.  The  popularity  of  the  Palisades  Interstate  Park  was 
firmly  established  in  1917.  The  New  Jersey  Legislature  of  that  year 
appropriated  $25,000  towards  the  completion  of  the  Henry  Hudson 
Drive,  and  there  was  still  a  final  instalment  of  $100,000  to  be  paid  on 
the  appropriation  of  $500,000  passed  by  the  Legislature  of  1910. 
Oreenbrook  Park,  located  in  the  borough  of  Tenafly,  was  purchased, 
consisting  of  133  acres  of  land  on  the  summit  of  the  Palisades.  This 
purchase,  with  the  donation  of  an  adjoining  tract  of  land  of  thirty- 
two  acres,  gave  a  cliff  frontage  of  5100  feet.  The  following  year 
the  Commission  completed  negotiations  with  P.  Sanford  Ross  for 
eight  acres  below  the  cliffs,  in  the  borough  of  Fort  Lee,  thereby  com- 

189 


PALISADES  INTERSTATE  PARK,  XEW  JERSEY 

pleting  vrithout  a  break  real  estate  holdings  in  New  Jersey  between 
the  top  of  the  cliffs  and  the  river  shore  from  the  most  southerly 
point  in  its  jurisdiction  to  the  New  York  State  line. 

The  Englcwood-Alpine  section  of  the  Henry  Hudson  Drive 
from  its  beginning  at  the  Englewood  approach  and  its  terminus 
at  the  Boulevard  on  the  top  of  the  cliffs  at  Alpine,  five  miles  and  one- 
half  in  length,  with  a  spur  to  the  Alpine  Dock,  a  half  mile  in  length, 
was  completed  and  open  to  traffic  October  29,  1921.  Simple  cere- 
monies marked  the  opening  of  the  Drive,  at  termination  of  which  the 
ribbon  stretched  across  its  entrance  was  cut  by  Mrs.  George  W.  Per- 
kins, and  it  was  opened  for  public  use.  The  cost  of  the  Drive  was 
$628,747.19,  which  was  defrayed  out  of  the  New  Jersey  State  appro- 
priations, it  having  been  planned  and  constructed  by  the  Commis- 
sion's own  organization. 

The  surface  of  the  driveway  is  sixteen  feet  in  width,  with  four 
feet  gutters  on  each  side,  and  is  constructed  of  telford  macadam 
bituminous  bound.  Dry  masonry  retaining  walls  hold  the  back 
slopes,  the  parapet  wall  consisting  of  boulders  weighing  from  one 
to  three  tons  each.  A  bridge  spanning  Greenbrook  Falls,  a  chasm 
down  the  face  of  the  cliffs  hundreds  of  feet  in  depth,  is  of  rein- 
forced concrete  with  a  spandel  arch  sixty  feet  in  the  clear  at  an  ele- 
vation of  one  hundred  and  eighty  feet  above  the  Hudson  river. 
The  Drive  follows  as  near  as  ix)ssible  the  natural  topography 
between  the  foot  of  the  Palisades  Cliffs  and  the  shore  front  of  the 
Hudson  river,  the  grade  in  only  a  few  places  exceeding  six  per 
cent.  At  places  it  dips  almost  to  the  water's  edge,  and  at  other 
places  it  rises  to  elevations  of  from  three  hundred  to  four  hundred 
feet.  The  views  are  unsurpassed.  Now  appear  short  vistas  through 
the  foliage  on  the  water  front,  and  again  the  whole  panorama  of  the 
Hudson  will  be  unfolded  from  some  commanding  height.  The  Drive 
is  in  no  sense  an  automobile  speedway;  it  is  more  in  the  nature 
of  a  trail  affording  to  those  that  travel  it,  everchanging  scenes  of 
wonderful  beauty. 

The  Storm  king  Highway,  which  was  opened  to  the  public  in 
1922,  was  hewn  out  of  the  side  of  a  mountain  of  rock.  In  surveying 
for  this  road,  the  engineers  stood  on  Crows  Nest  Mountain  and  shot 
paint  over  onto  the  side  of  Storm  King  Mountain  to  obtain  the 
correct  elevation.    When  the  road  was  constructed  it  was  necessary 

190 


PALISADES  INTERSTATE  PARK,  NEW  JERSEY 

to  place  nets  belo^  the  roadbed  in  order  to  prevent  blasted  rocks 
from  falling  on  the  railroad  track  below. 

To  approach  this  highway  from  Manhattan,  the  traveler  passes 
along  the  east  shore  of  the  Hudson  river  to  Garrisons,  where  the 
river  is  crossed  by  ferry  to  West  Point.  About  a  mile  or  more  from 
this  point  is  the  commencement  of  the  new  Storm  I^ng  Mountain 
road,  built  around  the  side  of  the  mountain.  Proceeding  in  a  north- 
erly direction,  Xewburgh  is  reached,  where  a  detour  is  taken  west  to 
Middletown,  and  thence  in  a  curving  southerly  direction  the  New 
Jersey  State  line  is  reached,  passing  in  transit  Ramsey,  Hohokus, 
Areola,  Hackensack,  Leonia,  to  Fort  Lee,  where  the  One  Hundred 
and  Thirtieth  Street  ferry  is  taken  for  New  York  City. 

The  Commissioners  of  the  Palisades  Interstate  Park  announced 
in  1922  that  there  would  be  no  closed  season  during  the  winter 
months.  The  Bear  Mountain  Inn  was  to  remain  open  for  the  entire 
year ;  a  toboggan  slide  was  to  be  erected,  and  Highland  Lake  flooded 
to  obtain  good  skating;  the  cabins  in  the  woods  were  to  be  heated 
and  rented  to  week-end  parties. 

The  present  officers  of  the  Commission  are  Eichard  V.  Lind- 
abury,  of  Newark,  New  Jersey,  president;  Edward  L.  Partridge, 
of  New  l^ork,  New  Y^'ork,  vice-president;  W.  Averell  Harriman, 
of  New  York,  New  Y^ork,  secretary;  Frederick  C.  Sutro,  of  Basking 
Eidge,  New  Jersey.  They  with  Charles  Whiting  Baker,  of  Mont- 
clair,  New  Jersey,  John  J.  Voorhees,  of  Jersey  City,  New  Jersey, 
Myran  W.  Robinson,  of  Hackensack,  N.  J.,  J.  DuPratt  White,  of 
Nyack,  New  Y^ork,  William  H.  Potter,  of  New  Y'ork,  New  York, 
and  Otis  H.  Cutter,  of  Suffern,  New  Y^ork,  constitute  the  Board  of 
Commissioners. 


.91 


Sayles  Family 

By  Mrs.  Herold  R.  Fixley,  St.  Louis,  ^Mo. 

Arms— Argent  on  a  fess  cotised  engrailed  azure  between  three  wolves'  heads  erased 
■sable,  as  many  griffins'  heads  erased  or. 

Crest— In  front  of  a  wolf's  head  couped  sable,  gorged  with  a  collar  gemel  or,  three 
■escallops  gold. 

Motto— Who  most  has  served  is  greatest.     (This  motto  is  given  only  in  English). 


Jr^yvJ  0  MORE  distinguished  name  than  that  of  Sayles  occurs  in 
^^3fj  the  history  of  the  State  of  Rhode  Island,  "in  the  annals 
c^^4^  of  its  business,  iinancial  and  industrial  development  in 
"^^[j  the  last  century.  From  the  first  days  of  Rhode  Island's 
'  existence  as  a  Colony  the  name  has  carried  a  prestige 
and  influence  in  large  affairs  which  subsequent  generations  have  not 
allowed  to  wane.  In  the  career  of  the  late  Frank  Arthur  Sayles, 
prematurely  cut  off  at  the  height  of  its  gigantic  achievement  and  use- 
fulness, w^e  have  an  example  of  inspired  strength  welding  together 
structures  of  men  and  minds  for  great  industrial  advancement, 
•combined  with  the  resourcefulness  and  inventive  genius  of  the  New 
England  intellect,  such  as  occurs  but  few  times  in  a  century.  Frank 
A.  Sayles  took  undisputed  place  as  one  of  the  greatest  Captains  of 
Industry  of  the  twentieth  century,  and  his  reputation  was  world- 
^de. 

The  Sayles  family  in  Rhode  Island  dates  from  the  year  1651, 
when  the  first  mention  of  the  name  of  the  progenitor,  John  Sayles, 
appears  on  the  records  of  the  Colony.  That  he  had  been  here  for  at 
least  a  short  period  i)rior  to  that  date  is  evident  from  the  fact  that 
about  1650  he  married  Mary  Williams,  daughter  of  Roger  Williams. 
They  were  the  progenitors  of  a  family  which  has  figured  largely  in 
the  affairs  of  Colony  and  State  from  the  very  beginning.  Although 
not  numerous,  their  descendants  have  been  divided  into_  several 
clearly  defined  branches,  according  to  the  localities  in  which  they 
liave  resided. 

The  surname  is  of  ancient  English  origin,  and  considerable  in- 
terest attaches  to  its  derivation.  It  is  local  in  source,  and  signifies 
literally  ''at  the  hurdles,"  sayles  being  the  old  English  word  for 
hurdles,  or  the  upright  stakes  of  a  hurdle.  Charles  Waroing  Bards- 
ley,  M.  A.,  in  his  "Dictionary  of  English  and  AVelsh  Surnames,''  in 
tracing  the  origin  of  the  name,  says :  "The  only  instances  I  can  find, 
ancient  or  modern,  are  in  County  York.  The  name  has  remained 
there  at  least  five  hundred  years."    From  this  fact  we  cannot  go  far 

192 


Sayles 


"*^"*'^'^  '•  ViiA^iigaiviiaftMaitofej 


f.;'y;iiap^y.''Mt^gj^v«?>y^!wai|tj 


THE    MAYFLOWER 


SAYLES  FAMILY 

astray  if  ^ve  claim  Yorkshire  as  the  home  of  the  early  Sayles  ances- 
tors. 

/.  John  Sayles,  immigrant  ancestor  and  founder,  was  born  in 
1633,  and  is  first  recorded  in  Providence  Plantations,  January  27, 
1C51,  when  he  purchased  a  house  and  lot  of  John  Throckmorton'  On 
May  12,  1(352,  he  bought  land  of  Pialph  Earle,  near  West  River.  In 
the  f ollo\\'ing  year,  1653,  already  risen  to  a  position  of  prominence 
in  Colonial  affairs,  he  was  chosen  assistant  to  the  governor.  In  1655 
he  was  admitted  a  freeman,  and  in  1653,  1655,  1657,  1659,  was  com- 
missioner. From  1655  to  1657  he  served  the  town  of  Providence  as 
clerk;  member  of  the  General  Council,  165S;  warden,  1648;  treas- 
urer, 1653,  1657,  1659, 1661, 1662.  On  May  26,  1660,  he  sold  William 
Hawkins  a  piece  of  property  which  indicates  how  vast  were  his  hold- 
ings in  the  early  Coiony.  On  that  date  he  conveyed  all  rights  in  land 
lying  between  Pawtucket  and  Pav^tuxet  rivers,  ''beginning  at  the 
end  of  seven  miles  upon  a  west  line  from  the  hill  called  Foxes'  Hill 
(the  to\\'n  of  Providence  having  the  same  for  a  boundary),  and  so  to 
go  up  the  streams  of  those  rivers  unto  the  end  of  twenty  miles  from 
the  said  Foxes'  Hill."  On  February  19,  1665,  he  had  lot  twenty- 
four  in  a  division  of  lands.  On  May  31,  1666,  he  took  the  oath  of 
allegiance.  He  served  on  the  grand  jury  in  1669-71,  and  in  1669-70- 
71-74-76-77-78,  was  a  deputy  to  the  Rhode  Island  General  Assembly. 
On  May  4, 1670,  he  and  three  others  were  appointed  to  audit  the  Col- 
ony's account.  On  June  24,  1670,  he  sold  to  Stephen  Arnold  a  thir- 
teenth of  the  island,  called  the  vineyard,  at  Pa^^-tuxet,  "which  my 
father-in-law  Mr.  Roger  Williams  gave  mo."  In  1670-71  he  was 
a  member  of  the  To\\m  Council.  On  August  21,  1671,  he  and  Thom- 
as Roberts  were  appointed  to  prize  and  transport  the  horse  belong- 
ing to  the  town  of  Riiode  Island,  and  to  deliver  it  to  Joseph  Torrey 
in  pa\Tnent  for  debts  due  from  the  town.  On  May  24,  1675,  he  drew 
lot  eighteen  in  the  division  of  lands.  His  last  appearance  on  the 
public  records  is  on  July  1,  1679,  when  he  was  taxed  Is.  3d. 

John  Sayles  married,  about  1650,  Mary  Williams,  daughter  of 
Roger  Williams,  who  was  born  at  Plymouth,  Massachusetts,  in  Au- 
gust, 1633. 

II.  John  (2)  Sayles,  son  of  John  (1)  and  Mary  J  Williams) 
Savles,  was  born  in  Providence,  Rhode  Island,  August  17,  1654.  He 
was  admitted  a  freeman.  May  3,  1681,  and  in  16SS  served  on  the 
grand  jury.  On  January  23,  1694,  he  had  laid  out  to  him  thirty-five 
acres,  ''which  land  he  had  of  his  grandfather  Mr.  Roger  Williams." 
In  1694  he  was  chosen  to  the  office  of  deputy  to  the  General  Assem- 
bly, and  again  in  1706.  On  August  14,  1710,  he  was  licensed  to  keep 
an  inn  and  sell  liquor.  John  Savles  died  on  August  2,  1727.  His 
^yill,  dated  September  14,  1726,  and  proved  August  21,  1727,  be- 

193 


,     .  SAYLES  FAMILY 

queathes  to  his  sons :  Thomas,  Richard  and  John,  and  his  dauirhter 
Mary.  The  gravestones  of  John  Sayles,  his  wife  Elizabeth,  and  son 
Daniel  are  still  to  be  seen  in  the  old  graveyard  west  of  the  railroad 
track,  nearly  opposite  the  foot  of  Earl  stre'et. 

John  (2)  Sayles  married  Elizabeth  Olney,  born  January  31, 
1666,  daughter  of  Thomas  Olney.    She  died  November  2,  1699.  ' 

///.  Captain  Richard  Sayles,  son  of  John  (2)  and  Elizabeth 
(Olney)  Sayles,  was  born  in  Providence,  Rhode  Island,  October  24, 
1695,  and  died  in  Smithfield  after  ^lay,  1775.  In  1731  he  was  town 
clerk  of  Providence.  There  is  a  record  of  his  delivering  the  two 
children  of  his  wife  by  a  former  marriage  to  their  grandfather, 
Maturin  Ballou,  September  25,  1742.  He"  removed,  in  1731-32,  to 
Smithfield,  a  stronghold  of  the  Rhode  Island  Friends,  and  some  of 
his  children  joined  the  Society  of  Friends.  His  brothers  also  set- 
tled in  Smithfield,  and  became  very  prominent  citizens.  Richard 
Sayles  held  the  rank  of  ensign  in  the  Second  Providence  Companv, 
Second  Regiment  of  Militia  of  the  Main  Land,  1722,  1723,  1724,  1725. 
He  was  a  lieutenant  in  the  same  company  in  1725  and  1726,  and  cap- 
tain in  1729.  In  1731,  1733,  he  was  captain  of  the  Smithfield  com- 
pany. He  was  deputy  for  Providence  to  the  General  Assemblv  of 
Rhode  Island  in  1730,  and  deputy  for  Smithfield  in  1738.  On  Feb- 
ruary- 21,  1750,  Richard  Sayles  deeded  a  house  lot  of  two  and  three- 
quarter  acres  to  his  son  Richard,  and  on  July  5,  1757,  deeded  land  to 
his  sons,  Jonathan  and  Gideon,  including  the  homestead. 

Captain  Richard  Sayles  married  (first),  November  24,  1720, 
Mercy  Phillips,  daughter  of  Richard  and  Sarah  (^lowry)  Phillips. 
He  married  (second),  May  14,  1738,  Alice  Arnold,  of  Smithfield, 
widow  of  David  Arnold,  and  daughter  of  Maturin  and  Sarah  Ballou. 
He  married  (third),  January  10,  1742,  Susannah  Inman,  widow  of 
John  Iimian,  and  daughter  of  James  and  Susanna  (Whitman)  Bal- 
lou. 

IV.  Captain  Israel  Sayles,  son  of  Captain  Richard  and  Mercy 
(Phillips)  Sayles,  was  born  March  17,  1726,  and  died  April  22,  ISOl. 
He  w^as  a  farmer,  and  an  unusually  skilled  mechanic.  For  many 
years  he  was  president  of  the  Towm  Council  of  Glocester.  He  held 
the  rank  of  lieutenant  in  the  First  Company  of  Glocester,  Provi- 
dence County  Regiment,  in  1754,  and  was  captain  of  the  same  in 
1754,  1755,  and  1756.  In  1757  he  was  enlisting  officer  for  Glocester. 
Israel  Sayles  served  in  the  Revolutionary  War  as  a  member  of  Cap- 
tain Hopkins'  company.  Colonel  Lippitt's  regiment,  and  according 
to  report,  under  General  Sullivan. 

Captain  Israel  Sayles  married  Mercy  Wliipple,  daughter  of 
Daniel  and  Mary  (Smith)  Whipple. 

194 


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SAYLES  FA.MIL Y 

V.  Allah  Saylcs,  son  of  Captaiu  Israel  and  Mercy  (Whipple) 
Sayles,  was  born  October  17,  17G0,  and  died  April  17,  1849.  His 
homestead  lands  were  between  Pascoag  and  Chepachet,  on  the  line 
which  in  1806  was  made  the  boundary  line  between  Burrillville  and 
Glocester.  ^  The  family  mansion  was  then  situated  in  Burrillville 
instead  of  in  Glocester  as  formerly. 

Ahab  Sayles  married,  in  January,  1786,  Lillis  Steere,  daughter 
of  Samuel  and  Martha  (Colwell)  Steere,  and  member  of  an  old 
Khode  Island  family.  She  was  born  August  17,  1766,  and  died 
:!^Iarch  9,  1854. 

VI.  Clark  Saiflcs,  son  of  Ahab  and  Lillis  (Steere)  Sayles,  was 
born  in  Glocester,  Ehode  Island,  May  18,  1797.  He  was  educated  in 
the  local  schools,  and  as  a  youth  was  an  omnivorous  reader.  At  the 
age  of  eighteen  years  he  entered  the  employ  of  Mr.  Elias  Carter,  a 
master-builder  of  Thompson,  Connecticut.  He  later  went  to 
Georgia,  where  he  was  employed  in  building  the  Burke  county  court 
house.  Eeturning,  he  assisted  in  building  the  Congregational 
church  edifice  at  Milford.  Massachusetts.  Finally  establishing  him- 
self independently,  he  erected  a  residence  for  his  brother,  Nicholas 
Sayles.  He  again  went  to  Georgia,  where  for  a  time  he  constructed 
Uweilings  for  j^lanters,  and  completed  a  large  hotel  at  AVaynesbor- 
ough.  On  his  return  from  the  South  he  built  the  meeting  house  in 
Greenville,  Smithfield,  Ehode  Island.  In  the  spring  of  1822  he 
removed  to  Pawtucket,  and  settled  as  a  master-builder.  Among  the 
contracts  which  he  was  awarded  during  the  ensuing  period  were 
houses  for  David  Wilkinson,  the  adding  of  the  middle  section  of  the 
First  Baptist  Church  edifice,  the  building  of  the  First  Congrega- 
tional Church  edifice  in  Pawtucket,  which  he  also  planned,  a  church 
in  North  Scituate,  and  one  in  Attleboro,  Massachusetts. 

In  addition  to  this  work,  Mr.  Clark  Sayles  engaged  in  the  coal 
Ri\d  Imnber  business,  and  was  the  first  man  to  introduce  coal  into 
Pawtucket  in  vessels.  Mr.  Sayles  associated  himself  in  business 
with  Mr.  Daniel  Greene,  and  in  the  financial  panic  of  1829  the  firm 
of  Clark  Sayles  &  Company  assumed  to  a  great  disadvantage,  as  the 
issue  proved,  the  business  interests  of  Mr.  Greene,  who  had  failed. 
Mr.  Sayles  was  chosen  director  of  the  Xew  England  Pacific  Bank, 
and  was  one  of  the  two  of  its  thirteen  directors  who  did  not  fail. 
Chosen  president  of  the  bank  as  successor  to  Dr.  Asa  Messer,  Mr. 
Sayles  stood  at  the  head  of  the  institution  for  seventeen  years,  and, 
"by  most  skillful  financiering,"  brought  the  bank  through  all  its  dif- 
ficulties. In  1837,  closing  most  of  his  large  business  interests  in 
Pawtucket,  he  again  went  South  and  engaged  in  the  wholesale  lum- 
ber trade  for  the  firm  of  which  he  was  head,  and  also  as  agent  of 
another  company,  operating  steam  saw  mills,  one  on  an  island  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Altamaha  river,  and  one  on  the  Savannah  river,  oppo- 

195 


SAYLES  FAMILY 

site  the  city  of  Savannah.  He  Tvas  occupied  in  this  vrav  for  about 
twenty  years,  but  finally  returned  to  Pawtucket.  He  did  not  ag-aiu 
enter  business  for  himself,  but  assisted  his  sons,  William  Francis 
and  Frederic  Clark  Sayles,  in  i)urchasing  materials  and  in  the  con- 
struction of  the  buildings  added  to  their  extensive  Moshassuck 
Bleachery,  in  Lincoln,  Rhode  Island.  He  was  also  general  superin- 
tendent in  the  erection  of  the  beautiful  Memorial  Chapel  in  Sayles- 
ville,  near  the  Bleachery. 

In  1832  Mr.  Sales  became  a  member  of  the  Congregational 
church,  and  was  prominent  in  the  stand  against  slaverv,  and  for 
temperance,  educational  and  moral  reform.  In  politics  "he  was  an 
Old-Line  Whig,  and  was  finally  identified  with  the  Republican  party. 
Contemporary  record  tells  us  that  "Mr.  Sayles  was  a  strong,  ener- 
getic, independent,  incorruptible  man."  He  stands  out  preemi- 
nently as  one  of  the  strong,  admirable,  constructive  figures  of  busi- 
ness life  in  Rhode  Island  in  the  latter  half  of  the  nineteenth  centurv. 

Clark  Sayles  married,  December  25,  1822,  Mary  Ann  Olney, 
born  June  21,  1803,  daughter  of  Paris  and  Mercy  (Winsor)  Olney, 
and  a  descendant  of  Thomas  Olney,  founder  of  the  family  in  Amer- 
ica, who  was  one  of  the  thirteen  original  proprietors  of  Providence 
Plantations.  Thomas  Olney  came  from  Hertford,  England,  in  the 
ship  ''Planter,"  and  settled  first  in  Salem,  Massachusetts;  he  was 
one  of  the  founders  of  Providence,  ^vith  Roger  Williams.  From  him 
the  line  descends  through  Epenetus  Olney,  who  married  Mary  Whip- 
ple; Epenetus  Olney,  Jr.,  who  married  Mary  Williaxtis;'^  James 
Olney,  married  Hannah  Winsor;  Emor  Olney,  married  x\.mey  Hoi> 
kins;  Paris  Olney,  married  Mercy  Winsor.  Clark  and  Mary  Ann 
(Olney)  Sayles  were  the  parents  of  five  children,  three  of  whom  died 
young.  The  sons,  William  Francis,  mentioned  below,  and  the  late 
Hon.  Frederic  Clark  Sayles,  both  rose  to  commanding  positions  in 
the  industrial  and  business  life  of  Rhode  Island. 

VII.  William  Francis  Sayles,  son  of  Clark  and  Mary  Ann 
(Olney)  Sayles,  was  born  in  Pawtucket,  Rhode  Island,  September 
21, 1824.  He  received  his  early  education  in  the  Fruit  Hill  Classical 
Institute,  under  Mr.  Ajnos  Perry;  the  Seekonk  Classical  School^ 
under  Mr.  Stanton  Belden ;  and  for  two  years  was  a  student  in  Phil- 
lips Academy,  Andover,  Massachusetts. 

In  1842  Mr.  William  Francis  Sayles  began  his  business  life  as 
bookkeejDer  for  the  firm  of  Shaw  &  Earle  in  Providence.  He  was 
afterwards  salesman,  and  eventually  was  placed  in  charge  of  the 
financial  affairs  of  the  concern.  In  December,  1847,  he  bought  at 
public  auction  the  Moshassuck  Bleachery,  which  is  situated  about 
two  miles  west  of  Pawtucket.  For  some  time  the  plant  had  beeii 
used  as  a  ])rint  works.  Mr.  Sayles  began  immediately  to  erect  addi- 
tional buildings  and  converted  the  plant  into  a  bleachery  for  shirt- 

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SAYLES  FAMILY 

iiigs  and  sheetings,  having  a  eai)acity  of  two  and  a  half  tons  daily. 
By  1S54,  despite  the  fact  that  he  had  entered  the  business  without 
experience  and  with  small  capital,  he  had  increased  the  ca[)acity  of 
the  works  to  about  four  tons  a  day.  About  three-fourths  of  all*  the 
fmer  cotton  goods  came  to  his  bleachery.  The  water  of  the  ]^Ioshas- 
suck  river,  for  which  the  bleachery  is  named,  is  well  adapted  for  the 
purposes  of  the  plant,  but  the  additional  advantage  of  a  fountain  of 
water  from  a  hundred  springs,  enclosed  in  a  wall  some  three  hun- 
dred feet  in  circumference,  has  been  added.  In  June,  1S54,  the  entire 
plant  was  destroyed  by  fire,  but  Mr.  Sayles  immediately  set  himself 
to  work  to  rehabilitate  his  loss,  and  the  establishment  was  rebuilt 
on  even  a  larger  scale  than  the  old.  The  new  plant  had  a  capacity 
of  six  tons  a  day,  and  from  year  to  year  additions  have  been  made 
until  the  daily  output  is  now  expressed  in  terms  of  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  yards.  The  buildings  cover  an  area  of  thirty  acres 
and  are  models  of  architecture  for  buildings  of  this  kind  and  class, 
substantially  built  of  brick.  The  surrounding  grounds  are  tastefully 
laid  out  and  carefully  kept.  The  works  are  lighted  by  electricity, 
and  are  well  equip]ied  with  fire  apparatus  and  with  every  conveni- 
ence for  safeguarding  the  life  and  comfort  of  the  workmen.  Mr. 
Sayles  was  a  pioneer  in  providing  for  the  welfare  and  health,  com- 
fort and  happiness  of  his  men,  and  the  most  harmonious  relations 
always  existed  between  him  and  his  employees.  He  was  a  prime 
mover  in  the  establishment  of  a  school  district  for  the  village,  and  on 
the  first  Sunday  of  June,  1S60,  he  organized  a  Sunday  school,  and 
as  its  superintendent  devoted  himself  to  the  work  during  the  remain- 
der of  his  life.  The  village  which  grew  about  the  bleachery  has  come 
to  be  called  Saylesville,  and  now  has  a  population  of  more  than  two 
thousand,  with  stores,  post  office,  and  all  the  attributes  of  a  model 
manufacturing  community.  In  1863  Mr.  Sayles  admitted  to  partner- 
ship his  brother,  Frederic  C.  Sayles,  with  whose  cooperation  the 
business  was  constantly  enlarged. 

In  1873  William  F.'and  Frederic  C.  Sayles,  to  meet  the  religious 
needs  of  the  growing  community  in  Saylesville,  and  to  raise  a  suit- 
able memorial  *'to  the  memory  to  their  deceased  children,"  erected 
a  beautiful  chapel  of  Westerly  granite,  in  the  Gothic  style.  The  fol- 
lowing names  are  inscribed  on  marble  tablets  on  the  interior  walls 
at  each  side  of  the  pulpit:  ''Louisa  Marsh  Sayles,  and  Nannie  Xye 
Sayles,  children  of  AVilliam  F.  and  Mary  W.,"  on  the  west  side; 
and  **  Benjamin  Paris  Sayles,  son  of  Frederic  C.  and  Deborah  C," 
on  the  east  side.  In  1877*  William  F.  Sayles  erected  a  tower  on  the 
comer  of  the  church  as  a  memorial  to  his  deceased  son,  William. 
Clark  Sayles,  who  died  in  the  previous  year  while  a  student  in 
Brown  Universitv.  A  few  vears  later,  Mr.  Sayles,  with  his  brother, 
erected,  at  a  cost'of  $30,000*  a  large  hall  for  the  use  of  those  in  their 
employ,  containing  a  library  and  reading  room,  and  a  room  for  the 

197 


SAYLES  FAMILY 

association  of  firemen  in  the  blcacliery  and  for  other  social  pur- 
poses. One  \Yriter  said  of  the  vilhige  a  generation  ago  what  is  just 
as  true  to-day  in  a  larger  sense : 

The  Moshassuck  Bleachery,  with  its  numerous  substantial  buildings,  the  neat  ap- 
pearance of  the  tenement  houses  around  it,  the  elevated  grounds  on  either  side  of  the 
winding  stream,  which  gives  the  valley  its  name,  the  pleasant  homes  of  the  permanent 
residents,  the  chapel,  the  school  house,  the  public  hall,  the  absence  of  drinking  saloons 
and  the  concomitants,  the  peacable  and  orderly  character  of  the  people,  give  to  Sayles- 
ville  its  enviable  reputation  as  the  model  manufacturing  village  of  Rhode  Island. 

In  1877  \Yilliam  F.  and  Frederic  C.  Sayles  built  the  Mos- 
hassuck  Valley  railroad,  which  connects  their  village  with  the  Wood- 
lawn  station  of  the  Xew  York,  New  Haven  &  Hartford  railroad.  The 
senior  partner  became  president  of  the  road,  and  his  brother  treas- 
urer. This  spur  track  greatly  facilitated  the  transportation  of 
goods  to  and  from  the  bleachery  and  opened  up  an  opportunity  for 
indefinite  expansion  of  business.  Between  Woodlawn  and  the  bleach- 
ery, the  firm  established  an  extensive  business  in  the  Lorraine  Mills, 
in  manufacturing  ladies'  dress  goods  of  the  finest  quality,  especially 
French  cashmeres.  At  Lorraine  another  model  village  grew  up 
about  this  industry,  and  the  firm  erected  a  chapel  there,  pursuing 
the  same  generous  policy  which  they  had  followed  at  Moshassuck. 

Mr.  Sayles  was  prominently  identified  with  many  of  the  fore- 
most business  and  financial  institutions  in  the  State  of  Rhode  Isl- 
and. He  was  president  of  the  Slater  National  Bank  of  Pawtucket, 
and  a  director  of  the  Third  National  Bank  of  Providence.  He  was  a 
large  stockholder  in  numerous  manufacturing  industries,  and  was 
president  of  the  Slater  Cotton  Company  of  Pawtucket,  of  which  he 
was  founder.  He  was  a  director  of  the  Ponemah  Mills,  of  Taft\'ille, 
Connecticut,  the  largest  cotton  manufacturing  business  in  the  State, 
and  one  of  the  largest  in  New  England.  He  was  president  of  the 
Stafford  Manufacturing  Company  of  Central  Falls,  and  a  stockhold- 
er in  numerous  mill  corporations  in  Massachusetts. 

In  politics,  Mr.  Sayles  was  a  Republican.  He  served  two  terms 
as  State  Senator  from'  Pawtucket,  and  proved  a  wise  and  eiScient 
legislator.  For  many  years  he  was  president  of  the  trustees  of  the 
Pawi:ucket  Free  Public'Library.  In  1878,  in  memory  of  his  son,  ^Vil- 
liam  Clark  Savles,  Mr.  Sayles  gave  to  Bro\\ni  Laiiversity  the  sum  of 
$50,000  for  the  erection  of  a  memorial  hall.  The  gift  was  subse- 
quentlv  increased  to  $100,000,  and  on  June  4,  ISSl,  Sayles  Hall  w^as 
dedicated.  In  1879  Mr.  Savles  was  elected  to  the  board  of  tmstees 
of  Browm  Universitv,  and  held  that  office  until  his  death.  May  /, 
1894.  In  his  vounger  davs  he  served  in  the  State  Militia,  and  was 
lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Paw-tucket  Light  Guard.  During  the  Civil 
War  he  gave  earnest  and  loval  support  to  the  government,  contribut- 
ing freelv  from  his  wealth  for  many  patriotic  purposes.  ^ 

In  1870-72  Mr.  Sayles  erected  a  beautiful  mansion  overlooking 

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SAYLES  FAMILY 

Ibe  cities  of  Pa\siucket  and  Providence.  Here  he  collected  a  fine  li- 
brary and  many  works  of  art.  He  was  fond  of  literature  and  the 
arts,  and  travelled  extensively  in  this  country  and  abroad.  A  con- 
temporary wrote  of  him : 

Active  and  public-spirited  as  a  citizen,  upright,  and  honorable  in  all  his  dealings 
with  his  fellowmen,  he  \von  and  retained  the  respect  and  conhdencc  of  the  community 
m  which  he  always  resided.  From  the  beginning  of  his  business  career,  he  believed  in 
the  principle  of  hard,  persistent  work  and  honestv  of  purpose  as  the  onlv  sure  ground  of 
success  Acting  upon  this  belief  he  succeeded  by  his  own  unaided  exertions  in  raising 
himself  from  the  position  of  a  clerk  in  a  commercal  house  to  the  possessor  of  an  ample 
fortune.  Endowed  with  a  sympathetic  nature,  and  bestowing  substantial  aid  where 
deserved  he  strove  a  ways  to  make  the  applicant  depend  upon  himself  rather  than  on 
others.  \Vhile  from  his  door  none  were  turned  away  empty,  his  charities  were  of  the 
practical  kind,  and  calculated  to  confer  permanent  aid,  as  well  as  to  relieve  present 
necessity._  His  convictions  of  right  and  duty  were  decided  and  firm,  and  uncompromis- 
ingly maintained,  and  though  a  positive  man,  he  viewed  the  faults  of  others  with 
charity,  his  creed  being, 

That  mercy  I  to  others  show 

That  mercy  show  to  me. 

He  attended  and  generously  contributed  to  the  work  of  the  Cen- 
tral Congregational  Church  in  Providence,  but  was  not  sectarian  in 
his  beliefs. 

William  Francis  Sayles  married,  October  30,  1849,  Marv  Wilk- 
inson Fessenden,  who  was  born  October  24,  1827,  and  died  Septem- 
ber 20,  1886.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Hon.  Benjamin  Fessenden.  of 
Valley  Falls,  Rhode  Island,  and  Mary  (Wilkinson)  Fessenden,  his 
•wife.  Their  children  were :  1.  Mary  Fessenden.  2.  Louise  Marsh. 
3.  William  Clark.  4.  Martha  Freenian.  5.  Frank  Arthur,  of  whom 
further.    6.  Nancy  Nye. 

VIII.  Frank  Arthur  Sayles,  son  of  William  Francis  and  Mary 
Wilkinson  (Fessenden)  Sayles,  was  born  December  14, 1866,  in  Paw- 
tucket,  Ehode  Island.  He  was  educated  in  preparatory  schools,  and 
was  graduated  from  Brown  University  in  the  class  of  1890.  He  en- 
tered immediately  into  his  father's  bleaching  industries,  and  devoted 
the  period  ensuing  between  his  graduation  and  the  death  of  William 
F.  Sayles  to  learning  the  business  in  all  its  departments.  On  the 
death  of  his  father,  Frank  A.  Sayles  inherited  the  Sayles  Finishing 
Plants  at  Saylesville  and  Phillipsdale,  and  the  Moshassuck  Valley 
railroad.  He  inaugurated  at  once  the  policy  of  expansion  and  pro- 
gressive development  which  within  a  short  period  made  the  Sayles 
bleaching  industries  the  most  noted  of  their  kind  in  the  world.  He 
was  a  man  of  inventive  as  well  as  executive  genius,  and  to  the  ad- 
vancement of  the  Sayles  industries  brought  the  valuable  gift  of  fa- 
miliarity with  mechanical  and  scientific  affairs,  as  well  as  his  ability 
as  an  organizer  and  director.  Broad  of  vision,  thoroughly  cognizant 
of  every  changing  phase  of  the  vast  enterprises  which  he  directed, 
devoting  himself  to  his  work  with  a  singleness  and  intentness  of  pur- 
pose which  admitted  of  no  distractions,  he  reared  on  the  foundations 

199 


SAYLES  FAMILY 

laid  by  hi?  father  and  uncle  a  business  which  has  no  peer  in  Europe 
or  America  to-day,  and  stands  as  a  monument  to  his  intellectual  and 
creative  strength. 

Mr.  Sayles'  interests,  although  confined  largely  to  the  field  of 
woolen  and  cotton  manufacture,  were  wide  and  diversified.  Khode 
Island  industries  which  he  operated  and  of  which  he  was  presidont 
included  tlie  Sayles  Finishing  Plants  at  Saylesville  and  Phillipsdale, 
above  mentioned;  the  Hamlet  Textile  Company  of  AVoonsocket  and 
Pa^\-tucket;  the  Slater  l^arn  Company  of  Pawtucket;  and  the  Kiver 
Spinning  Company  of  Woonsocket.  He  was  president  and  princi]ial 
stockholder  of  the  Lorraine  Manufacturing  Company,  and  of  the 
Slater  Trust  Company  of  Pawtucket.  It  has  been  estimated  that 
fully  ten  thousand  persons  were  employed  in  the  plants  which  he 
controlled.  Other  business  enterprises  in  which  he  was  heavily  in- 
terested were:  The  French  Eiver  Textile  Company  of  Mechanics- 
ville,  Connecticut,  of  which  he  was  president ;  and  the  Ponemah  Mills 
at  Taftville,  Connecticut,  of  which  he  was  president  and  member  of 
the  board  of  directors.  He  was  a  director  in  the  follovring  corpora- 
tions :  The  Blackstone  Valley  Gas  and  Electric  Light  Company;  the 
Castner  Electrolytic  Company,  director  and  vice-president;  the 
Chase  National  Bank,  of  New  I'ork  City;  the  Moshassuck  Valley 
Eailroad;  the  Norfolk  Southern  Railroad  Company;  the  Putnam 
(Connecticut)  Light  and  Power  Company;  the  L'nited  Gas  and  Elec- 
tric Company;  and  the  Wauregan  Mills.  He  rendered  invaluable 
service  along  industrial  lines  throughout  the  "World  AVar.  Part  of 
his  service  was  devoting  his  plants  at  AVoonsocket,  Valley  Falls  and 
Phillipsdale  to  the  bleaching  of  cotton  linter  used  in  the  maimfacture 
of  explosives;  the  weekly  output  of  these  plants  was  2,500,000 
pounds. 

Throughout  his  entire  career,  Mr.  Sayles  was  a  generous  sup- 
porter of  worthwhile  charities  and  benevolences,  giving  freely  and 
liberally  for  the  alleviation  of  suffering  and  for  the  advancement  of 
the  arts,  education,  religion,  and  civic  interests.  His  gifts  to  war 
charities  were  very  great  and  were  exceeded  by  no  resident  of  Paw- 
tucket. Other  notable  gifts  made  possible  the  PaA\'tucket  Memorial 
Hospital,  which  Mr.  Sayles  erected  and  presented  to  the  city  in 
meniory  of  his  mother  and  sister.  He  also  endowed  the  Sayles  Me- 
morialHospital  \Wth  $75,000. 

Mr.  Sayles  vras  no  seeker  after  public  honors.  His  life,  away 
from  the  cares  of  his  great  business  interests,  was  essentially  sim- 
ple. He  had  no  fraternal  connections  and  cared  little  for  social 
life.  Li  his  leisure  hours  he  shunned  the  artificialities  and  pretenses 
of  modern  life,  reverting  to  the  simple,  homely  interests  and  pleas- 
ures of  the  preceding  generation.  He  was  a  lover  of  outdoor  life 
and  horses.  Of  magnetic  personality,  brilliant  in  mentality,  yet  un- 
ostentatious, he  numbered  among  his  friends  some  of  the  foremost 

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SAYLES  FAMILY 

men  of  the  State  and  Xation,  men  who  vahied  and  loved  him  for  the 
cultured,  kmdly  gentleman  and  man  of  affairs  that  he  was  His 
funeral  was  carried  out  %Wth  the  impressive  and  dignified  serious- 
ness and  freedom  from  pomp  and  affection  witli  which  he  had  lived 
his  liie. 

Mr.  Sayles  had  a  notable  Colonial  ancestrv,  being  descended 
from  many  of  the  early  Rhode  Island  families,  distincrulshed  in  the 
annals  of  the  Colony.  He  traced  his  line  from  KogerVilliam<;  the 
founder  of  Ehode  Island,  by  six  different  descents,  throu-h'  the 
Sa^des,  A\  msor  and  Oluey  families.  He  was  descended  from  Thom- 
as Olne}-,  one  of  the  thirteen  original  proprietors  of  Providence 
Plantations,  through  three  lines;  from  John  Whipple,  commander 
of  an  expedition  against  the  Indians  in  King  Philip's  War,  1675-7G 
by  four  lines;  and  from  Thomas  Angell  and  Joshua  Winsor,  two  of 
the  thirteen  signers  of  the  first  written  compact  of  the  Providence 
Plantations,  by  three  lines  each. 

The  well  kno\Mi  Field,  Arnold,  Jenckes,  Mowrv,  Inman,  Wicken- 
den,  Rhodes  and  Wilkinson  names  xsere  also  duplicated  bv  the  fre- 
quent intermarriages  of  that  era.  Other  notable  Ehode  Island  an- 
cestry included  the  Hopkins,  the  Chad  Brown,  the  Obadiah  Holmes, 
the  Harris,  Barker,  Randall,  Scott  and  Smith  families,  showing  that 
the  Sayles  family  record  was  closely  interwoven  with  a  large  part  of 
early  Rhode  Island  history.  Through  his  maternal  ancestry,  Mr. 
Sayles  was  descended  from  John  Howland  and  John  Tilley  of  the 
*  *  Ma^ilower. ' ' 

Cape  ancestry  of  note  included  the  Newcomb,  Bourne.  Skiff, 
Chipman,  Freeman,  Otis,  Bacon,  Russell  and  Mayo  families,  while 
other  Massachusetts  lines  included  the  Colton,  Marshfield,  Chapin, 
Johnsou,^  Marsh,  Wilson,  Ilobart,  Adams,  Wright,  Moody  and  Col- 
lins families.  Branches  straying  into  Connecticut  were  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Hooker,  the  Newton  and  Talcott  lines. 

Members  of  all  of  these  families  performed  distinguished  Colon- 
ial service.  Indeed,  it  is  worthy  of  notice  that  Mr.  Sayles  claimed 
over  eighty  Colonial  ancestors,  whose  services  have  been  recognized 
and  entered  in  the  different  hereditary  societies,  three  of  whom  were 
Colonial  governors,  or  presidents.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Rhode 
Island  Society  of  Colonial  Wars,  by  right  of  such  services,  and  al- 
though he  was  not  afhliated  with  the  Sons  of  the  American  Revolu- 
tion, he  claimed  six  Revolutionary  heroes. 

Frank  Arthur  Sayles  married,  June  9,  1S92,  Mary  Dorr  Ames, 
daughter  of  Commander  Sullivan  Dorr  Ames,  of  the  United  States 
Navy,  and  Mary  To-\msend  (Bullock)  Ames,  his  wife.  They  were  the 
parents  of  the  follo^dng  children :  1.  Mary  Ames,  born  October  13, 
1S93;  married  Neville  Jay  Booker,  of  New  York,  June  8,  1918; 

201 


SAYLES  FAMILY 

one  child,  Mary  Sayles,  born  January  1,  1921.  2.  Martha  Free- 
man, born  July  18,  1896;  married  Paul  Coe  Nicholson,  of  Provi- 
dence, June  23,  1917;  they  have  children:  Paul  Coe  Nicholson,  Jr., 
born  October  12,  1918;  Martha  Sayles  Nicholson,  born  October  5, 
1922.  3.  William  Francis,  born  April  23,  1901,  died  March  21,  1902. 
4.  Nancy,  born  April  12,  1905.     5.  Hope,  born  February  21,  1907. 

Mrs.  Sayles  resides  at  "Saleholme,"  the  Sayles'  mansion,  in 
Pawtucket. 

Frank  A.  Sayles  died  in  New  York  City,  March  9,  1920,  at  the 
home  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Neville  Jay  Booker, 

Editor's  Note — The  related  Ames  Family  will  appear  in  the  July  number  of  "Ameri- 
cana," and  the  related  Dorr  Family  in  the  October  number. 


202 


■MM     ^ 

X 


V  ^fir'if  -■"'  ■"-^^•-'  * 


Frank  Hervey  Pettingell 

I.  J^ichard  Pettingell,  born  1620,  on  September  4,  1667,  made 
at.  Aewbury,  Mass.,  a  deposition  in  which  he  testitied  that  he  was 
then  forty-seven  years  old;  was  admitted  a  freeman  (when  twontv- 
one  years  old)  at  Salem,  Mass.,  June  2,  1641;  died  shortlv  sub- 
sequent to  July  15,  1695,  at  Newbury,  Mass.;  married  about  1643  at 
Salem,  Mass.,  Joanna  Ingersoll,  daughter  of  Kiohard  and  (nn 
(Langley)  Ingersoll,  of  Salem,  Mass.,  born  1625,  died  1692-3  (about 
two  or  three  years  previous  to  her  husband),  at  Xewbury,  Mass 

Richard  Pettingell  came  from  England  and  was  in  Salem,  Mass., 
before  June  2,  1641,  as  he  was  made  a  freeman  there  on  that  date- 
Savage  (on  what  authority  we  do  not  know)  savs  that,  ** tradition 
suggests  that  he  came  from  Staffordshire,  England.  He  removed  to 
Euon  (now  Wenham),  Mass.,  being  recommended  to  the  church 
there  1649;  he  removed  to  Xewbury,  Mass.,  where  he  bought  land 
April  8,  1651,  and  where  he  lived  until  his  death.  The  vear  of  his 
birth  is  well  established  by  various  dated  depositions  in  which  his 
age,  in  each  instance,  is  specifically  stated.  On  Julv  15,  1695,  he 
deeds  to  his  sons  Samuel,  Matthew  and  Nathaniel,  and  died  shortly 
thereafter,  his  wife  having  predeceased  him  bv  two  or  three  vears. 
In  his  deposition  made  at  County  Court  held  'at  Hampton  (now  in 
New  Hampshire),  14,  Smo,  1673,  when  he  "was  about  52  vears  old," 
he  states  that  he  knew  Giles  Fuller  (deceased)  of  Hampton  and  Mat- 
thew Fuller  of  Bastable  [Barnstable]  both  in  Old  England  and  in 
New  England.  Matthew  Fuller  is  positively  knowTi  to  have  come 
from  Topcroft,  Norfolk  Co.,  England,  and  it  is  supposed  by  some 
that  Eichard  Pettingell  came  from  the  neighborhood  of  Shot'tesham 
or  Topcroft  in  Norfolk  county,  England.  Children :  Samuel,  bap- 
tized, Salem,  Mass.,  9(12)  1644;  Matthew  (see  below);  Marv,  born 
Newbury,  Mass.,  July  6, 1652;  Nathaniel,  born  Newbury,  Mass.,  Sep- 
tember 21,  1654;  a  son,  born  November  15,  1657.  died  November  17, 
1657,  at  Newbury;  Henry,  born  January  16,  1659,  died  January  20, 
1659,  at  Newbury. 

II.  Mattheiv  Pettingell,  born  1648,  about,  at  Enon  (now  Wen- 
tam),  Mass.,  probably;  died  between  October  24,  1714,  and  Septem- 
ber 29,  1715;  w^ill  dated  October  24,  1714;  guardian  was  appointed 
for  his  daughter  Abigail,  September  29,  1715;  married  April  13, 
1674,  at  Newbury,  Mass.,  to  Sarah  Noyes,  daughter  of  Nicholas  and 
Marj^  (Cutting)  Noyes,  of  Newbury,  ^lass.,  born  August  22,  1G53,  at 
Newbury,  Mass.;  she  was  living  April  14,  1718,  as  evidenced  by  her 
signing  a  letter  with  other  relatives  on  that  date.    Matthew  Pettin- 

203 


FRANK  HERVEY  PETTIXGELL 

gell  lived  in  Xcwbury,  Mass. ;  lie  took  the  oath  of  allei?iance  in  1678, 
then  ''aged  30."  He  was  a  felt  maker.  Children,  alt  born  in  New- 
bury, Mass.:  Son,  probably  died  young;  Nathaniel  (see  belo\Y) ; 
Matthew,  Joanna,  Cutting,  Nicholas,  Sarah,  ^^larv,  John,  Abraham, 
Abigail. 

///.  Nathaniel  PettinaeU,  born  January  21,  1675-6,  at  New- 
bury, Mass.,  was  baptized  there  February  6,' 1675-6;  he  was  living 
September  7, 1743,  on  which  date  he  deeded  land  to  his  sons  Ephraim 
and  Cutting;  married  December  22,  1702-3  (intention  published  at 
Newbury,  October  10,  1<02),  at  Newbury,  Mass.,  to  Margaret  Rich- 
ardson, daughter  of  Edward  and  Anne  (Bartlett)  Richardson,  of 
Newbury,  Mass.,  born  July  7,  1682,  died  subsequent  to  October  20, 
1726,  w4ien  her  last  child  was  born. 

Nathaniel  Pettingell  resided  at  Newbury,  Mass.,  and  was  a  felt 
maker.  His  wife  was  admitted  to  full  communion  in  the  church  there 
February  10,  1717-18.  Children,  all  born  at  Newbury:  Anne,  Ste- 
phen, Margaret,  Moses,  Sarah,  Mary,  Ephraim,  Cutting  (see  below), 
Elizabeth,  Joaima. 

IV.  Cutting  Pettingell*  born  January  17, 1721-2,  baptized  Jan- 
uary 28,  1/21-2,  at  Newbury,  Mass.;  died  about  March  23,  1793, 
as  he  was  buried  at  Newbury,  Mass.,  March  26,  1793,  at  Newbury, 
Mass.;  married  (first)  January  13,  1746-7,  at  Newbury,  :\[ass.,  by 
Rev.  John  Tucker  of  the  First  Church  of  Newbury,  to  Judith  Atkin- 
son, daughter  of  John  and  Judith  (Worth)  Atkinson,  of  Newbury, 
Mass.,  born  November  1,  1724.  at  Newbury,  Mass.,  died  :\Iay  6,  1755, 
aged  thirty-one  years,  at  Newbury,  Mass.;  gravestone  in  01dto^\ii 
graveyard,  Newbury,  Mass..  gives  her  age  as  thirty-one;  he  was 
married  (second)  August  26,  1756,  at  Newbury,  by  Rev.  Jonathan 
Parsons  of  Old  South  Church.  Newbury,  (now  Newburyport),  [Mass., 
to  Ruth  Davis,  daughter  of  Benjamin  and  Ruth  (Brown)  Davis,  of 
Newbury,  Mass.,  born  February  19.  1732,  at  Newlniry.  Mass. 

Cutting  Pettingell  was  a  fisherman  and  a  coaster;  he  was  a  pri- 
vate in  the  train  band  of  Col.  John  Greenleaf 's  company,  according 
to  a  return  dated  June  8,  1757.  He  was  one  of  those  who  November 
26,  1745,  signed  the  petition  for  the  formation  in  Newbury  of  a  new 
religious  society  (now  the  Old  South)  and  who  on  March  1,  1746, 
made  a  petition  to  the  General  Court  of  Massachusetts  to  build  the 
Presbyterian  church,  and  he  was  one  of  the  original  members  of  that 
church.  On  May  27,  1893,  Benjamin  Davis  (probal)ly  father  of  his 
second  ^\ife),  gave  bond  to  exhibit  an  inventory  of  Cutting  Pettin- 
gell's  estate,  which  estate  was  declared  insolvent.  Children  all  born 
at  Newbury,  Mass. ;  by  first  marriage :  Eunice.  Cutting,  Jonatlian, 
Josiah  (see  below) ;  by  second  marriage:  Nathaniel,  Judith,  Nathan, 
Samuel,  Benjamin. 

♦Descendants  eligible  to  Society  of  Colonial  Wars. 

204 


FRANK  HERVEY  PETTIXGELL 

V.  Josiali  PcttingiU,\  born  April,  1753,  at  Xewburvport, 
3fass.;  died  June  30,  1S26,  at  Xewburvport,  Mass.;  married  (first) 
(intention  published  Xewbury,  Mass.,  October  22,  1774),  to  Phillipa 
French;  died  June  21,  179G,  at  Xewburvport,  Mass.:  he  married 
(second)  January  6,  1S02  (intention  published  December  18,  ISOl,  at 
X'ewbury,  Mass.),  Mary  Duggan.  He  resided  in  Xewbury,  Mass., 
where  he  was  taxed  17S9  to  1^99,  and  then  in  Xewburyport,  where 
he  was  taxed  1S15-1S18.  He  was  a  fisherman;  was  in  Captain  Ste- 
phen Kent's  company  raised  for  coast  defense,  Essex  county,  ^lass., 
in  X^ovem])er  and  December,  1775.  Children,  all  by  first  marriage: 
PhilHpa,  XTathaniel,  Judith,  Cutting  (see  below)',  Josiah,  Moses, 
Henry. 

VI.  Cutting  PettingellX  born  May  9.  (or  23),  1785,  at  Xew- 
bury, Mass. ;  died  September  1,  1S65,  at  X'ewburyport,  ^Mass. ;  mar- 
ried September  18,  ISOS,  at  South  Hampton,  X'ew  Hampshire,  to 
Olive  Smith,  daughter  of  John  and  Lydia  (Graves)  Smith,  of  Xew- 
bury, Mass.,  born  December  16,  1791,  at  X^ewbury,  Mass.,  died  Janu- 
ary 14,  1871,  at  X'ewburyport,  Mass.  He  resided  in  Newbury  and 
Xewburyport,  Mass.  He  was  a  member  of  Capt.  John  Woodwell's 
company,  Lieut.-Col.  Ebenezer  Hale's  regiment,  Second  Brigade, 
Second  Division,  service  at  X'ewbury,  Mass.,  between  September  30 
and  October  4,  1814.  Children,  all  born  at  X^ewlmry,  Mass. :  Cutting 
(Isl),  Cutting  (2nd).  Olive,  Moses,  Lydia  Graves,  Lucy  Goodwin, 
Mary  A.,  Elizabeth  Robbins,  X^athaniel  Henry  (see  below). 

VII.  Nathaniel  Henry  PettingeU,  born  September  11,  1835,  at 
X'ewbury,  Mass.;  died  X'ovember  12,  1874,  at  X^ewmiarket,  New 
Hampshire,  and  was  buried  in  Oak  Hill  Cemetery,  X^ewbur\TDort, 
Mass. ;  married  September  6, 1863,  at  X'ewburyport,  Mass.,  (by  J.  A. 
xVmes,  clergyman),  to  Mary  Anna  Feltch,  daughter  of  Joseph  Harris 
and  Mary  (Haskell)  Feltch,  (q.  v.)  of  Xewburyport,  Mass.,  born 
September  10, 1843,  at  X^'ewbury,  Mass.,  died  August  6,  1894,  at  Xew- 
buryport, Mass.,  and  was  buried  by  side  of  her  husband  in  Oak  Hill 
Cemetery,  X^ewburyport,  Mass.  Children,  all  born  at  X'ewburyport, 
^lass. :  Agnes  Leah,  Frank  Hervey  (see  below);  Walter  F.,  died 
young;  William  F.,  died  young;  Walter  Joseph,  Cutting. 

VIII.  Frank  Hervey  PettingeU,  born  January  2,  1868,  at  Xew- 
buryport, Mass.;  married  (first)  January  19,  1898,  at  Independence, 
^rissouri,  to  Mary  Agnes  Morgan,  of  Independence,  Missouri,  born 
February  27,  18t6,  at  Independence,  Missouri;  married  (second) 
September  5,  1905,  Medora  Anna  Wilson,  daughter  of  John  Mitchell 
and  Eosabel  (Cantril)  Wilson,  of  Denver,  Colorado,  born  February 
27,  1881. 

tDescendants  eligible  to  societies  representing  service  in  Revolutionary  War  and  to 
Society  of  Founders  and  Patriots. 

^Descendants  eligible  to  Society  of  \^'ar  of  1812. 

205 


FRANK  HERVEY  PETTIXGELL 

Frank  Hervcy  Pettingell  resided  in  Los  Angeles,  Cal.  He  re- 
sided in  Newburyport,  Massachusetts,  from  birth  until  1SS9;  re- 
moved that  year  to  Colorado  Springs,  Colorado,  and  was  connected ' 
with  the  First  National  Bank  of  that  city  for  three  vears,  since  then 
has  been  engaged  in  stock  and  bond  business.  While  a  citizen  of 
Colorado  Springs  was  elected  vice-president  and  subsequentlv  presi- 
dent of  the  Colorado  Mining  Stock  Exchange  of  Denver,  Colorado. 
He  was  a  charter  member  (and  is  still  a  member)  of  the  Colorado 
Springs  ]Mining  Stock  Association.  Since  December,  1912,  he  has 
been  a  resident  of  Los  Angeles,  California,  and  at  present  (March, 
1918)  is  serving  his  fourth  term  as  president  of  the  Los  Angeles 
Stock  Exchange. 

Mr.  Pettingell  is  an  officer  or  member  of  the  following  organ- 
izations: Suretie,  Baronial  Order  of  Fiunncmede  (Sureties  of  the 
Magna  Charta,  A.  D.  1215) ;  Society  of  Colonial  Wars  in  the  Com- 
monwealth of  Massachusetts;  Society  Sons  of  the  Revolution  in  the 
Commonwealth  of  Massachusetts;  Massachusetts  Society,  Sons  of 
the  American  Revolution;  Nev7  England  Historic  Genealogical  So- 
ciety (Mass.) ;  Society  for  the  Preservation  of  New  England  An- 
tiquities (Mass.) ;  Society  of  the  War  of  1812  in  the  Commonwealth 
of  Massachusetts;  Society  of  Old  Plymouth  Colony  Descendants 
(Mass.) ;  New  Hampshire  Historical  Society,  Concord,  N.  H. ;  life 
member  Historical  Society  of  Old  Newbury,  Newburyport,  Mass.; 
Order  of  Knights  of  the  Golden  Horeshoe  (headquarters,  Balti- 
more, Md.),  knight  commander  for  the  State  of  California ;  member 
The  Paul  Jones  Club,  Portsmouth,  N.  H. ;  member  the  Pike  Family 
Association  of  America  (headquarters,  Pike,  N.  H.) ;  honorary  vice- 
president  general,  National  Society,  Americans  of  Royal  Descent; 
honorary  president  California  Genealogical  Society  1923  (head- 
quarters, San  Francisco,  Cal.),  vice-president,  1919  to  1923;  life 
member  California  Society  of  Colonial  Wars ;  governor  California 
Society  of  Colonial  AVars,  1919-1920;  deputy  governor  general  to 
General  Society  of  Colonial  Wars,  1921;  historian  general  of  the 
Society  of  Colonial  AVars,  1921-1924;  life  member  Sons  of  the  Revo- 
lution in  the  State  of  California,  president,  1921-1922;  president  In- 
ternational Congress  of  Genealogy,  San  Francisco,  California,  1915 ; 
chevalier  commander  for  California,  Order  of  Lafayette  (head- 
quarters, Washington,  D.  C.) ;  vice-president  and  charter  member 
Lafayette  Society  of  California;  State  regent  for  California,  the 
National  Patriotic  Society  of  the  Lion,  (headciuarters.  San  Fran- 
cisco, California) ;  vice-president  Piscataqua  Pioneers,  Portsmouth, 
N.  H. ;  member  New  Jersey  Society  of  the  Order  of  the  Founders  and 
Patriots  of  America;  member  Orkney  Antiquarian  Society,  Orkney 
Islands.  Scotland  (headcpiarters,  Kirkwell,  Orkney) ;  vice-president 
board  of  librarv  directors,  Los  Angeles  Public  Library,  1919-20-21- 
23;  president  Los  Angeles  Stock  Exchange  (ninth  term) ;  senior  vice- 

206 


FRANK  HERVEY  PETTINGELL 

president  National  Mining  and  Stock  Brokers'  Association;  charter 
Micraber  Colorado  Springs  i\[ining  Stock  Association,  still  a  member; 
formerly  president  (1S96)  Colorado  Mining  Stock  Exchange,  Den- 
ver, Colorado;  member  B.  P.  O.  Elks,  No." 309,  Colorado  Springs, 
Colo.,  1895  to  1919,  demitted  to  No.  99,  Los  Angeles,  California; 
member  California  Club,  Los  Aiigeles,  California,  since  June  9, 
]919;  president  trustees  section  California  Library  Association, 
1920-21-22;  chairman  trustees  section,  American  Library  Associa- 
tion, 1920-1921;  delegate  to  California  Library  Association  to  Na- 
tional Conference  of  American  Library  Association  at  Colorado 
Springs,  Colorado,  June  2nd  to  9th,  1920;  member  American  Library 
Association;  member  of  war  finance  committee,  American  Library- 
Association,  1917-1918;  member  Bed  Cross  Team,  No.  25,  Los  An*- 
geles,  California,  during  World  War. 

Children,  all  by  first  marriage :  Frank  Hervey,  born  November 
27, 1899,  at  Colorado  Springs,  Colorado ;  Mary  Agnes,  born  January 
27, 1901,  at  Detroit,  Michigan. 

Authorities: 

"Pettingell  Genealogy',"  by  John  Mason  Pettingell,  pp.  2-y,  9-10,  19-20.  42,  85-6, 
145-8.  234-5.  324- 

Pope's  "Pioneers  of  Alassachusetts,"  pp.  252,  356. 

Savage's  "Gen.  Dictionary  of  N.  E.,"  vol.  ii,  p.  521 ;  vol.  iii,  pp.  297-8,  403-4,  535. 

"Vital  Records  of  Newbury,  Mass.,"  vol.  i,  pp.  26,  165,  367,  393-401,  481 ;  vol.  ii,  pp. 
21,  171,  385-6,  388-690. 

"New  England  Hist.  Gen.  Register,"  vol.  xxxii,  p.  345. 

"Record  Index  of  Zvluster  Rolls,"  series  1710-1774,  Massachusetts  Archives  (for 
service  of  Cutting'  Pettingell). 

"Massachusetts  Soldiers  and  Sailors  of  the  Revolution,"  vol.  xii,  p.  256,  for  Revolu- 
tionary services  of  Josiah"  Pettingell. 

"History  of  Newbury,  Mass.,"  by  John  J.  Currier,  pp.  604-5,  625-8. 

"Essex  Institute  Hist.  Collections,"  vol.  xxxv,  p.  162. 

Records  of  War  Department,  Washington,  D.  C,  for  service  of  Cutting'  Pettingell. 

(The  Felch  or  Feltch  Line). 

7.  Henry  Felch,  the  immigrant  ancestor,  bom  1590,  about,  in 
Wales  (possibly);  died  August  1670,  at  Boston,  Massachusetts; 
married  (first)  (before  coming  to  this  country  probably),  to  Mar- 
garet (whose  maiden  surname  and  parentage  are  not  as  yet  deter- 
mined), died  23rd  of  fourth  month  (June),  1655,  at  Boston,  Massa- 
chusetts; married  (second)  (after  2nd  of  eighth  month,  1656),  at 
(Boston,  Massachusetts,  probably),  to  Elizabeth  (widow  of  Thomas 
Wiborne,  who  died  at  Boston,  2nd  of  eighth  month,  1656;  her 
maiden  surname  and  parentage  are  not  as  yet  determined),  died 
May  12,  1682,  at  Boston,  Massachusetts. 

Henry  Felch,  the  first  of  the  name  in  this  country,  was  born 
about  1590.  He  is  supposed  to  have  come  from  Wales  (of  which 
tradition  there  is  no  proof)  A^th  the  party  of  Rev.  Richard  Blynman 
in  1640.  This  party  landed  first  at  Plymouth,  where  Mr.  Blynman  is 
mentioned  in  the  records,  March  2,  1641;    they  next  appeared  at 

207 


FRANK  HERVEY  PETTINGELL 

Marshfield,  which  town  was  incorponited  March  1,  1642,  and  was 
then  called  Green's  Harbor.  In  less  than  a  year  the  partv  removed 
to  Gloucester,  Massachusetts,  where  in  1G42  Henry  Felcli  was  owner 
of  ''six  acres  of  hoed  ground,"  of  which  ground  there  is  no  grant  on 
the  records,  so  it  may  be  inferred  tliat  he  was  in  Gloucester  before 
its  incorporation  as  a  town.  Gloucester  was  settled  between  Octo- 
ber, 1641  (when  the  bounds  of  the  town  were  approved  by  the  Gen- 
eral Court)  and  May,  1642,  when  it  was  established  or  incorporated 
as  a  plantation  called  Gloucester.  The  first  marriage  recorded  in 
Gloucester  is  that  of  "a  daughter  of  Henrv  Felch  to  Samuel  Haie- 
ward,  :^rarch  2,  1641  (X.  S.)  "  Savage  (vol  ii,  p.  393)  indicates  that 
Samuel  Plaieward's  wife  was  named  Isabel,  but  there  are  several 
reasons  why  this  is  not  likely.  Henry  Felch  was  a  proprietor  in 
"Watertown,  ]\Iassacliusetts,  in  1642,  and  was  perhaps  of  Reading, 
Massachusetts,  in  1644.  He  lived  during  his  later  years  in  Boston, 
Massachusetts,  where  he  died  between  July  4.  1670'(the  date  of  his 
will)  and  September  27,  1670,  the  date  of  its  probate.  Presumably 
before  coming  to  this  country,  he  married  his  first  wife,  Margaret, 
who  died  in  Boston  in  1655;  his  second  wife  was  the  widow  of 
Thomas  Wiborne,  who  came  to  this  country  on  the  ship  '* Castle"  in 
163S,  from  Tenterden,  County  Kent,  England,  and  who  died  in  Bos- 
ton, 2nd  of  eighth  month,  1656,  and  whose  will  was  dated  Sei)tember 
12,  1656,  and  proved  October  2S,  1656.  Children,  all  by  his  first 
marriage:  1.  Henry,  born  1610,  about.  2.  Daughter  (perhai)S  Isa- 
bel), married  March  2, 1641,  at  Gloucester,  Massachusetts,  to  Samuel 
Haieward,  3.  Anna  (or  Hannah),  married  Samuel  Dunton  of  Head- 
ing, Massachusetts,  who  died  November  7,  16S3;  she  died  July  11, 
1689.  4.  Mary,  married  Jolnr  Wiburn  (or  Wiborne),  son  of  Thomas 
Wiborne  of  Boston,  by  liis  \vife  Elizabeth,  who  became  the  second 
"vvife  of  Henry^  Felch. 

Elizabeth  Wiborne  had  by  her  first  husband,  Thomas  Wiborne, 
five  sons  and  two  daughters,  viz. :  — 1.  Thomas,  executor  of  his 
father's  will;  married  (first)  Abigail  Eliot,  who  died  at  Boston, 
April  24,  1660;  married  (second)  Ruth.  2.  James,  of  Boston,  who 
died  March  7,  1658-9;  he  was  one  of  the  executors  of  his  father's 
will.  3.  John,  who  married  his  step-sister,  Mary  Felch.  4.  Jona- 
than, who  died  at  Boston,  10th  of  tenth  month,  1653.  5.  Nathaniel, 
born  in  Boston,  March  12,  1655.  6.  Elizabeth,  who  married.  3rd  of 
second  month,  1655,  John  Merrick.  7.  Mary,  mentioned  in  her 
father's  will. 

II.  Henry  Felch,  born  and  baptized.  1610,  at  Wales  (possibly) ; 
died  Nov.  11,  1699,  at  Reading,  Massachusetts;  married.  1649.  to 
Hannah  Sargent  (daughter  of  Rev.  AVilliam  and  his  first  wife  Han- 
nah Sargent  of  Charlestown.  ^Maiden  and  Barnstable,  Massachu- 
setts), born (baptized  July  13,  1629),  at  Nortliamptonshire, 

England;   died  December  15,  1717,  at  Reading,  Mass. 

208 


FRANK  HERVEY  PETTIXGELL 

Henry  Felch  Tras  born  about  IGIO,  according  to  tradition  in 
Pcnibrokesliire,  AVales,  Great  Britain,  and  came  to  America  with  his 
j)arents.  He  was  a  proprietor  at  Gloucester,  ]\Iassachusetts,  and 
settled  for  a  time  in  Watertown,  Massachusetts,  and  tlien  removed 
to  Heading,  Massachusetts,  in  1G47.  where  he  was  prominent  in  town 
affairs,  being  a  selectman  in  1647-48-51,  and  in  IGSl,  and  surveyor 
of  highways  in  1648.  He  probably  resided  in  Boston  for  a  time'  as 
several  of  his  children  were  born  there.  His  estate  was  inventoried 
December  13,  1699,  his  son  John  Felch  being  administrator.  In  the 
town  records  of  Heading  he  is  often  spoken  of  as  "Sergeant  Henry 
Felch,"  which  shows  that  he  was  a  member  of  the  lirst  military 
corps  of  Heading,  formed  probably  at  the  time  of  the  incorporation 
of  the  town  in  1644,  and  called  "Reading  Infantry  Company."  The 
first  captain  of  this  company  was  Richard  Walker,  who  was  also  an 
ancestor  of  the  proponent,  Frank  Hervey  Pettingell. 

Children:  1.  Hannah,  born  February  26,  1650;  died  April  23, 
1668.  2.  Mary,  born  July  31,  1653;  died  June  3,  1676;  married 
"William  Green  of  AVoburn,  ^Massachusetts.  3.  Elizabeth,  born  July 
15,  1655;  died  October  8,  1657  (or  18th  of  eighth  month.  1657),  at 
Boston,  Massachusetts.  4.  Samuel,  born  June  3,  1657,  at  Boston, 
Massachusetts;  died  October  22,  1661.  5.  John  (Deacon),  born. 
February  26,  1660:  died  Weston,  Massachusetts,  April  9,  1746; 
married  Elizabeth  Gowing.    6.  Samuel,  born  July  12  (or  22),  1662; 

died  January  14  (or  31),  1683.     7.  Joseph,  born ;  died  May 

31,  1727;  married  Mary .    8.  Elizabeth,  born  March  9,  1666; 

died ;   married  Thomas  Cutler.    9.  Daniel,  born  January  5, 

1668  (see  below).  10.  Hannah,  born  September  18,  1672;  died 
;  married  Samuel  Parker.    11.  Ruth,  born  June  1,  1675. 

III.  Dr.  Daniel  Felch,  born  January  5,  1668,  at  Reading, 
Massachusetts;  died  October  5,  1752,  aged  84  years,  9  months,  in 
that  part  of  Hampton  Falls  now  called  Seabrook,  New  Hampshire; 
married  (first)  May  6,  1702.  at  Reading,  Massachusetts,  to  Deborah 
Dean  (or  Dane)  of' Charlestown,  Massachusetts  (perhaps  daughter 
of  Joseph  and  Elizabeth  (Fuller)  Dean,  of  Concord,  Massachusetts, 
and  if  so)  born  September  29,  16/8;  died  January  7,  1715;  he 
married  (second)  Sarah'  Fuller  (dau.  of  Benjamin  (Lieut.  Thomas) 
and  Sarah  (Bacon)  Fuller);  he  married  (third)  January  12,  1725, 
at  Salem,  Massachusetts  (ceremony  performed  by  Rev.  Peter 
Clarke),  to  Hepsibah  Curtis  (daughter  of  Corporal  John  (Zacheus) 
Curtis  and  his  v.-ife  Mary  Looke,  who  was  a  daughter  of  Thomas  and 
Sarah  Looke,  of  Lynn,  Massachusetts),  born  November  28,  1694,  at 
Topsfield.  Massachusetts,  baptized  January  6,  1694-5,  at  Boxford, 
Massachusetts:  died  at  the  Felch  homestead  in  Seabrook,  New 
Hampshire.  Residence:  Salem  Village  (now  North  Parish,  Dan- 
vers),  Massachusetts,  as  four  of  his  children  were  baptized  in  the 

209 


FRANK  HER\^EY  PETTINGELL 

church  there  between  171S  and  17'2^.  Shortly  prior  to  1730  he  set- 
tled in  that  part  of  Seabrook,  Xew  Hampshire,  then  included  within 
the  jurisdiction  of  Hampton  Falls,  New  Hampshire.  His  name 
appears  among  the  taxpayers  in  Hampton  Falls  in  1747-8-9  and 
1750.  He  doubtless  studied  medicine  under  some  physicians  in  or 
near  Reading,  Massachusetts,  and  was  for  many  years  a  practicing 
physician  in  and  about  the  vicinity  of  Hampton  Falls,  Xew  Hamp- 
shire. Seabrook  was  set  off  from  Hampton  Falls,  Xew  Hamp- 
shire, on  June  3,  17G8. 

Children,  by  first  marriage:  1.  Daniel,  born  March  8,  1703, 
died  September  13,  1713,  aged  10  years,  6  months  and  5  days,  at 
Reading,  Massachusetts.  By  second  marriage:  2.  Daniel,  born 
April  5,  1718,  baptized  April  20,  1718;  married  Jane  Paige.  3.  De- 
borah, born  January  13,  1720,  baptized  April  24,  1720;  married 
Abner  Harris.  By  third  marriage,  four  sons  and  two  daughters,  viz. : 
4.  Curtis,  born  1726,  about;  married  and  removed  to  Fitzwilliam, 
New  Hampshire.  5.  Samuel,  baptized  April  23, 1727,  at  church  in  Sal- 
€m  Village  (nowDanvers,  X'orth  Parish), Massachusetts  (see  below). 
6.  Sarah,  baptized  April  21,  1728,  at  church  in  Salem  Village, 
Massachusetts;  died  January  13,  1811.  at  Seabrook,  Xew  Hamp- 
■shire,  not  married.  7.  Joseph,  baptized  April  24,  1728;  died  Feb- 
ruary 5,  1803,  at  Veare,  X"ew  Hampshire;  married  Mary  Hoyt. 
8.  Hannah,  born  October  24,  1731;  married  Paul  Presey  (int.  pub. 
Nov.  30,  1750,  at  Salisbury,  Massachusetts).  9.  Henry,  born  July 
21,  1735,  at  Hampton  Falls,  Xew  Hampshire;  died  June  27,  1807; 
married  (first) ;   married  (second)  Deborah  Palmer. 

IV.  Samuel  Falch  {or  Felch),  baptized  April  23,  1727.  in 
church  at  Salem  Village,  now  Danvers  X^orth  Parish,  Massachu- 
setts, died  June  3,  1811,  at  Salisbury,  ^Massachusetts:  married 
January  1,  1755,  at  Seabrook,  X^ew  Hampshire,  to  Jemima  Selley 
— later  spelled  Cilley — (daughter  of  Thomas  (Benoni)  Selley 
by  his  second  wife  Lyclia  French),  born  April  5.  1737,  at  Salisbury, 
Massachusetts,  died  June  5,  1817,  at  Salisbury,  Massachusetts.  Res- 
idence :  Seabrook,  X'ew  Hampshire,  where  he  lived  in  the  old  Felch 
liomestead.  He  was  a  farmer  and  fisherman.  On  Xovember  29, 
1808,  he  divided  this  old  homestead  into  five  equal  parts  which  he 
conveyed  in  severalty  to  his  five  sons  by  deeds  bearing  that  date.  He 
signed  the  Association  Text  as  a  resident  of  Seabrook,  X'ew  Hamp- 
shire, with  his  brother  Joseph  Felch,  April  12,  177(5. 

Children :  1.  Xicholas,  born  June  12,  1755  ;  died  April  13,  1841 : 
married  Sarah  Gove.  2.  Jenne,  born  June  23,  1757;  died  March  11, 
1836;  married  Jeremiah  Brown.  3.  Samuel,  born  Xovember  18, 
1759;  died  July  17,  1818;  married  Sarah  (March)  Harris,  widow  of 
Nathaniel  Harris.  4.  Jemima,  born  April  16.  1762;  died  Xovember 
15,  1816;    married  Belcher  Dole.     5.  Hepsibah,  born  October  15, 


FRANK  HERVEY  PETTINGELL 

1765;  died  November  10,  1810;  intention  of  marriage  published 
Feb.  2,  1791,  to  Benjamin  Joy,  Jr.  6.  Pliineas,  born  March  7,  1768; 
died _April.  1840;  married  Sarah  Ward.  7.  Daniel,  born  October 
13,  1771 ;  died  June  30,  1839  ;  married  Jenny  Eaton.  8.  Jacob,  born 
February  3,  1777  (see  below).  9.  Betty,  born  December  3,  1781; 
died  November  13,  1856;   married  Thomas  Chase. 

F.  Jacob  Falch  {or  Felch),  born  February  3,  1777,  at  Sea- 
brook,  New  Hampshire;  died  January  28,  1856^  at  Newburyport, 
Massachusetts:  he  was  married  Aug.  5,  1802.  at  Salisbury,  Massa- 
chusetts, by  Fldward  Noyes  (5th  minister  of  the  First  Church  at 
Salisbury,  Massachusetts),  to  Hannah  Wharf  Harris,  daughter  of 
Nathaniel  Harris,  by  his  wife  Sarah  March,  who  after  the  death  of 
Nathaniel  Harris,  became  the  wife  of  Samuel  Falch  (or  Felch), 
brother  of  Jacob  Falch  (or  Felch).  born  Feb.  2.  1783,  at  Salisbury, 
JMassachusetts;  died  January  30.  1880,  at  Newburyport,  }klassachu- 
setts.  Jacob  Falch  (or  Felch)  settled  early  in  Kensington,  New 
Hampshire,  where  he  was  a  resident  and  tax  payer  from  1808  to 
1819.  A  family  tradition  persists  that  he  was  an  officer  of  militia 
during  the  War  of  1812,  but  this  tradition  has  never  been  substan- 
tiated bv  proof. 

Children:  1.  Sarah  (or  Sally),  born  1803,  about;  died  Novem- 
ber 17,  1892,  at  Newburyport,  ]\rassachusetts,  aged  89;  married 
Moses  Floyd.  2.  Jacob,  born  at  Seabrook,  New  Hampshire ;  noth- 
ing further  known  of  him  at  this  writing.  3.  Joseph  Harris,  born 
April  25,  1801;  died  September  25,  1882  (see  below).  1.  Char- 
lotte, born  1807 ;  died  October  17,  1892,  at  Newburyport,  ]Massachu- 
setts,  unmarried,  aged  85.  5.  William  Alfonzo,  died  March  8,  1880 ; 
married  (first)  Lucy  M.  Page:  married  (second)  Abby  Goodwin. 
6.  Gorham,  died  April  17,  1881 :  not  married.  7.  Marv  M„  died 
August  29,  1887  ;  married  William  L.  Shuff.  8.  Clara  M.,'born  1817, 
about;  died  March  11.  1901,  aged  86;  married  John  B.  Nelson.  9. 
Emeline  Morrill,  born  December  21,  1819;  died  November  30,  1909; 
married  Hiram  Janvrin.  10.  Lucy  Goff,  born  about  November, 
1823 ;  died  October  23,  1883 ;  married  Benjamin  W.  Coffin. 

YI.  Joseph  Harris  Felch  {or  Feltch),  born  April  25,  1804,  at 
New  Hampshire ;  died  September  25,  1882,  at  Newburyport,  Massa- 
chusetts, and  was  buried  in  Oldtown  graveyard,  Newbury,  Massa- 
chusetts; married  (first)  by  Rev.  Leonard  Withington,  pastor  First 
Church,  Newburv,  Massachusetts,  at  Newbury,  Massachusetts,  Ajiril 
16,  1831,  to  Marv  Haskell  (daughter  of  John  Haskell  and  his  wife 
Margaret  (Thomas)  Clouston.  of  Newburyport,  Massachusetts), 
born  July  5,  1804,  at  Newburyport,  Massachusetts;  died  X\^y\\  9. 
1861,  at  Newburvport,  Massachusetts;  married  (second)  by  Rev. 
James  B.  Miles,  at  Charlestown,  Massachusetts,  January  30,  1866,  to 

2IX 


FRANK  HERVEY  PETTIXGELL 

Leah  (Osgood)  Folsom  (widow  and  second  wife  of  Levi  G.  Folsom. 
and  daughter  of  Captain  John  S.  Osgood  and  his  wife  Leah  Pres- 
cott  of  Gilmanton,  Xew  Hampshire),  born  September  23,  1816,  at 
Gilford,  Xew  Hampshire;  died  Aug.  20,  1SS7,  at  Charlestown.  Mass- 
achusetts. Joseph  Harris  Felch  (or  Feltch)  was  a  farmer  in  Xew- 
bury  and  Xewburyport,  Mass.  Children :  two  (Fletch),  both  bv  first 
marriage,  viz. :  — 1.  Rev.  Joseph  Haskell,  Jr.,  born  May  20,  1837,  at 
Newbury,  Mass. ;  died  January  19,  1870.  at  Cummington.  Mass.,  not 
married.     2.  Mary  Anna,  born  September  10,  1843" (see  below). 

VIL  Mary  Anna  FcJtch,  born  September  10, 1843,  at  X'ewbury, 
Massachusetts;  died  Aug-ust  6,  1894,  at  Xewburyport,  Massachu- 
setts and  was  buried  beside  her  husband  in  Oak  Hill  Cemetery,  Xew- 
buryport, Massachusetts;  married  September  6,  1863,  at  Xewbury- 
port, Massachusetts,  by  Rev.  J.  A.  Ames,  clergyman,  to  X^athaniol 
Henry  Pettingell  (son  of  Cutting  and  Olive  (Smith)  Pettingell,  of 
Newbury  and  X'ewburyport,  Massachusetts),  born  September  11, 
1835,  at  X'^ewbury,  Massachusetts,  died  Xovember  12,  1874,  at  South 
Newmarket  (now  X^ewlields),  Xew  Hampshire,  and  was  buried  in 
Oak  Hill  Cemetery,  Xewburyport,  Massachusetts.  X'athaniel  Henry 
Pettingell 's  line  of  ascent  is  as  follows:  Cutting,"  Josiah,'  Cutting,* 
Nathaniel.^  Matthew,^  Richard^  Pettingell,  the  immigrant  ancestor. 
Residence:  Xewburyport,  r^Iassachusetts.  Children:  1.  Agnes 
Leah,  born  May  17, 1866;  died  July  27.  1880,  at  Xewburyport,  Mass- 
achusetts. 2.  Frank  Hervey,  born  January-  2,  1868  (see  below). 
3.  Walter  Feltch,  born  and  died  March  10,  1869,  at  Xewburyport, 
Massachusetts.  4.  William  Feltch,  born  and  died  September  25, 
1869,  at  X'ewburyport,  Massachusetts.  5.  Walter  Joseph,  born  Jan- 
uary 2,  1871,  at  X'ewburyport,  Massachusetts,  and  died  there  Sep- 
tember 29,  1911.  6.  Cutting,  born  December  24,  1872,  at  Xewbury- 
port, Massachusetts ;  married  and  removed  to  Seattle,  Washington ; 
no  children. 

VIII.     Frank  Hervey  Pettingell,  q.v.,  ante. 

Authorities  : 

"Boston  Records,"  Commissioners'  Reports,  vol.  for  year  1883,  Document  130,  pp.  42, 

50,  s^,  52,  56,  59,  61.  62.  66.  75. 
Pope's  "Pioneers  of  Massachusetts,"  pp.   163.  400,  517. 
Savage's  "Genealogical  Dictionary  of  New  England,"  vol.  ii,  pp.  150-1,  393;  vol.  iv, 

p.  662. 
Bond's  "Watertown,  Mass.."  pp.  206-7,  and  Appendix,  p.  1008. 
"N.  E.  Gen.  Hist.  Reg.."  vol.  ii.  pp.  31.  183;  vol.  vi.  p.  289;  vol.  x,  p.  219;  vol.  xni, 

pp.  360-1  :  vol.  xviii,  p.  263;  vol.  liii.  pp.  234-241. 
"History  of  Gloucester,  Mass.,"  by  John  J.  Babson,  pp.  ^i,  93.  97- 
"Genealogical  and  Family  History  of  Xew  Hampshire."  by  Ezra  S.  Stearns,  p.  1185. 
"Historic  Homes  and   Places  and  Genealogical  and  Personal  Memoirs  Relating  to 

Middlesex  Co..  Mass..  by  \Vm.  R.  Cutler,  vol.  ii,  p.  40/- 
"Genealogies  and  Estates  of  Charlestown.  Mass.."  by  Wyman,  pp.  342,  845. 
"Genealogical  History  of  Reading,  Mass.,"  by  Eaton,  pp.  8,  11-13,  15,  19-20,  3-.  34. 

37.  71,  134-  281-2. 

212 


FRANK  HERVEY  PETTI N CELL 

"Sargent  Genealop>'."  by  J.  S.  and  A.  Sargent,  pp.  32,  171. 

"Essex  Institute  Hist.  Coll.."  vol.  xvi,  pp.  61,  312-13,  318;  vol.  xviii,  p.  34. 

New  Hampshire  State  Papers,  vol.  xxx.  p.  142. 

Published  and  unpublished  records  of  Salisbury,  Mass. 

Published  and  unpublished  Records  of  Seabrook,  X.  H. 

Concord  Births,  }klarriages  and  Deaths,  1635-1850,  p.  22. 

"Osgood  Family,"  by  Ira  Osgood,  edited  by  Eben  Putnam,  pp.  3901. 

"Genealogy  of  the  Folsom  Family,"  by  Jacob  Chapman,  p.  84. 

Vital  Records  of  Newbury,  Mass..  vol.  i,  p.  165;  vol.  ii,  p.  171. 

Vital  Records  of  Newburyport,  Mass.,  vol.  ii,  p.  160. 

"N.  Y.  Gen.  and  Biog.  Record,"  vol.  49,  pp.  194-5. 


kO^/0 


213 


Plainfield,  New  Jersey 

Its  Settlement  and  Development 
By  a.  Van  Doren  Honeyman 


I^^^^^O  ]MUCH  lias  been  loosely  and  unauthoritatively  written 
'(^5^"^^[  concerning  the  early  history  of  Plainfield  that  nnnsual 
B^^^*;!^|  pains  have  been  taken  to  state  herein  the  real  facts.  The 
&,^^fe-l  ^^^^  -^^^"-  Oliver  B.  Leonard  was  a  prolific  writer  about 
"  the  early  inhabitants  of  the  city,  but  largely  confined 
himself  to  family  genealogies  and  certain  of  the  churches.  We  have 
had  advantage  of  much  of  his  material,  but  almost  all  the  facts  fol- 
lowing, which  are  verified  by  the  early  State's  survey  maps,  records 
of  grants,  etc.,  are  the  contribution  of  ^Mr.  Cornelius  C.  Vermeule, 
now  of  East  Orange,  a  civil  engineer  in  New  York  City,  who  has 
courteously  devoted  a  great  deal  of  time  to  secure  accuracy  in  this 
chapter.  He  has  plotted  out  every  grant  and  practically  every  o^\^l- 
ership  within  the  "Blue  Hills"  region,  the  name  by  which  this 
vicinity  was  originally  designated. 

Among  those  who  originally  took  up  land  ^^*ithin  the  present 
city  limits,  the  largest  holder  was  Peter  Sonmaus,  who  in  16S5  pat- 
ented 3,500  acres  ftwo  tracts),  including  all  from  the  base  of  Wat- 
chung  mountain  to  a  line  parallel  with  and  a  little  southeast  of 
Eighth  street,  and  from  Clinton  avenue  northeast  to  the  present 
pumping  station  of  the  Plainfield-Union  Water  Company  at  Xether- 
wood.  This  tract  included  Xorth  Plainfield  and  nearly  all  of  Plain- 
field.  All  of  Plainfield  southwest  of  Sonmans'  patent  was  pur- 
chased bv  Benjamin  Hull  from  the  Indian  ''Cowankeen,"  in  1GS3. 
In  this  deed  Plainfield  was  called  "Blond^m  Plains."  This  pur- 
chase was  included  in  a  grant  of  the  Proprietors  to  Sir  Evan  Cam- 
eron of  Lochier,  Scotland,  the  grant  being  bounded  approximately 
by  Sonmans,  the  base  of  the  mountain  and  the  Bound  Brook  of 
Piscatawav.  . 

On  April  22,  1684,  Thomas  Gordon,  "of  Edinburgh,"  received 
"confirmation"  of  one-tenth  of  one-forty-eighth  share  of  land  of  the 
East  Jersev  Proprietors,  and  in  November  temporarily  settled  on 
Cedar  Brook,  in  present  Plainfield,  where  ex-United  States  Senator 
James  E.  Martine  resides.  On  Febmary  16,  16S5,  he  wrote  back  to 
Scotland,  dating  his  letter  at  "Cedar  Brook,"  among  other  things 


Note— These  pages  are  taken  from  advance  sheets  of  "Histoo"  of  Union  County. 
New  Jersey."     (Lewis  Historical  Publishing  Company,  New  York  and  Chicago;  1923-) 


214 


PLAINFIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

caving:  ''Upon  the  IStli  day  of  Novembor  I  and  my  servants  [there 
^ve^e  seven  servants]  came  here  to  the  woods,  and  eight  days  there- 
it  fter  my  wife  and  [four]  chiklren  came  also.  I  put  up  a  wigwam  in  24 
hours,  which  served  us  until  we  put  up  a  better  house,  which  I  made, 
24  feet  long,  15  feet  wide,  containing  a  hall  and  kitchen,  both  in  one, 
and  a  chamber  and  a  study." 

He  then  says  he  cleared  ground  and  made  fences,  and  speaks  of 
Robert  Fullorton  as  going  to  join  him  "for  a  plough  this  s])ring, 
consisting  of  four  oxen  and  two  horses."  He  also  adds:  ''There 
are  eight  of  us  settled  here  within  a  half  mile  or  a  mile  of  each 
other,"  and  names  them  as  "John  Forbes,  John  Barclay,  Dr.  John 
Gordon,  his  servants,  Andrew  Alexander  and  myself."  Thomas 
Gordon  soon  left  Plainiiold  for  Perth  Amboy,  and  subsequently  be- 
came Attorney-General  of  East  Jersey,  and  held  other  important 
offices.  Neither  Dr.  John  Gordon  nor  Andrew  Alexander  took  up 
land  in  this  vicinity,  but  Robert  Gordon,  of  Pitlochie,  held  1,000 
acres  west  of  Ash  Swamp. 

Between  Sonmans'  northeast  line  and  the  present  northeast 
limit  of  the  city  was  a  tract  of  300  acres,  granted  September  2,  16S7, 
to  "Robert  Fullerton,  gent.,  brother  to  the  Laird  of  Kennaber." 
James  and  Thomas  Fullerton,  brothers  to  Robert,  were  also  in  this 
vicinity,  but  probably  resided  near  South  Plainfield.  Next,  north- 
cast  of  the  Fullerton 's  was  a  grant  of  4S2  acres  to  George  and  John 
Alexander,  "of  Scotland,"  in  1688;  and  from  this  tract  northeast 
came  a  grant  of  125  acres  to  James  Coole,  Sr.,  of  "Blew  Hills,"  also 
in  1688.  The  northeast  line  of  Coole 's  tract  is  now  Park  avenue, 
Scotch  Plains.  The  name  "Blew  Hills"  first  appears  in  Coole 's 
grant,  but  the  triangular  tract,  lying  between  the  mountain,  the 
Short  Hills  on  the  east  and  the  Bound  Brook  of  Piscataway  on  the 
south,  was  kno^\^l  for  two  generations  thereafter  as  "At  the  Blue 
Hills." 

The  name  "Plainfield"  was  first  given  to  John  Barclay's  grant 
of  700  acres,  surveyed  to  him  and  his  brother,  "Robert  Barclay  of 
llrie,"  January  18,  1685.  This  land  lay  at  what  is  now  South  Plain- 
field,  reaching  from  Cedar  Brook  over  east  to  the  Short  Hills,  and 
Barclay  already  had  a  house  there  in  168-4.  Cedar  Brook  was  for- 
merly a  larger  stream  than  now  and,  like  Green  Brook,  appears  in 
many  early  deeds.  It  originated  in  Plainfield,  and  winds  its  way  to 
the  present  New  Brookljii  Pond.  At  present  it  is  inconsequential 
and  often  dry. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  Cedar  brook,  west  of  Barclay,  a  grant  of 
425  acres  was  surveyed  to  John  Forbes,  "brother  of  the  Laird  of 
Boynho,  Kingdom  of  Scotland."  This  was  in  1686,  and  Forbes  also 
had  a  house  there  before  the  survey  was  made.  His  grant  ran 
round  north  of  Barclay,  reaching  over  east  to  the  Short  Hills,  and 

215 


PLAINFIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

its  north  boundary  ran  nearly  parallel  ^vith  and  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
south  of  the  present  south  line  of  Plainfield. 

North  of  Forbes,  and  includin,<r  all  of  the  triangle  between 
Forbes,  Sonmans,  and  the  Short  Hills,  there  was  a  tract  of  1,000 
acres  granted  to  Robert  Burnett  "of  Lethenty"  in  16S8.  The  en- 
tire area  of  Plainfield  was  taken  up  by  the  foregoing  grants,  but  of 
all  these  excellent  Scotchmen  only  the  Cooles  remained  as  perman- 
ent residents  after  1710. 

Barclay's  plantation  passed,  in  1692,  to  John  Laing,  and  he  set 
up  at  his  house  the  Plainfield  Meeting  of  the  Society  of  Friends.  In 
1713  his  son  William  purchased  the  Forbes  tract,  while  his  other 
son,  John,  whose  wife  was  Elizabeth  Shotwell,  inherited  the  Bar- 
clay place. 

About  1718  William  Webster  (bom  1692)  and  his  wife,  Su- 
sannah Co^^T^erthwait,  came  and  built  their  house  near  the  east  bank 
of  Cedar  Brook,  about  where  Prospect  avenue  now  is.  (His  first 
child  was  born  1718;  see  "Records,  Plainfield  Meeting.") 

In  1720  John  Shotwell  "of  Plainfield"  (i.  e.,  of  the  Plainfield 
Meeting),  came  and  settled  on  the  Fullerton  tract.  Another  prom- 
inent Friend,  John  Vail,  purchased  1,200  acres  of  Peter  Sonmans 
in  1731.  It  was  the  northeast  end  of  Sonmans'  great  tract,  and 
joined  John  ShotAvell  on  the  northeast.  He  was  of  Woodbridgo,  and 
his  wife  was  ^Martha  Fitz  Randolph.  His  son  John  (2nd),  who  was 
born  at  Woodbridge  in  1713,  married  (1)  Margaret  Laing,  and  (2), 
about  1750,  her  sister,  Mary  Laing,  both  daughters  of  John  Laing. 
John  Vail  (1st)  was  a  millwright  and,  about  1735,  built  a  mill  on 
Greenbrook  near  Grand  avenue,  at  what  was  later  Tier's  pond. 
He  was  a  Quaker  preacher,  and  lived  until  1774,  dying  in  his  89th 
year,  but  his  son  John  died  in  175-1,  when  only  41  years  of  age.  About 
1760  William  Webster  o^\Tied  the  Vail  gristmill;  French's  mill,  as 
knowm  to  the  present  generation,  is  said  to  date  from  about  1782, 
but  by  whom  built  does  not  appear.^ 

Peter  Sonmans  found  sales  slow.  In  1733  he  sold  660  acres  at  the 
southwest  end  of  his  tract  to  Henry  Slydorn,  who  sold  again,  in  1735, 
to  Adrian  Vermeule  and  his  brother-in-law,  Dirck  Cadmus,  of  Ber- 
gen. This  tract  extended  along  present  Front  street  from  Clinton 
avenue  to  within  200  feet  of  Geraud  avenue,  thence  northwest  to  the 


'As  to  mills  generally  in  this  place  and  vicinity,  Henry  Lines  had  one  in  1738,  where 
Mountain  avenue  now  crosses  Green  Brook,  near  Scotch  Plains.  In  1740,  Lawrence 
Reuth  had  a  mill  up  in  the  gap  back  of  Scotch  Plains,  just  above  what  was  later  Seely's 
mill.  Luke  Covert  built  a  mill  at  Rock  avenue  and  Green  Brook  about  1760,  and  this 
was  purchased  by  Cornelius  Vermeule  after  passing  through  the  hands  of  Abner  Hamp- 
ton, in  1767.  It  was  there  through  the  Revolution.  Just  before  the  Revolution  the 
Vermeules  built  a  second  mill  about  600  yards  below  the  present  West  End  avenue 
bridge.  During  the  Revolution  John  Manning  had  a  mill  on  Stony  Brook  in  the  gap, 
and  Isaac  Doty  had  two,  a  grist  and  saw  mill  farther  up  stream,  the  latter  being  where 
the  large  ice  plant  now  is  at  Washingtonville. 

216 


PLAIXFIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

mountains,  ^^lieii  it  was  surveyed  in  1733,  ''the  widow  ^Miller"  had 
a  house  near  the  present  intersection  of  Front  street  and  Clinton 
avenue.  (Doubtless  she  was  the  widow  of  Andrew  Miller  of  Pis- 
cataway,  and  the  mother  of  Rev.  Benjamin  ^^liller  (1715-1781),  pas- 
tor of  Scotch  Plains  Baptist  Church,  but  proof  is  not  absolute). 
Adrian  Yermeule  died  at  Bergen  shortly  after  purchasing,  but  his 
widow  and  two  sons — Frederick,  who  never  married,  and  Cornelius 
— occupied  two-thirds  of  the  purchase  at  once.  Dirck  Cadmus  never 
came,  but  his  son  Andries  occupied  his  third  about  1765. 

In  173-1  William  AVcbster  purchased  of  Sonmans  a  tract  extend- 
ing north  from  present  Watchung  avenue  to  John  Vail's  land.  After 
Sonmans'  death,  Judge  Samuel  Nevill,  his  executor,  sold  the  re- 
mainder of  the  tract  to  Isaac  Drake,  Isaac  Manning,  Peter  Wooden, 
Andrew  Drake,  Thomas  Clawson,  Eichard  Lenox  and  the  Vermeules, 
all  before  1745.  Of  these  Isaac  Drake  already  0A\med  a  tract  east 
of  Cedar  Brook,  of  which  the  south  line  is  now  Randolph  road.  He 
Avas  born  in  Piscataway,  Middlesex  county,  in  16S6.  He  was  the  son 
of  Rev.  John  and  Rebecca  (Trotter)  Drake,  and  vras  living  with  his 
aged  father  on  the  Cedar  Brook  farm.  He  now  purchased  of  Xevill, 
in  1743,  for  his  grandson  Nathaniel,  a  farm  lying  between  Plainfield 
and  Grant  avenues,  and  Front  and  Ninth  streets.  Near  Geraud 
avenue,  northeast  of  the  Dirck  Cadmus  tract,  it  had  a  small  frontage 
on  Green  Brook,  and  on  this  Xathaniel  built  a  house  about  1746. 
(This  is  what  is  called  "Washington  Headquarters.")  Xathaniel 
Drake  (born  1725;  died  1801)  lived  here  until  his  death,  and  was  a 
prominent  deacon  of  the  Scotch  Plains  church.  Next  north  to 
Drake,  Joseph  Fitz  Randolph  purchased  the  land  extending  from 
Plainfield  to  W^atchung  avenues  and  from  Green  Brook  to  Eighth 
street.  He  was  the  eldest  son  of  Joseph  and  Hannah  (Conger)  Fitz 
Randolph,  and  v.'as  born  at  Piscataway  in  1691.  He  married  Re- 
becca, a  sister  of  Isaac  Drake. 

James  Manning  (born  1700,  a  son  of  James  and  Christian,  the 
latter  a  daughter  of  John  Laing)  built  his  house  along  the  west  bank 
of  Cedar  Brook  in  1729.  His  wife  was  Grace,  daughter  of  Joseph 
Fitz  Randolph.  He  acquired  by  successive  purchases  several  tracts 
on  both  sides  of  Cedar  Brook.  Isaac  Manning,  who  purchased  the 
tract  lying  northeast  of  Dirck  Cadmus,  between  the  mountain  and 
Green  Brook,  was  James'  brother,  and  was  an  active  organizer  of 
the  Scotch  Plains  Baptist  Church  in  1740.  Between  Isaac  Manning 
and  the  present  Somerset  street  was  Peter  "Wooden 's  farm,  and, 
just  northeast  of  Somerset  street,  was  Andrew  Drake.  These  were 
all  Piscataway  to^Miship  families. 

Richard  Lenox  married,  1746,  Mercy  Dunham  of  Piscataway, 
and  came  to  live  on  a  small  farm  he  had  purchased  of  Thonuis  Claw- 

217 


PLAINFIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

son.  His  homestead  on  Clinton  avenue  was,  later,  the  home  of  Rich- 
ard ]\IcDowell  Coriell,  but,  about  1757,  Richard  Lenox  died  and,  later, 
his  son  Levi,  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution,  succeeded  to  the  farm.  The 
Vermeule  brothers  purchased  land  all  around  him,  including  prac- 
tically all  between  Grant  and  Clinton  avenues.  Green  Broolv  and 
Eighth  street.  Their  home  was  across  Green  Brook,  at  the  westerly 
end  of  Clinton  avenue,  near  the  spot  where  Mr.  A.  J.  Brunson  re- 
cently resided.  A  former  owner,  Jeremiah  Van  Deventer,  tore  do^\^l 
the  homestead,  which  was  the  real  "Washington  Headquarters"  iu 
this  vicinit}',  in  June,  1777. 

Apparently  ''the  widow  Miller"  held  by  Elizabethtoum  right 
and  sold  her  claim  to  Luke  Covert  about  17-10.  In  1745  Covert  pur- 
chased a  Proprietory  title  from  Drummond  and  Alexander,  suc- 
cessors to  Sir  Evan  Cameron,  to  the  land  southwest  of  the  Ver- 
meules,  reaching  from  Clinton  avenue  to  a  little  beyond  Rock  avenue. 
He  had  been  born  in  Brookl\Ti  in  1G99.  Southwest  of  his  place,  ex- 
tending along  Green  Brook  to  beyond  the  limits  of  Plainfield,  was 
the  farm  of  Ide  Marselis,  who  had  settled  there  about  1735  under 
Elizabethto^vn  right  but  also  took  title  from  Drummond  and  Alex- 
ander in  1745.  Marselis  was  of  another  old  Bergen  family.  In  1740, 
Cornelius  Vermeule  married  his  daughter  Maritie,  while  a  little  later 
Luke,  a  son  of  Luke  Covert,  married  another  daughter,  Annatie. 
These  four  families,  Vermeule,  Covert,  Cadmus  and  Marselis,  as 
well  as  the  Coriells  and  Clawsons  of  Quibbletown,  attended  the 
Raritan  Dutch  Church  (Somerville),  of  which  Cornelius  Vermeule 
was  an  elder. 

In  1740  the  known  houses  "^dthin  the  present  limits  of  Plainfield 
were  those  of  John  Shotwell,  William  Webster,  James  Manning, 
Widow  Miller,  John  Vail  and  Isaac  Drake.  Just  below  Drake  in 
Middlesex  county,  at  the  then  Plainfield  Meeting,  were  the  five  sons 
and  six  daughters  of  John  Laing,  who  died  in  1731,  and  west,  across 
Cedar  Brook,  the  five  sons  and  two  daughters  of  William  Laing,  who 
died  in  1735,  while  west  of  Green  Brook,  in  what  is  now  North  Plain- 
field,  the  Vermeule  homestead  stood  alone. 

From  1775  to  1783,  what  is  now  Plainfield  was  open  farming 
country.  Quibbleto\\Ti,  now  New  Market,  and  Scotch  Plains,  were 
hamlets,  and  their  names  were  often  loosely  applied  to  the  territory 
lying  between.  As  this  territory  east  of  Green  Brook  was  in  the 
Westfield  ward  of  Elizabeth  Town  borough,  all  of  these  names  are 
used  at  times  also;  heiice  Revolutionary  history  is  much  confused. 

There  was  an  important  Revolutionary  militia  post  ^\^th  a 
large  fort,  about  200  yards  square,  along  the  east  bank  of  Green 
Brook,  about  mid-way*between  Clinton  and  West  End  avenues,  the 
encampment  covering  about  95  acres,  reaching  from  the  present  line 

2l8 


PLAINFIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

of  Central  Eailroad  to  the  Brook.  It  guarded  both  the  main  road 
leading  from  QuibbletoAni  through  Scotch  PLiins  and  Springfield 
and  the  mountain  pass,  through  which  Somerset  street  now  leads. 
It  was  located  on  the  Vermeule  tract,  then  increased  to  1,200  acres, 
on  wliich  then  there  were  three  houses.  The  homestead  in  North 
Plainfield  was  occupied  by  Cornelius  Vermeule,  a  member  of  the 
Provincial  Congress  of  1775,  and  of  the  Somerset  Conmiittee  of 
Correspondence,  and  his  younger  sons  Frederick  and  Cornelius, 
who  were  privates  in  the  First  Somerset  Regiment.  His  eldest  son, 
Adrian,  had  his  o^\m  house  along  the  road  leading  across  the  moun- 
tain (Kock  avenue).  His  second  son,  Eder,  lived  along  the  Scotch 
Plains  road  in  the  midst  of  the  encampment  and  was  a  lieutenant  in 
Captain  Benjamin  Laing's  Company  of  the  First  Essex.  Adrian 
Vermeule,  while  carrying  despatches,  was  captured  by  the  enemy  at 
QuibbletoAvn  in  January,  1777,  carried  off  to  prison  in  the  Sugar 
House  in  New  York  City,  and  died  there  March  9,  1777. 

Of  the  Covert  family  living  on  Rock  avenue  east  of  Green 
Brook,  the  father,  Luke  (1734-1S2S),  who  was,  in  1777,  43  years  old, 
and  his  sons  Luke,  Jr.,  19,  Eder  17,  and  John  17  years  old,  all  served 
in  Capt.  Laing's  company.  Peter  Covert,  a  brother  of  Luke,  was 
then  49  years  old.  He  had  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Thomas 
Clawson,  and  they  had  eleven  children,  but  Peter,  nevertheless,  be- 
came a  private  in  Capt.  Jedediah  Swan's  Company  and  fought 
through  the  war.  Peter  Marselis  and  John,  his  brother,  living  far- 
ther along  the  road  toward  Quibbletowm,  also  did  their  bit,  as  did 
Isaac  Manning  (a  grandson  of  Isaac  the  settler,  living  north  of 
Andries  Cadmus),  who  was  under  arms  eleven  months  in  all,  in 
the  First  Somerset. 

Captain  Benjamin  Laing  (1746-1819)  was  a  most  active,  efficient 
patriot  and  his  company  was  made  up  in  and  about  the  present 
Plainfield.  He  lived  on  the  west  side  of  Cedar  Brook,  near  the  Mid- 
dlesex county  line,  on  part  of  the  land  which  his  grandfather,  Wil- 
liam Laing,  had  purchased  of  John  Forbes.  He  was  a  son  of  Ben- 
jamin and  Mary  (Blackford)  Laing.  Through  intermarriage  this 
branch  of  the  Laing  family  had  strayed  from  the  Friends  into  the 
Baptist  fold. 

Another  active  captain  was  the  Jedediah  Swan,  already  men- 
tioned, who  lived  west  of  the  Scotch  Plains  church  and  organized  a 
company  in  that  vicinity,  which,  however,  also  had  several  men  from 
the  present  Plainfield,  including  Peter  Covert.  This  company  fought 
at  Long  Island,  and  Eecompence  Stanbery,  the  Captain's  brother-in- 
law,  was  severely  wounded  there.  Stanbery  later  joined  Laing's 
company  and,  still  later,  Capt.  Samuel  ]^Ieeker's  Light  Horse.  Cor- 
nelius Drake,  a  son  of  Deacon  Nathaniel,  served  with  the  Morris 
county  militia.     Levi  Lenox  (1748-1828),  who  lived  on  the  road  to 

219 


PLAINFIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

Sampto^^^l,  now  Clinton  avenue,  just  south  of  the  Fort,  where,  later, 
lived  his  grandson,  the  late  William  McDowell  Coriell,  was  also  in 
Captain  Laing's  Company. 

All  of  those  mentioned  served  at  the  Fort  during  the  winter  of 
1776-1777.  Col.  Oliver  Spencer's  Battalion  of  Bergen,  Essex  and 
Morris  troops,  and  the  First  Somerset  regiment  of  Col.  Frederick 
Frelinghuysen,  which  included  all  the  young  men  west  of  Green 
Brook,  were  also  there.  Col.  Moses  Jaqiies,  of  Westfield,  command- 
ed a  battalion  there.  The  commandant  of  the  post  was  Col.  "Wil- 
liam Winds  of  Morris  county. 

The  Friends  living  here  in  the  Eevolutionary  period  bv  no 
means  included  all  whose  names  have  been  mentioned  by  historians 
as  ''of  Plainfield,"  for  many  members  of  the  Meeting  lived  over  in 
Piscataway,  and  others  at  Rahway  or  Woodbridge.  Joseph,  Abra- 
ham, David  and  John  Vail  lived  west  of  Green  Brook.  They  were 
sons  of  John  (2nd),  and  grandsons  of  John,  the  first  settler.'  John 
Shotwell's  lands  had  passed  to  Jacob,  Abraham  and  Benjamin,  and 
his  grandson,  John  Smith  Shotwell.  John  and  Hugh  Webster  had 
the  lands  of  their  father,  William,  the  original  settler,  including  a 
large  tract  north  of  Watchung  avenue,  reaching  from  Green  Brook 
to  the  Short  Hills,  with  more  to  the  south  of  said  avenue  (then  the 
road  to  Eahway)  and  east  of  Cedar  Brook.  Zachariah  Pound  lived 
southwest  of  Luke  Covert,  along  Green  Brook.  These,  with  John 
and  William  Laing,  appear  to  be  the  only  Friends  who  were  then 
landowners.  Abraham  Shotwell,  Hugh  Webster,  John  Vail  and 
Elijah  Pound,  a  brother  of  Zachariah,  were  members  of  a  Commit- 
tee for  the  Relief  of  Sufferers  during  the  War. 

The  name  ''Plainfield"  came  up  from  John  Laing's  place  to  the 
Meeting-House  in  1788-89.  At  about  that  time,  however,  the  vi- 
cinity of  Front  street  and  Somerset  street  was  kno\vn  locally  as 
"Milltown,"  continuing  as  such  until  1800,  when  the  Plainfield  post- 
office  was  first  established,  while  up  in  the  gap  was  "Brotlierton." 
During  the  Revolution  we  do  not  find  the  name  "Plainfield"  used 
except  in  connection  with  the  Friends'  Meeting. 

The  Revolutionary  Encampment  was  usually  located  by  its 
garrison  as  "at  the  Vermeule's"  ("Van  Muliner's,"  as  the  name 
was  often  incorrectly  written),  but,  when  Sullivan  returned  to  it 
after  his  Indian  ExjDedition,  he  spoke  of  the  locality  as  "Scotch 
Plains."  The  southwest  corner  of  the  Vermeule  plantation,  which 
then  comprised  1,200  acres  mostly  under  cultivation,  was  just  below 
Washington  Rock.  Family  corresi^ondence  shows  that  Washington 
quartered  at  the  homestead,  and  that  social  relations  existed  is  con- 
firmed by  the  fact  that,  in  1814,  Cornelius,  a  son  of  Capt.  Cornelius 
Vermeule,  then  a  Professor  at  Rutgers  College,  was  entertained  at 
Mt.  Vernon  by  Judge  Bushrod  Washington. 

220 


PLAINFIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

and  not  now  locally-known  fact  is  that  in  1799,  when  war  with  France 
was  threatened,  the  United  States  Government  purchased  the  camp 
site  above  mentioned  and  erected  buildings  thereon  for  a  canton- 
ment. In  1802,  when  the  war  "scare"  was  over,  the  land  and  build- 
ings so  purchased  were  sold  back  to  the  Yermeule  family. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  house  of  Luke  Covert  still 
stands  southeast  of  Green  Brook  on  the  northeast  side  of  Rock  ave- 
nue, not,  however,  within  the  city  limits.  Also  the  house  of  Capt. 
Cornelius  Yermeule,  built  in  17S4,  and  in  fine  preservation.  This 
also  is  out  of  the  city  on  the  Green  Brook  road,  but  near  present 
West  End  avenue.  The  only  very  early  house  still  standing  in  the 
city  is  the  Nathaniel  Drake  House,  now  locally  called  "Washington 
Headquarters,"  and  which  is  occupied  by  the  Plainfield  and  North 
Plainfield  Historical  Society,  but  has  been  taken  over  by  the  city 
of  Plainfield  (1922)  to  preserve  as  the  oldest  existing  house  in  the 
city,  the  adjoining  land  to  be  incorporated  in  a  new  public  park. 
Most  of  the  early  names  mentioned  in  this  chapter  are  still  to  be 
found  in  the  Plainfield  Directory  of  to-day. 

On  ]\rarch  7,  18S1,  the  Common  Council  of  the  city  of  Plainfield 
adopted  a  resolution  to  establish  and  maintain  the  Plainfield  Public 
Librarv  and  Reading  Room,  pursuant  to  the  pro^-ision  of  an  act 
of  the  Legislature  of  1879.  On  October  3,  1881,  Mr.  L.  V'.  F.  Ran- 
dolph, then  mayor  of  the  city,  appointed  as  directors,  Mason  W. 
Tyler,  George  H.  Babcock,  Henry  E.  Daboll,  John  B.  Dumont,  John 
H.  Evans,  Walter  L.  Hetfield,  Craig  A.  Marsh,  J.  Kirtlandt  Myers 
and  Henry  P.  Talmadge,  who  met  and  organized,  October  26,  1881, 
by  electing  Mr.  Babcock  president ;  Mr.  Tyler  \ice-president ;  Mr. 
Dumont  treasurer,  and  Mr.  Hetfield  secretary.  On  May  10,  1882, 
the  library  was  opened  in  a  room  rented  on  the  second  floor  of  the 
building  on  the  south  side  of  Front  street,  about  thirty  feet  east  of 
Park  avenue,  with  Mr.  J.  Oakley  Xodine  as  librarian. 

The  growth  of  the  library  for  the  first  five  years  was  slow,  as  it 
was  not  until  1886  that  the  collection  of  books  numbered  1,000 
volumes.  During  the  following  year  5,000  odd  volumes  were  pur- 
chased or  presented,  and  records  reveal  that  subsequent  years  had 
fairly  equal  proportions  in  accessions.  During  these  years  the  in- 
lluence  of  the  library  in  the  future  development  of  the  community 
^vas  augmented  through  the  interest  of  Mr.  Job  Male,  who  in  1884 
Avas  appointed  a  member  of  the  board,  and  in  August  of  the  same 
year  was  elected  president.  At  this  time  Mr.  ]\Iale  made  kno^^^l  to 
the  board  his  purpose  to  erect  a  building  upon  the  land  o-«nied  by 
him  at  the  corner  of  Eighth  street  and  Park  avenue,  valued  by 
him  at  $25,000,  and  to  donate  such  lot  and  building  to  the  board  of 
directors  for  the  benefit  of  the  city  of  Plainfield  for  the  purposes  of 

221 


PLAINFIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

a  public  library,  art  gallery  and  musGiim,  to  be  known  as  the  Job 
Male  Public  Library,  whenever  money  and  works  of  art  and  other 
articles  of  personal  property  suitable  for  such  purpose,  to  the 
value  of  $20,000,  should  have  been  donated  by  other  persons.  Ten 
thousand  dollars  of  this  sum,  it  was  understood,  should  be  subscribed 
and  paid  in  money  and  be  applicable  to  the  purchase  of  books.  Un- 
der this  arrangement  the  sum  of  S10,000  was  subscribed  for  the 
purchase  of  books  and  works  of  art  and  other  articles,  valued  at 
$10,000,  were  contributed  or  acquired  for  the  art  gallery. 

By  an  Act  of  the  Legislature,  approved  March  6,  *1SS6,  the  act 
under  which  the  library  and  reading  room  was  established,  was 
amended  so  as  to  authorize  libraries  and  reading  rooms  organized 
under  it  to  receive  such  donations  as  Mr.  Male  contemplated,  and  the 
lev;\',  for  purposes  of  maintenance,  of  an  annual  tax  not  exceeding 
one-half  of  one  mill  on  the  dollar  of  the  taxable  property  in  the  city, 
and  thereupon  ]\Ir.  Male  conveyed  the  land  ^\-ith  the  building  he  had 
erected  thereon  to  the  directors  of  the  library.  Again,  in  1887,  Mr. 
Male  offered  to  giA^e  to  the  directors  the  plot  of  land  fronting  on 
College  place  adjoining  in  the  rear  the  land  in  which  the  library' 
building  had  been  erected,  on  condition  that  6500  should  be  donated 
by  other  persons  for  the  purpose  of  "fencing  and  grading  and  put- 
ting in  order  the  said  lot  and  grading  and  flagging  the  sidewalks  ad- 
joining the  same."  The  other  members  of  the  board  provided  and 
paid  the  sum  required.  In  February,  1895,  the  directors  received, 
through  the  will  of  Mr.  George  H.  Babcock,  who  died  in  Decem- 
ber, 1893,  the  sum  of  $10,000  for  the  purchase  of  industrial,  me- 
chanical and  scientific  books,  founding  what  was  to  be  knoA\m  as  the 
Babcock  Scientific  Library.  Mr.  Babcock  also  bequeathed  to  the 
directors  three  brick  houses  in  Plainfield,  the  rents  from  which 
"were  to  keep  up  and  enlarge  the  Babcock  Library,  which,  at  this  time 
of  writing,  numbers  10,388  volumes.  Later  Mrs.  George  H.  Bab- 
cock presented  the  directors  $1,000  toward  a  fund  for  cataloging 
this  collection.  The  rapid  growth  of  the  general  library  and  the 
increased  accommodations  required  for  the  Babcock  Library  neces- 
sitated additional  stackroom  accommodations  and  in  March,  1897, 
the  Common  Council  granted  an  additional  appropriation  of  $7,000 
with  which  a  fire-proof  addition  was  built  accommodating  50,000 
volumes. 

Li  1907  Col.  Mason  W.  Tyler,  president  of  the  board,  died.  It 
w^as  at  Col.  Tyler's  suggestion'that  the  initiative  was  taken  to  organ- 
ize the  library  and  he  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  first  board  of 
directors.  This  library  had  been  the  recipient  of  many  donations 
during  his  lifetime  on  occasions  when  the  exchequer  was  exhausted 
and,  through  his  will,  received  $10,000  to  be  invested  to  found  the 
Tyler  Library  of  Americana,  wliich  at  the  present  time  consists  of 

222 


PLAIN  FIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

2,027  volumes.  During  the  t^velve  years  following  the  erection  of 
the  stackroorn  the  library  had  extended  its  hours  of  circulation  not 
only  during  the  day,  but  to  include  evenings;  instituted  special 
privileges  to  teachers  and  adults  follcA^ing  special  courses  of  study 
and  opened  Sunday  afternoons  for  reading. 

The  housing  capacity  of  the  building  had  been  more  than  reach- 
ed by  the  year  1909,  at  which  time  the  directors  decided  to  approach 
Mr.  Andrew  Carnegie,  who  had  been  giving  so  liberally  for  the 
erection  of  public  libraries  throughout  the  country.  Through  the 
special  appeal  of  Mr.  L.  V.  F.  Randolph,  a  member  of  the  board 
of  directors  and  an  acquaintance  of  Mr.  Carnegie's  in  his  early 
business  career,  the  directors  were  assured  of  a  gift  of  $50,000 
with  which  to  build  a  new  building  and  in  February,  1912,  ground 
was  broken  for  its  erection.  Just  one  year  following  the  building 
was  opened,  at  which  time  the  hours  for  circulation  were  extended 
daily  from  9  A.  M.  to  9  P.  M.  and  on  Sundays  and  holidays.  Thanks- 
giving and  Christmas  excepted,  from  2  to  6  P.  M.  The  new  building 
contains  a  large  reading  and  circulating  room  across  its  entire  width, 
lighted  naturally,  until  late  in  the  afternoon,  by  five  large  sky  lights. 
Off  from  the  north  corner  is  a  modern,  three  story,  fire-proof  equip- 
ped stack,  having  half  the  capacity  of  the  original  stack-room.  In 
the  basement  is  an  auditorium  used  by  various  civic  societies.  The 
Young  People's  department  occupies  the  south  end  of  the  main 
room  in  the  old  building  while  the  2,000  volume  law"  library  of  the 
late  Corporation  Counsel,  Craig  A.  Marsh,  is  housed  in  the  north 
end.  The  musical  library  of  classical  composers  numbering  2,205 
volumes  is  housed  in  this  building  while  the  circulating  picture  col- 
lection numbering  2,100  mounts  is  located  in  a  basement  room  in  the 
new  building. 

At  the  end  of  the  library  year,  May  31,  1921,  the  total  volumes 
in  the  library  numbered  69,181,  and  the  total  circulation  was  113,353, 
the  largest  in  the  library's  history,  approximating  four  books  per 
capita.  The  young  people's  department  circulated  37,874  volumes, 
while  at  the  six  stations  13,201  volumes  were  circulated.  There  are 
262  periodicals  regularly  received,  71  of  which  are  technical,  and 
13  new^spapers  are  taken  regularly.  The  library  cooperates  with 
the  public  and  private  schools  in  putting  its  reference  and  research 
department  at  the  disposal,  daily,  of  the  teachers  and  pupils. 

The  art  objects  acquired  at  the  founding  of  the  Plainfield  Li- 
brary proved  an  incentive  to  increase  this  phase  of  civic  work,  as 
Mr.  Male  acquired  a  choice  collection  of  Chinese  porcelains  and 
cloisonne  which  he  intended  presenting  to  the  Art  Gallery  and 
Museum  to  enhance  the  value  of  the  collections,  and  which  were  ob- 
tained after  his  death.  A  valuable  collection  of  ancient,  foreign  and 
United  States  colonial  coins  from  the  children  of  the  late  John 

223 


PLAINFIELD,  NEW  JERSEY 

Taylor  Johnston,  presented  in  Xovcmher,  1897,  and  in  June,  1911,  a 
valuable  collection  of  U.  S.  Continental  currency  from  present  Con- 
gressman Ernest  R.  Ackerman,  have  added  to  the  interest  and  value 
of  the  museum.  On  October  2,  1900,  ]\[r.  Alexander  Gilbert,  a  mem- 
ber of  the  board  of  directors,  in  fullillment  of  a  request  of  his  wife 
before  her  death,  presented  for  the  Museum  a  very  large  and  valu- 
able collection  of  butterflies,  and  also  provided  sixteen  large  cases 
specially  constructed  for  their  preservation  and  exhibition.  This 
collection,  made  by  Mrs.  Gilbert,  is  believed  to  be  the  finest  and 
most  valuable  of  its  kind  in  the  State  of  New  Jersey.  The  city  of 
Plainfield  was  fortunate  in  having  a  resident  who  was  not  only  an 
excellent  taxidermist  but  a  student  of  bird  life,  and  as  a  result  the 
Museum  o^^^ls  the  splendid  collection  of  New  Jersey  birds,  all  of 
which  were  collected  and  prepared  by  Mr.  Andrew  J.  Gavett. 

Having  as  a  resident  of  our  city  an  artist  of  world  repute,  Mr. 
Jonas  Lie,  Plainfield  should  easily,  through  his  eiforts,  become  an 
art  center  and  to  further  this  idea  Mr.  Lie,  with  the  directors,  plan- 
ned to  have  a  series  of  art  exhibitions.  The  first  was  held  in  Janu- 
ary, 1921,  when  ]\Ir.  Lie  exhibited  fifty  of  his  own  paintings  and  gave 
art  talks  to  the  children  of  the  public  and  private  schools  in  the  art 
gallery.  The  result  was  spontaneous,  as  approximately  5,000  people 
came  to  the  exhibition  during  the  two  weeks  the  pictures  were  shovai. 

Among  the  best  kno^ni  newspaper  men  and  writers  of  the  lo- 
cality have  been  Ernest  Chamberlain,  now  deceased,  who  rose  from 
journalistic  ranks  in  Plainfield  to  become  one  of  the  editors  of  the 
isTew  York  "Sun"  and  New  I'ork  ''World;"  also  (now  living) 
Arthur  Brisbane,  who  received  his  early  education  in  Plainfield  and 
at  present  draws  an  immense  salary  as  editor  of  the  New  York 
** American"  and  ''Evening  Journal;"  also  James  R.  Joy,  of  North 
Plainfield,  editor  of  publications  of  the  Methodist  Book  Concern,  of 
New  l^ork  City.  One  of  the  most  eminent  of  writers  and  authors  is 
Rev.  Jesse  Lyman  Hulbert,  D.  D.,  formerly  pastor  of  the  First 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in  Plainfield;  he  now  resides  in  New- 
ark. A  still  more  widely-knov^l  preacher  and  writer  was  the  late 
Bishop  John  H.  Vincent,  founder  in  1874  of  the  Chautauqua  As- 
sembly, who  resided  from  1866  to  1888  in  Plainfield,  and  here  carried 
on  that  wonderful  educational  institution  until  it  was  removed  to 
JamestoAVTi,  New  York. 


224 


Editorial — Book  Notices 


AN  INTERESTING  EVENT 

It  is  not  within  the  province  of  such  a  publication  as  ''Ameri- 
cana" to  concern  itself  with  social  events,  but  the  recent  marriage 
of  Hon.  Alton  Brooks  Parker  and  Miss  Amelia  Day  Campbell  justi- 
fies the  present  innovation.  As  Miss  Campbell,  the  lady  had  been 
on  occasion  a  contributor  to  the  pages  of  our  magazine,  performing 
her  work  with  enthusiasm,  mtelligence,  and  excellent  taste.  Her 
"Myles  Standish,  Military  Commander  and  Defender  of  the  Ply- 
mouth Colony,"  (of  whom  she  is  a  lineal  descendant),  and  her  "Wo- 
men Patriots  and  Heroines  of  New  York  State  in  the  Eevolution," 
show  her  devotion  to  lofty  ideals  and  admiration  for  noble  historic 
characters;  while  in  her  "Alaska:  The  Land  of  Possibilities,"  she 
displayed  her  powers  of  portraying  the  picturesque  as  well  as  of  de- 
scribing more  material  conditions.  Judge  Parker  is  so  much  of  a 
national  character  that  he  need  only  be  named.  The  union  is  as- 
suredly a  happy  one. 


FAMILIAEITY  THAT  BEEEDS  CONTEMPT 

The  writer  of  this  has  personal  knowledge  of  Chicagoans  who 
never  saw  Cropsey's  "American  Autumn,"  that  superb  piece  of 
autumnal  forest  scene,  unfortunately  lost  in  Chicago's  great  fire; 
of  St.  Louisians  who  never  visited  Shaw's  Garden,  with  its  unsur- 
passable collections  of  flowers  and  herbs;  of  Cincinnatians  who 
never  saw  the  Probasco  Fountain,  or  the  women's  marvelously  beau- 
tiful wood  carving  on  the  organ  front  in  Music  Hall.  It  has  even 
been  said  that  there  were  Bostonians  who  never  heard  what  Artemus 
"Ward  called  "the  grate  orgin,"  and  people  within  the  hearing  of 
Niagara  Falls  who  never  saw  them.  And  yet  all  these  were  known 
of  by  intelligent  foreigners  who  eagerly  sought  them  when  visiting 
in  this  country. 

225 


EDITORIAL 

These  reflections  were  awakened  by  the  articles  in  our  Magazine 
of  January  and  the  present  number  on  Indian  history  and  mythol- 
ogy by  Mr.  Jacob  P.  Dunn,  and  his  incidental  reference  to  the  inat- 
tention given  to  Indian  language,  that  is.  in  such  systematic  manner 
as  is  only  possible  with  organization  and  means.  It  is  true  that 
there  are  individuals  who,  like  ]\Ir.  Dunn,  are  giving  intelligent 
attention  to  the  matter,  but  of  necessity  only  in  an  incidental  way. 
That  there  is  an  increasing  interest  in  the  subject  is  attested  by  the 
frequency  with  which  such  authorities  are  asked  for  information; 
and,  most  interesting  to  note,  the  Boy  and  Girl  Scouts,  particularly 
in  the  middle  and  northwestern  States,  are  acquiring  valuable  infor- 
mation along  this  line.  It  has  been  positively  learned  that  through- 
out the  country  there  are  yet  many  who  have  knowledge  coming 
under  this  head,  who  are  not  writers,  and  who  must  be  seen  or  com- 
municated with  in  order  to  make  such  knowledge  available.  More 
than  once  has  been  suggested  a  Society  for  the  Preservation  of  the 
Indian  Languages,  and  various  persons  of  national  repute  have  fav- 
ored the  plan,  which  has  not  been  carried  out  for  want  of  endowment 
funds  to  the  amount  of  perhaps  $200,000.  It  seems  to  be  not  very 
difficult  to  induce  people  of  wealth  to  contribute  generously  toward 
exploration  work  in  Egypt  and  South  America,  but  our  own  antiqui- 
ties command  little  attention.  The  pages  of  this  magazine  are  freely 
open  to  any  who  may  desire  to  follow  up  the  subject,  with  a  possible 
remedy  as  the  result. 


BOOK  XOTICES 


'*  Journal  of  Indian  Historv,"  published  three  times  yearly. 
Editor,  Shafaat  Ahmad  Khan,  Litt.D.,  F.  R.  Hist.  Soc. ;  University 
Professor  of  Modern  Indian  History,  Allahabad,  India;  Editorial 
Board:  Dr.  S.  Krishnaswamy  Aiyakgar,  L^niversity  of  Madras; 
H.  G.  Rawlinson,  M.  A.,  University  of  Bombay;  Shafaat  Ahmad 
Khan,  University  of  Allahabad.  Oxford  University  Press,  London, 
New  York,  Bombay,  Madras,  etc. 

This  new  accession  to  our  exchange  table  is  most  heartily  wel- 
come, and  its  pages  contain  matter  of  captivating  interest.  The 
story  of  ''The  Accession  of  Shah  Jahan,"  (1592-1637),  is  that  of  one 
of  the  most  romantic  and  pathetic  oriental  figures  of  the  seventeenth 

226 


EDITORIAL 

century.  ''The  Pallavas"  is  the  history  of  a  remarkable  people  pos- 
sessed of  a  remarkable  literature,  and  of  kindred  interest  is  ''The 
Rise  of  the  Imams  of  Sanaa."  Coming  down  to  a  more  practical 
age,  is  "Early  Trade  Between  England  and  the  Levant,"  by  H.  G. 
Kawlinson,  M.  A.,  F.  R.  Hist.  Soc,  going  back  to  the  Middle  Ages 
beginnings  of  the  trade  in  oriental  drugs  and  spices,  and  the  influ- 
ence of  early  European  art  upon  oriental  painters.  The  number 
concludes  with  a  well  considered  book  review  department. 

"One  Who  Gave  His  Life;  War  Letters  of  Quincy  Sharpe 
Mills,  Lieutenant  IGSth  U.  S.  Regiment;  with  a  Memoir  by  James 
Luby."  G.  P.  Putnam's  Sons,  New  York  and  London;  Knicker- 
bocker Press,  1923. 

Of  books  relating  to  the  World  War,  there  has  not  been  a  super- 
abundance of  such  as  those  of  Admiral  Sims,  Walter  H.  Page, 
Franklin  Lane,  and  others  whose  writings  were  of  intense  interest 
on  the  moment,  and  will  be  aidful  to  the  future  historian.  Of 
another  class  of  books  there  have  been  altogether  too  many— har- 
rowing tales  exploiting  exceptionally  abnormal  and  \'icious  charac- 
ters. Of  yet  another  class  there  have  been  too  few— such  as  tell 
of  the  modest  unobtrusive  soldier  who  left  home  and  occupation  to 
"do  his  bit,"  who  did  it  well,  with  spirit  and  determination,  as  an 
incident  of  his  life  work,  without  esteeming  himself  a  hero  or  as 
entitled  to  any  special  distinction.  Of  such  were  they  who  consti- 
tuted the  soul  of  such  an  army  as  was  led  by  a  Grant,  a  Lee,  a  Foch, 
a  Pershing,  the  memories  of  whose  dead  are  treasured  in  every 
hamlet  and  town,  and  become  an  inspiration  to  soldiers  of  later  gen- 
erations. 

"One  Who  Gave  His  Life"  is  such  a  volume  as  is  to  be  highly 
commended  in  the  light  of  the  foregoing  observations.  Lieutenant 
Mill's  letters  to  his  parents  and  a  few  most  intimate  friends  reveal 
most  impressively,  because  of  their  unstudied  modesty,  the  everyday 
acts  and  thoughts  of  a  true  soldier.  There  are  no  complaints,  no 
harsh  criticisms,  but  hopefulness  and  faith  in  his  cause  and  its  ulti- 
mate triumph;  and  his  determination  to  "see  it  through"  is  only 
discerned  in  his  diarylike  story  of  duty  performed.  And  yet  it  is 
known  that  he  felt  a  conviction  that  he  would  not  sur\ive  his  effort. 
He  came  to  his  instant  death  from  shell  wound  on  the  very  front  line, 
alone,  erect,  under  heavy  fire,  making  preparation  for  his  platoon 
which  was  to  follow  him. 

227 


EDITORIAL 

To  enter  the  service,  he  had  left  the  editorial  staff  of  a  metro- 
politan newspaper,  his  position  permanent,  his  qualities  as  a  man, 
a  thinker  and  a  writer,  generously  recognized,  and  every  promise 
of  a  brilliant  future.  His  memorialist,  who  was  his  chief  in  his 
newspaper  work,  has  performed  liis  task  with  dignity  and  s^Tiipathy, 
without  effusiveness,  but  withal  in  such  phrase  as  to  lead  the  reader 
to  perceive  within  the  lines  that  while  the  writer  had  lost  a  dear 
personal  friend,  his  tribute  was  not  to  him  alone,  but  to  the  many 
fallen  ones  of  whom  he  was  a  most  significant  type. 

"John  Randolph  of  Roanoke,  1733-1833;  A  Biography  based 
largely  on  New  Material;  by  William  Cabell  Bruce,  Author  of  'Ben- 
jamin Franklin  Self-revealed,'  and  'Below  the  James.'  "  Two  vol- 
umes; G.  P.  Putnam's  Sons,  Xevr  York  and  London.  The  Knicker- 
bocker Press,  1922. 

Book-jackets  are  in  so  many  instances  an  abomination  that  they 
fully  justify  the  mean-looking  term  by  which  they  are  generally 
called — "blurb."  The  jacket  which  envelopes  the  volumes  above- 
named  is  such  a  commendable  exception  and  such  an  admirable  epit- 
omization  of  the  work  it  covers,  that  it  is  well  worthy  of  reproduc- 
tion : 

"By  virtue  of  his  descent  from  King  Pow^hatan  and  Pocahontas 
and  the  aristocratic  Randolph  and  Bland  families  of  Virginia,  his 
social  and  plantation  background,  his  love  of  the  horse,  the  dog,  and 
the  gun;  his  unique  presence;  his  bitter  misfortunes;  his  pride,  vio- 
lence and  \4ndictiveness,  combined  with  the  tenderest  impulses  of  love 
and  pity;  his  brilliant  social,  literary  and  rhetorical  gifts,  and  the 
splendid  fame  he  acquired  in  Congress  and  on  the  hustings,  John 
Randolph  of  Roanoke  is  one  of  the  most  intensely  vivid  and  inter- 
esting figures  in  American  history;  and  to  realize  this,  one  needs 
but  to  read  this  book." 

In  this  masterly  work  and  in  a  fashion  all  his  ovvm,  the  author 
has  made  one  of  the  most  admirable  contributions  that  adorn  Amer- 
ican literature,  one  well  worthy  to  be  laid  beside  his  "Benjamin 
Franklin  Self -revealed"  which  won  for  him  the  Pulitzer  Prize  for 
Biography.  Disdaining  the  arts  of  the  many  wordy  writers  who  af- 
fect startling  style  and  exuberant  word-painting  and  set  up  fictitious 
psychological  distinctions  of  mental  traits,  :\Ir.  Bruce  has  succeeded 
in  largest  degree  as  deep  student  and  discriminating  analyist  in  con- 
structing a  story  more  entrancing  than  fiction,  because  of  its  vividity 

228 


EDITORIAL    . 

and  literary  style.  A  multitude  of  writers,  some  of  them  of  no  mean 
ability,  have  at  various  times  before  him  essayed  the  task  of  por- 
traying the  remarkable  John  Randolph  of  Roanoke,  but  he  has  far 
surpassed  them  all.  He  has  delved  into  the  deepest  recesses  of  the 
Randolph  era,  and  brought  forth  memorabilia  which  had  escaped  all 
his  predecessors,  enabling  him  not  only  to  give  a  most  impressive 
character  portraiture  of  his  immediate  subject,  but  also  of  that  sub- 
ject's contemporaries,  of  men  and  far-reaching  events  of  one  of  the 
most  remarkable  eras  in  all  American  history.  Were  Mr.  Bruce  to 
devote  his  life  to  writing  biographies  of  men  who  have  shone  in  our 
national  life,  he  might  well  be  styled  the  American  Plutarch. 

''A  Study  of  Monarchical  Tendencies  in  the  United  States  from 
1776  to  1801.""  By  Louise  Burnham  Dunbar,  Ph.D.,  Instructor  in 
History,  University  of  Illinois. 

The  work  entitled  as  above  is  Xo.  1  of  Volume  X  of  the  exceed- 
ingly valuable  "University  of  Illinois  Studies  in  the  Social 
Sciences."  It  is  a  most  interesting  as  well  as  instructive  compen- 
dium of  information  upon  a  subject  of  which  general  histories  take 
little  note,  one  which  was  of  magnitudinous  importance  at  the  time , 
when  was  under  discussion  the  form  of  goverimient  which  the 
American  colonies  were  to  adopt,  and  concerning  which  the  average 
reader  has  little  knowledge,  but  only  a  general  impression,  to  use  a 
familiar  phrase,  that  "The  L'^nited  States  would  be  a  monarchy  had 
not  Washington  rejected  a  cro-\\ai  which  was  within  his  grasp." 

In  treating  her  subject,  the  author  has  made  most  diligent  re- 
search, as  is  well  attested  by  her  abundant  footnotes  and  appendical 
profuse  bibliography.  The  work  opens  ^\4th  the  attitude  of  the 
Americans  towards  kingship  on  the  eve  of  the  Revolution,  setting 
forth  at  length  that  throughout  the  Stamp  Act  controversy  the  peo- 
ple with  almost  one  accord  rendered  deepest  respect  to  the  King,  and 
cast  reproach  only  upon  his  ministers.  The  "Stamp  Act  Congress" 
of  1765  was  effusive  in  its  expressions;  it  was  "sincerely  devoted, 
wdth  the  warmest  sentiments  of  affection  and  duty  to  his  Majesty's 
person  and  government ;  inviolably  attached  to  the  present  happy 
establishment  of  the  Protestant  succession;"  called  George  III  "the 
best  of  sovereigns,"  and  declared  "we  glory  in  being  the  subjects 
of  the  best  of  kings."  To  quote  from  "Letters  of  Junius,"  "They 
(the  colonies)  were  ready  enough  to  distinguish  between  you  (the 

229 


EDITORIAL     ^ 

King)  and  your  Ministers.  They  complained  of  an  Act  of  the  Legis- 
lature, but  traced  the  Origin  of  it  no  higher  than  to  the  Servants  of 
the  Cro^vn." 

As  the  time  approached  when  it  became  evident  that  the  people 
must  establish  a  government  of  their  own,  there  were  many  who 
contended  for  a  monarchical  form,  mostly  out  of  lack  of  confidence 
in  the  various  congresses  which  were  conducting  or  at  least  aiding 
in  the  Eevolution,  and  in  jDoint  of  which  may  be  quoted  one  who 
shortly  afterward  became  a  foremost  opponent  of  a  monarchical  sys- 
tem— Thomas  Paine,  who  in  his  indignation  exclaimed  "if  I  must 
be  enslaved,  let  it  be  by  a  King  at  least,  and  not  by  a  parcel  of  law- 
less committeemen. "  As  time  went  on,  various  ambitious  foreigners 
busied  themselves  to  create  a  monarchical  movement,  and  to  the  dis- 
gust of  Jefferson,  who  associated  ^\'ith  them  certain  American  army 
officers  who  he  said  ''Avere  trained  to  monarchy  by  military  habits. '* 
Out  of  this  latter  sentiment  grew  that  bitter  opposition  to  the  So- 
ciety of  the  Cincinnati  formed  by  army  officers  at  the  close  of  the 
Revolution,  and  in  protest  against  which  was  organized  the  Tam- 
many Society  that  as  a  great  political  power  exists  to  the  present 
day.  The  proposed  American  monarchy  collapsed  almost  on  the 
instant  when  it  was  jiroposed  to  Washington,  provoking  him  to 
"frown  indignantly  at  the  proposition."  The  diligent  author  whom 
we  here  re\dew  has  treated  this  entire  chapter  of  history  covering  a 
quarter  of  a  century  period,  in  most  exhaustive  fashion.  It  would 
require  a  highly  accomplished  student  of  American  history  who 
could  not  be  interested  if  not  instructed  by  the  reading  of  this 
"Study  of  Monarchical  Tendencies." 


3r? 


ir^  "^ '^^■zs 


230 


'gn.'!P'i»!Wwj'''WW>.fyiw'^iii  i.j».  ,ii-u<  »j»ui..iyH'!t.iKiw».Mi..fin..;.  iPi.u|ijLjPf,.i,  luiyifpt^ 


^-T-  ■•      ^ 


I  f  1nTl''Wi''-'"-V"-'^  i.-iX.i.irwwi-ai'. 


ROBERT  TREAT  PAIXE 

Signer    of    Declaration    of    Independence.      For    twenty    years 

a  resident  of  Taunton,  Massachusetts 


Jv         ^^W^^^-'^'^'^f^f  n  P 


^^N^-'^^i 


^1 


/// 


■:a-" 


:.^??§^- 1^^ 


I 


^ 

AMERICANA 

JULY,    1923 

A 

Beginnings  of  Bristol  County,  Massachusetts 

Massasoit,  Zerviah  ]\[itciiell  and  Eljz.\beth  Poole. 
By  Frank  W.alcott  Hutt,  Taunton,  Mass.  ■'":• 


T  the  close  of  three  hundred  years,  the  most  eventful  in 
the  history  of  our  country,  we  again  approacli  as  near 
as  possible  to  the  threshold  of  their  times  and  motives, 
and  inquire:  AVho  were  the  founders  of  Bristol  county, 
and  the  cities  and  towns  contained  therein?  And,  witnessing  our  own 
day  and  acliievement,  we  desire  to  know  how  the  present  has  fulfilled 
the  expectations  of  the  founders.  The  past  has  undeniable  funda- 
mental values ;  the  present  is  w^orking  and  building  upon  the  founda- 
tions that  have  been  laid;  both  are  one  in  the  purpose  and  progress 
of  their  stnicture.  History  depends  upon  their  mutual  aid.  And 
so  the  workmen  of  yesterday  and  today  join  forces  as  the  labor 
proceeds. 

As  we,  from  our  summits,  survey  some  of  the  results  of  the  deal- 
ings and  ventures  of  the  first  settlers,  it  appears  to  us  that  they  were 
men  and  women  of  the  psychological  time  and  the  hour,  endowed 
with  special  capacity  for  home-building  and  town-maldng,  equipped 
both  spiritually  and  physically  to  begin  the  colonization  of  their  land 
of  promise.  This  is  no  mere  sentiment,  either,  for  that  wJiich  they 
began  has  progressed  and  thriven  to  this  hour. 

Historians  of  earlier  works  have  not  made  it  clear  that  Bristol 
county  was  so  named  as  the  result  of  a  promise  made  by  the  General 
Court  at  Plymouth  in  1677  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  to^\Tl  of  Bristol, 
now  in  Ehode  Island.     The  promise  was,  in  effect,  that  when  the 


Note — These  pages  comprise  excerpts  from  forthcoming  "History  of  Bristol  County, 
Massachusetts,"  by  Mr.  Frank  Walcott  Hutt,  Secretary  of  the  Old  Colony  Historical 
Society;  member  of  Society  for  the  Preservation  of  New  England  Antiquities.  (Lewis 
Historical  Publishing  Company,  Inc.,  New  York  and  Chicago). 

231 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

time  came  that  sixty  families  should  have  settled  in  the  iovni,  a  new 
county  should  then  be  established,  and  that  Bristol  should  be  de- 
nominated the  county  seat.  It  was  on  September  1,  1681,  that  the 
townsfolk  named  the  village  for  the  great  English  port,  Bristol,  and 
four  years  later,  in  June,  1685,  the  county  was  incorporated,  witli 
Bristol  as  the  shire  town.  Up  to  that  time  all  this  territory  had  been 
a  part  of  the  Old  Colony,  whose  General  Court  headquarters  had 
been  established  since  1639.  Bristol  county  toAvns  were  represented 
at  the  court  only  seven  years;  for  after  June,  1692,  the  General 
Court  of  Massachusetts  Bay  issued  all  orders  to  the  military  and  for 
the  civil  conduct  of  the  to^\^ls  of  the  Old  Colony.  Thus  were  the 
workmen  laying  foundations.  At  the  time  of  King  Philip's  War, 
1675-6,  these  to^\Tis  were  includ'^d  in  the  limits  of  the  county  that  was 
to  be — Attleboro,  Berkley,  Easton,  Dighton,  Dartmouth,  FreetoA\m, 
Rajmham,  Norton,  Eehoboth,  Swansea  and  Taunton — ^^\dth  an  ag- 
gregate population  of  22,571.  The  other  towms  of  this  section  were 
not  yet  incorporated. 

In  1685,  then,  New  Plymouth,  or  the  Old  Colony,  as  it  soon  began 
to  be  called  by  the  sons  of  Pilgrims,  was  divided  into  the  three  coun- 
ties of  Phanouth,  Barnstable  and  Bristol,  the  town  of  Bristol  con- 
tinuing as  the  county  seat  up  to  November,  1746,  when  Taunton  was 
made  the  shire  town.  From  that  date  the  to^vn  of  Bristol  went  over 
to  Rhode  Island,  and  keeping  it  company  were  the  tov^ms  of  Barring- 
ton,  Little  Compton  and  Warren.  A  petition  had  been  presented  to 
the  General  Court  from  several  of  the  to\\ms,  asking  that  Dighton 
be  made  the  county  town  in  place  of  Taunton ;  but  it  was  reported 
back  from  the  court  that  * '  they  are  of  opinion  that  Taunton  will  be 
most  benefitiall  for  the  county. ' ' 

All  courts  up  to  the  year  1828  were  held  at  Taunton,  where  to 
the  present  time  a  series  of  four  court  houses  have  been  constructed. 
But  in  that  year.  New  Bedford,  then  being  the  largest  to^vn  in  the 
county,  with  a  population  of  6332,  was  created  a  half-shire  to^\^l, 
with  its  o^\Ti  court  house.  The  growi;h  of  the  county  called  for 
further  division  in  1860,  when  Pawtucket  and  a  part  of  Seekonk 
were  set  oft  to  Rhode  Island,  and  a  part  of  Tiverton  was  given  from 
Rhode  Island  to  Fall  River.  The  latter  city,  with  its  then  population 
of  46,000,  was  made  a  half -shire  town,  with  its  court. 

Retaining  its  ancient  name,  and  linking  its  past  with  that  of  the 
colonial  era,  Bristol  county,  knowm  for  great  industry,  holds  an  ad- 

232 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

vanced  place  in  the  line  of  march  of  the  State's  success.  With  an 
area  of  six  hundred  square  miles,  with  Norfolk  county  on  the  north, 
PhTnouth  county  on  the  east,  Ehode  Island  on  the  west,  and  Rhode 
Island  and  the  Atlantic  on  the  south,  the  county  occupies  a  southern 
block  of  the  State,  about  thirty-five  miles  from  Boston.  Within  the 
county  limits  there  are  now  four  cities,  namely:  Fall  River,  Taun- 
ton, xVttleboro  and  New  Bedford ;  and  fifteen  towns,  namely :  Acush- 
net,  Berkley,  Dartmouth,  Dighton,  Easton,  Fairhaven,  Freetown, 
Mansfield,  North  Attleboro,  Norton,  Raynham,  Rehoboth,  Seekonk, 
Somerset,  Westport. 

*        *        *        *        * 

Few  rolling-land  sections  of  the  State,  such  as  Bristol  county  is, 
are  more  pleasingly  situated,  both  for  charming  lake  and  river 
scenery  and  for  practical  utilities.  There  are  a  number  of  rivers 
that  not  only  water  the  lands  and  furnish  means  of  transportation, 
but  provide  water  power  for  some  of  the  largest  textile  mills  in  the 
world.  The  Taunton  river,  kno^vn  to  the  red  race  as  the  Tetiquet,  or 
Great  river,  is  a  small  stream  compared  with  many  New  England 
rivers,  but  it  is  the  most  noted  among  this  county  group  of  rivers, 
rising  in  PhTHOuth  county,  and  flovving  southwesterly,  directly 
across  Bristol  county,  and  emptying  into  Mount  Hope  Bay,  or 
Sachem's  Bay,  as  it  was  called  in  early  times.  This  river  has  a  re- 
markable industrial  history  that  began  with  the  Leonard  iron-work- 
ers and  the  Lincoln  saw-millers,  in  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury. The  head  of  navigation  is  at  Weir  Village,  Taunton,  though 
the  ocean  tide  itself  flows  to  East  Taunton,  rising  in  Scadding's 
pond  to  the  north  of  the  city,  and  joining  the  Taunton  river  near  the 
location  knowm  as  the  Neck-of-Land. 

Three  Mile  river,  which  the  Indians  called  the  Nistoquahannock, 
is  formed  by  the  Wading  and  Rumford  rivers,  and,  flowing  through 
West  Taunton,  it  makes  the  boundary  between  Taunton  and  Dighton 
and  becomes  a  part  of  Taunton  river.  For  many  miles  Ten  ]\Iile 
river  constitutes  the  boundary  between  Seekonk  and  Rhode  Island. 
Palmer  river  rises  in  the  to^\^l  of  Rehoboth,  and  flows  into  the  War- 
ren river  at  Swansea.  The  Segregansett  river  rises  in  Taunton,  and 
flowing  southwesterly  across  Dighton,  eventually  becomes  a  part  of 
Taunton  river.  The  Westport  river  has  its  east  and  west  branches 
in  Westport,  and  the  Slocum  and  Aponagansett  rivers  are  in  Dart- 
mouth. 

233 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Bristol  county  lakes  and  ponds  share  largely  in  the  topographic 
features  of  the  region.  The  Watuppa  lakes  are  in  Fall  Eiver;  Sab- 
batia  lake  and  Scadding's  pond  are  in  Taunton;  Winnecunnet  pond 
is  at  Norton;  Wilbur  pond  is  at  Easton;  and  Reservoir  pond  is  in 
North  Attleboro. 

We  can  have  no  actual  comprehension  of  the  manner  of  living 
of  the  first  settlers  in  Bristol  county  bounds;  we  are  better  ac- 
quainted with  that  which  is  nearer  our  day,  a  century  or  two  after 
the  Pilgrims — the  story  of  the  simplicity  of  the  pre-Kevolutionary 
times;  that  is,  as  compared  with  the  luxury  that  followed,  and  of 
our  o^vn  day.  But  it  was  upon  their  frugality  and  their  laborious 
life  that  the  foundations  of  these  townships  were  laid;  it  is  in  their 
artlessness  that  we  of  today  can  find  a  great  deal  that  is  worthy  of 
imitation.  Their  ''board"  was  actually  a  board,  seldom  a  table  as 
we  know  it,  and  the  hands  w^ere  employed  more  than  any  other 
utensil  for  the  holding  and  breaking  of  food.  Porridge,  fish,  meat, 
some  vegetables,  constituted  the  early  dishes.  Coffee  and  tea  were 
not  to  be  had.  Beer  and  ale  were  brewed,  and  were  dranl^  freely, 
as  vvas  the  custom  in  all  lands.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the 
laws  regarding  spirituous  drink  were  always  sharply  restrictive, 
and  that  even  as  earh^  as  1667  cider  was  added  in  the  restriction; 
and  measures  were  taken  to  keep  everything  of  the  sort  from  the 
Indians,  although  the  law  was  outwitted  then,  as  now.  The  point  is, 
that  Colonial  law  in  these  and  all  essential  matters  was  in  effect. 

Town  meeting,  wherever  we  find  it,  had  its  New  World  origin 
in  the  Old  Colony.  From  this  hither  period  of  time,  students  of  his- 
tory's eras  rejoice  in  and  make  much  of  the  rediscovery,  too,  that 
the  ''town"  of  New^  England  was  the  cropping  up  again  of  a  most 
ancient  Saxon  institution.  But  to  the  forefathers  here  it  was  all  so 
natural  and  primitive  a  proceeding  that  they  were  unaware  of  any 
indention  on  their  part  to  resurrect  that  old  towii  idea  and  practice. 
All  they  were  concerning  themselves  ^\ith,  in  reality,  reducing  the 
matter  to  its  simplest  terms,  was  the  making  of  an  independent  home 
and  an  independent  living  and  the  securing  of  these  by  mutual  plans 
for  government.  Whatever  the  origin  of  the  institution,  no  one 
for  a  moment  believes  that  any  of  the  first-comers  to  the  Bristol 
county  to'\\ms  went  into  the  business  of  to\^Ti-making  because  the 
Saxons  or  the  Angles  or  any  of  the  Aryan  nomads  before  them  did 
so  and  so.    The  germ  of  it  all  may  have  been  transplanted  by  the 

234 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Pilgrims;  but  the  Old  Colony  and  the  counties  that  were  divided  up 
from  it  had  their  inception  by  the  different  towns  only  because  of 
the  practical  needs  of  home-makers  and  independent  nation-builders. 
The  first  of  the  town  meetings  in  this  part  of  the  country  was 
not  inaugurated  upon  a  stated  day,  nor  with  celebrations.  It  was  a 
quiet  and  at  times  unannounced  gathering  of  the  leading  men  of 
the  towTi  in  one  another's  houses  for  deliberate  purposes,  and  look- 
ing into  the  everyday  welfare  of  the  coimnunity.  It  was  the  early 
mark  and  sign  of  the  living  needs,  the  essentials,  the  individual  and 
community  rights  in  the  process  of  civilization.  The  senior,  the 
patriarch,  the  man  of  chief  influence,  whether  in  Bristol  county  or 
elsewhere,  was  the  acknowledged  leader,  and  in  the  course  of  time  a 
man  of  that  calibre  became  the  meeting  moderator,  or  the  keeper 
of  records,  or  the  town  clerk.  Though  the  first  regularly  organized 
iovm  meeting  was  held  at  Marshfield,  (outside  these  bounds),  in 
1642,  yet  it  was  not  until  four  years  later,  or  in  1646,  that  the  Gen- 
eral Court  at  Ph^llouth  established  the  office  of  town  clerk.  Town 
meeting  exercised  from  the  first  an  influence  upon  the  governing 
power  and  customs  of  the  community  that  today  is  deeply  felt  and 
recognized.  It  is  at  this  hour  a  great  event  in  the  town  life  of  Bristol 
county.  No  assemblage  can  be  more  democratic.  None  signifies 
so  much  directly  by  and  for  the  people. 


The  most  famous  landmark  of  any  sort  within  the  bounds  of 
Bristol  county  is  the  ^'Dighton  Writing  Eock,"  at  Berkley,  the  lat- 
ter town  having  originally  been  a  part  of  Dighton.  This  noted  gran- 
ite rock  within  the  river  margin  is  eleven  and  one-half  feet  long  and 
five  feet  high.  Since  the  year  1SS9  it  has  been  the  property  of  the 
Old  Colony  Historical  Society  at  Taunton,  from  a  deed  of  gift  of  the 
Royal  Society  of  Northern  Antiquaries  of  Copenhagen.  The  rock 
was  purchased  in  1857  of  Thomas  T.  Dean,  of  Berkley,  by  Neil 
Ameen,  of  Fall  River,  who  placed  it  in  the  possession  of  the  Copen- 
hagen Society  in  the  belief  that  the  findings  of  the  archaeologist 
were  proof  positive  that  the  markings  were  those  of  Danish  ex- 
plorers. 

Up  to  the  present  time,  and  dating  from  the  year  1680,  there 
have  been  proposed  more  than  twenty  distinct  theories  concerning 
the  origin  of  the  s>Tnbol-like  drawings  and  letter  marks  that  cover 

235 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

the  face  of  the  rock  but  all  of  which  traceries  are  slowly  becoming 
defaced  both  by  tides  and  weather.  The  theories  of  the  writings  are" 
many  and  varied,  the  leading  one  being  that  they  were  originally 
those  of  native  red  men.  Professor  E.  D.  Delabarre,  renowned 
archipologist,  whose  earlier  criticism  was  that  the  drawings  might 
have  been  made  by  Egyptians,  2000  B.  C,  has  compiled  three  vol- 
umes from  the  publications  of  the  Colonial  Society  of  Massachu- 
setts on  the  subject  of  the  rock.  His  more  recent  theory  is  that 
here  are  marks  on  the  rock  that  appear  to  disclose  the  name  of 
Miguel  Cortereal,  Portuguese  explorer,  and  the  date  1511.  In  the 
realm  of  ethnology,  archa}olog>'  and  cheirolog^-,  this  monument  of 
great  age  has  been  visited  and  written  about  by  savants  of  all  times, 
and  during  many  centuries.  Jolm  Fiske  and  others  refute  the  Norse 
origin  of  the  writings.  Schoolcraft,  the  explorer,  in  1853  decided 
they  were  of  Indian  origin.  Yet  concerning  the  source  of  the  writ- 
ings on  the  rock,  about  which  a  small  library  has  been  written,  no 
one  is  absolutely  sure. 

***** 

Imbibing,  as  we  do,  the  realism  of  our  times,  it  follows  that  we 
must  consider  the  Red  Man's  story  as  genuine  as  that  of  the  age 
that  ensued,  although  historians  now  and  then  have  seen  fit  to  in- 
vest much  of  their  era  with  the  glamour  of  romance.  The  Indians 
were  real  people ;  their  troubles  and  sorrows  were  actual ;  and  those 
of  our  Massachusetts  shores  possessed  very  little  of  comfort  and 
enjojTiient  in  life,  whether  from  the  white  man's  point  of  view  or 
their  own. 

We  are  now  nearly  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  away  from 
King  Philip's  War,  and  weighing  all  causes,  as  we  must,  we  know 
that  while  the  colonists  had  good  and  sufficient  reasons  for  the 
eventual  retirement  of  the  Indian  from  the  scene,  we  grant  that  the 
natives  often  suffered  at  the  hands  of  the  newcomers,  whose  de- 
mands, like  those  of  Winslow  himself,  upon  King  Philip,  were  fre- 
quently made  in  an  offensive  manner.  In  the  formative  period  of 
the  Old  Colony,  the  transactions  between  the  races  were  rather  ideal, 
as  a  whole,  but,  as  the  years  passed,  in  spite  of  the  strict  governmen- 
tal rules  for  clemency  of  dealings  with  the  Indians,  individuals  on 
both  sides  gradually  undermined  the  fabric  of  friendship  and  of  mu- 
tual help. 

236 


--^^■v'-.yijvrKfJfi'.^'.i^'M 


h- 


■^-  ^  ('■ 


MELINDA   MITCHELL    (TEEWEELEEMA),   DESCEXDAXT    ()l-    .\L\SSAS01T 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Massasoit  was  easy  going;  King  Philip  was  crafty;  yet  the  rea- 
sons for  rebellious  outbreak  on  the  part  of  the  natives  were  not  al- 
ways fictitious  ones.  The  real  Indians  hereabouts  were  a  poor  and 
needy  type  of  humanity;  but  they  bitterly  resented  and  always  re- 
membered the  enforced  enslavement  of  certain  of  their  kind  by  ma- 
rauding Europeans  before  the  *'Ma}ilower"  came.  Naturally,  they 
disliked  being  driven  from  pillar  to  post ;  they  found  fault  when  their 
gardens  were  destroyed  and  when  members  of  their  families  were 
mistreated.  Their  methods  of  vengeance  were  terrible  in  result ;  but 
through  the  hea^7^  mists  of  the  blood  that  was  shed,  it  was  very  hard 
for  that  generation  of  white  people,  or  succeeding  ones,  to  maintain 
any  faith  whatever  in  the  ethnological  value  of  the  Indian. 

The  honor  once  accorded  the  writer  in  being  granted  an  inter- 
vie\v  with  Zerviah  (Mitchell)  Kobinson,  Indian  princess  by  right, 
then  ninety-three  years  of  age,  was  augmented  by  the  consciousness 
that  she  was  a  direct  descendant  of  Massasoit,  chief  of  the  Pokanoket 
confederacy  of  the  originally  powerful  tribe  of  AVampanoags,  first 
recorded  occupants  of  the  present  Bristol  county  region.  That 
Indian  woman,  who  in  her  earl}^  years  had  been  a  teacher  in  public 
schools,  was  in  her  nineties  bright  and  active.  Her  eyes  flashed 
with  hereditary  brilliance  of  her  nomadic  forbears ;  but  her  features 
were  sharp  and  nmnuuy-like,  and  draA\^i  A\-ith  advanced  age.  She 
was  one  of  the  few  that  remained  of  her  race ;  yet,  living  in  our  times, 
as  she  was,  she  had  made  the  best  of  her  life.  But  Zerviah  was  a 
living  reminder  of  all  that  had  been  knowTi  and  verified  of  that  ^\ise 
and  peace-performing  Massasoit  who  -with  his  tribe  and  offspring 
were  familiar  to  all  this  section  before  Taunton  or  Fall  Eiver  or 
New  Bedford  were  foreseen,  and  who  for  a  half  century,  when  the 
Europeans  appeared  and  set  up  their  homes  here,  generally  fra- 
ternized A\ith  the  strangers  and  allowed  them  the  settlers'  privileges. 
After  nearly  three  hundred  years,  then,  practically  the  last  remnant 
of  the  people  of  the  woods  and  barrens  had  disappeared,  and  the 
city  and  its  builders  had  taken  their  place,  race  annihilating  race  in 
the  ages-old  way. 

So  far  as  the  first  settlement  of  the  white  people  in  the  old 
bounds  of  this  county  is  concerned,  their  combats  with  their  Indian 
neighbors  were  nil — there  was  no  menace,  to  speak  of,  on  the  part 
of  the  first  dwellers  here,  no  disastrous  breaks — a  condition  not 
usual  with  the  invasion  of  newcomers  elsewhere.     At  Cape  Cod 

237 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

and  Plymouth  the  skirmishes  were  few  and  far  between,  and  in  early 
Bristol  county  the  Indians  peacefully  conveyed  lands  and  were  satis- 
fied with  whatever  was  given  in  exchange. 

The  paucity  and  segregation  of  the  branches  of  the  tribes  were 
the  main  causes  for  the  easy  foothold  obtained  here  by  Europeans. 
And  the  leading  reason  for  the  lack  of  anticipated  wholesale  war- 
like front  on  the  part  of  the  Indians  is  found  in  the  declaration  made 
by  the  Indians  and  the  settlers,  that  a  plague  understood  by  many 
writers  to  have  been  like  influenza,  had  already  swept  thousands  of 
the  Red  Men  hereabouts  out  of  existence,  and  that,  only  a  few  years 
before  the  "Mayflower"  arrived.  Everywhere  graves  were  abun- 
dant, and  remains  were  found  heaped  together  in  pits.  Those  that 
survived  of  the  nearby  Wampanoags,  therefore,  were  weak  and  gen- 
erally unhostile.  Hence,  so  far  as  the  traditions  have  declared,  the 
new  homes  of  civilization  increased,  and  the  Red  Men's  tents  were 
bound  to  retreat.  The  Indian  occupancy  in  this  region,  however, 
had  been  and  was  to  be  for  many  years  to  follow,  a  real  possession. 
It  is  too  actual  a  chapter  that  it  should  ever  be  dismissed  from  the 
whole  stor>\  Romance,  poetry  and  song  are  not  powerful  enough 
realms  to  absorb  the  hard  realities  of  the  existence  of  the  Indian. 

The  immediate  newcomers  landed  practically  unopposed,  and, 
living  up  to  their  ideals  of  fair  play,  they  sent  their  delegates  a  long 
way  in  order  to  find  the  nearest  head  man  of  any  tribe,  for  good 
fellowship's  sake.  It  was  Samoset  who  welcomed  the  Englishmen; 
it  was  Squanto,  who  claimed  that  he  was  last  of  the  Pawtuxet  tribe, 
that  led  the  way  to  Massasoit. 

The  town  of  Bristol,  now  in  Rhode  Island,  formerly  in  Massa- 
chusetts, and  the  head  of  the  county,  was  founded  upon  the  site  of 
the  Indian  encampment  of  the  Pokanokets,  at  ^lontaup  (the  English- 
men phonetically  calling  it  Mt.  Hope),  and  there  lived  Massasoit, 
who  is  accounted  one  of  the  wisest  chiefs  that  ever  ruled  a  savage 
race.  In  1619  Captain  Dermer,  a  transient  visitor,  had  stopped  at 
Nemasket,  just  outside  this  section,  and  had  there  met  Massasoit 
and  his  brother  Quadequin.  But  in  July,  1621,  was  made  the  first 
record  of  white  men  traveling  the  Bristol  county  territory,  when  Ed- 
ward Winslow  and  Stephen  Hopkins,  accompanied  by  vSquanto, 
sought  out  Massasoit  in  order  to  make  their  treaty  of  friendship. 
Their  visit  was  successful;  so  were  all  their  dealings  thereafter  ^\^th 
that  chief. 

238 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Yet  there  were  displeasing  episodes.  One  ^vas  that  connected 
with  the  snb-chief  Corbitant,  whom  AVinslow  pronounced  a  "hollow- 
hearted  friend;'^  though  his  hospitableness  afterwards  was  con- 
ceded. It  is  said  that  Corbitant  had  been  inimical  towards  Squanto, 
whose  part  being  taken  by  Myles  Standish  and  the  Plymouth  people, 
Corbitant  himself,  thereupon,  was  constrained  to  sign  a  treaty  of 
peace  at  Phinouth.  When  Winslow  made  his  second  visit  to  Mas- 
sasoit  in  1623,  while  passing  through  Corbitant 's  dominions,  at  the 
present  Swansea,  he  was  alarmed  at  the  report  of  the  death  of  Mas- 
sasoit,  lest  the  latter  be  succeeded  by  Corbitant  to  the  chieftaincy. 
But  the  report  was  negatived,  and  Corbitant  proved  a  generous  host 
to  Winslow  and  his  friends.  Another  episode  concerned  Awashunks, 
the  squaw-sachem  of  Seaconnet,  whose  husband  was  the  Indian 
Tolony,  and  who  had  sons  Peter  and  William.  She  nearly  preci- 
pitated a  war  at  Freeto^\m,  in  August,  1671 ;  and  again,  in  1675,  she 
was  almost  persuaded,  with  her  warriors,  to  cast  in  her  lot  mth  that 
of  the  English. 

Massasoit,  who  was  also  kno"s\m  as  Ossamequin,  as  has  been 
pointed  out,  ruled  over  the  Wampanoags,  whose  sub-tribes  and 
branches  were  included  in  thirty  villages,  at  least,  throughout  the 
present  Bristol  and  other  counties. 

The  principal  of  the  sub-tribes  that  have  to  do  with  this  section 
were  the  Seaconnets,  who  lived  where  Little  Compton,  Rhode  Island, 
now  is,  and  they  were  ruled  by  the  squaw-sachem  Awashunks,  to 
whom  reference  has  been  made.  The  tents  of  the  Pocassets  were 
pitched  throughout  the  territory  that  is  now  Fall  River,  Tiverton, 
and  a  part  of  Swansea,  and  their  rulers  were  Corbitant  and  Wee- 
tamoe.  In  succession  also  were  the  Tetiquets,  who  lived  on  the  east 
side  of  the  Tetiquet  (now  Taunton)  river;  and  the  Assawampsetts, 
their  next  door  neighbors. 

Massasoit  was  born  in  1581.  His  wife  was  living  in  1621 ;  and 
besides  the  brothers  of  the  chief,  Quadequin  and  Akkampoin,  there 
wapj  a  sister.  Massasoit 's  two  famous  sons  were:  Wamsutta,  after- 
wards kno^\^l  as  Alexander;  and  Metacomet,  better  kno-wn  as  King 
Philip ;  and  his  daughter  was  Amie,  who  married  Tispauquin,  from 
^vhom  Zerviah  Mitchell  was  descended.  Massasoit  died  in  1662.  A 
monument  to  his  memory  was  dedicated  at  Warren,  Rhode  Island, 
October  19,  1907,  at  the  Massasoit  Spring,  there,  by  the  Massasoit 

239 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Monument  Association.     Charlotte  and  Alonzo  !\Iitchell,  direct  de- 
scendants of  the  chief,  were  present,  and  unveiled  the  monument. 

Many  names  for  many  occasions,  the  Red  Men  seemed  to  have. 
The  English  at  first  knew  Wamsutta  as  Mooanam,  but  after  1656  he 
and  King  Philip  were  called  by  the  Christian  names  they  afterwards 
bore.  Alexander,  the  chief  who  took  AVeetamoe,  daughter  of  Cor- 
bitant,  for  his  wife,  had  from  the  first  held  an  unfriendly  attitude 
towards  the  whites,  generous  though  his  father  had  been  with  the 
new-comers.  Yet  Alexander  was  chief  only  a  few  months  after  the 
death  of  Massasoit,  when  he  died,  having  ''fretted  himself  to  death," 
in  all  probability  because  he  foresaw  the  powerlessness  of  his  race 
and,  as  King  Philip  did,  their  extinction.  It  was  Alexander  who  dis- 
posed of  lands  where  Taunton  and  Attleboro  now  are.  His  squaw, 
Weetamoe,  was  one  of  the  most  noted  Indian  women  of  her  times 
in  the  story  of  this  region.  When  Corbitant,  her  father,  died,  she 
automatically  became  the  ruler  of  the  Pocassets.  Known  at  first  as 
Nunmampaum,  and  being  called  Weetamoe  first  in  1662,  she  married 
in  1675,  just  before  King  Philip's  AVar,  Petonowomet,  or  Peter  Nun- 
nuit,  as  the  English  phonetically  styled  him.  Later,  and  before  the 
close  of  that  war,  she  married  the  Narragansett  sagamore  Quinna- 
pin.  The  unique  description  that  exists  of  the  squaw  leader  is  worth 
repeating:  ''She  was  dressed  in  a  kersey  coat  covered  with  girdles 
of  wampum,  from  the  loins  upwards.  Her  arms  from  the  elbows  to 
the  hands  were  covered  with  bracelets;  and  besides  a  handful  of 
necklaces  about  her  neck,  there  were  several  sorts  of  jewels  in  her 
ears.  She  had  fine  red  stockings  and  white  shoes ;  her  hair  was  pow- 
dered, and  her  face  painted  red.  She  was  a  severe  and  proud  dame, 
bestowing  every  day  in  dressing  herself  as  much  time  as  any  of  the 
gentry  in  the  land;  and  when  she  was  dressed  her  work  was  to  make 
girdles  of  wampum  and  beads."  Yiet  in  spite  of  her  finery  while  she 
was  at  her  best,  the  lot  of  Weetamoe  was  an  unenviable  one.  "With 
the  breaking  out  of  the  King  Philip  War.  she  had  about  three  hun- 
dred armed  Indians  subject  to  her  rule.  Her  second  husband,  "Pe- 
ter Nunnuit,"  went  over  and  aided  the  English,  but  she  remained 
faithful  to  her  race  and  shared  their  lot.  Separating  herself  from 
Nunnuit,  she  became  the  wife  of  Quinnapin,  both  of  them  then  being 
the  followers  of  Philip.  Quinnapin,  being  ac<"used  of  plotting  with 
Philip,  was  shot  at  PhToouth.  His  queen,  Weetamoe,  fled,  but  by 
means  of  the  perfidy  of  a  deserter  from  her  camp,  her  hiding  place 

240 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

was  made  known.  In  all  probability  she  drowned  herself,  but  her 
corpse  drifted  ashore,  and  being  seized  by  the  white  settlers,  her 
head  was  cut  off  and  exhibited  upon  a  pole  at  Taunton. 

Philip,  whose  Indian  name  was  pronounced  Pometacum, 
though  at  first  the  English  called  him  Metacomet,  is  remembered  by 
us  of  today,  chiefly  because  of  the  fact  that  his  name  was  connected 
Avith  the  Indian  war  of  this  section,  as  its  leader,  in  1675-6.  He  mar- 
ried a  sister  of  "Weetamoe,  named  Wot onekanuske;  and  one  of  the 
blots  on  the  pages  of  our  history,  as  we  view  it  today,  is  the  fact  that 
she  was  sold  into  slavery  with  her  son,  at  Bridgewater. 

And  so  Philip,  the  plotter,  and  yet  the  fighting  man  for  his  race, 
came  into  view  on  the  stage  of  the  time— Philip,  untutored,  unlet- 
tered, vengeful— but  whom  we  must  credit  with  a  great  love  for  his 
people,  and  as  having  in  his  heart  a  great  regret  that  a  new  race  had 
come  into  possession  of  the  lands  of  his  ancestors.  While  the  charge 
of  the  colonists  was  that  King  Philip  and  his  followers,  in  a  time  of 
comparative  peace,  were  plotting  against  the  new  government  of  the 
settlers,  it  should  be  conceded  today,  after  weighing  carefully  much 
that  has  been  recorded  with  regard  to  the  arrogance  and  the  tres- 
l^assing  of  the  whites  upon  the  property  and  the  rights  of  the  In- 
dians, that  the  latter  were  no  more  than  rebels  against  what  they 
believed  to  be  a  tyrannizing  of  the  colonists.  The  following  incident 
told  in  brief,  was  one  of  the  causes  that  brought  on  the  war. 

John  Sassamon,  a  Massachusetts  Indian,  though  attached  to 
King  Philip,  had  received  his  education  at  the  Indian  school  at 
Natick,  and  became  a  home  missionary  to  the  Nemasket  Indians 
(where  Middleboro  now  is).  He  also  received  the  favor  of  the  chief 
Tuspaquin,  who  conveyed  to  him  27  acres  of  land  at  Assawampsett 
Neck,  in  the  Town  of  Lakeville.  Sassamon  had  a  daughter,  Asso- 
wetough  by  name,  called  '* Betty"  by  the  English,  who  married  the 
Indian  Felix.  To  him  Tuspaquin  and  his  son  AVilliam  deeded  oSYo 
acres  of  land,  and  both  conveyed  to  Assowetough  (''Betty")  a  neck 
of  land  at  Assawampsett  that  today  is  called  Betty's  Neck.  But 
Sassamon,  because  of  a  treacherous  communication  to  the  Eng- 
lish to  the  detriment  of  Philip,  met  his  death  at  the  hands  of  Philip's 
people.  Thereupon  the  murderers,  Tobias,  Wampapaum  and  Mat- 
tushamama,  were  apprehended  and  shot  by  the  English.  Only  fif- 
teen days  after  this  execution,  or  on  June  23,  1675,  an  Englishman 
was  shot  at  Swansea,  and  his  wife  was  scalped.    The  following  day, 

241 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACirUSETTS 

others  were  killed  at  the  same  place.  It  was  about  this  time,  too, 
that  Edward  Bobbitt,  John  Tisdale  and  others  were  killed  at  Taun- 
ton. 

It  was  on  April  10,  1671,  five  years  before  the  war,  that  Philip, 
attended  by  his  warriors,  came  to  Taunton  upon  request  of  the  colon- 
ists, who  had  become  alarmed  at  the  warlike  preparations  of  the 
Indian  party.  This  council  was  held  in  the  meeting  house  near  the 
present  Church  Green,  and  after  recriminations  upon  both  sides, 
King  Philip  and  his  men  signed  a  treaty  and  delivered  up  their 
arms,  at  the  same  time  with  the  promise  given  that  the  tribe  as  a 
whole  would  surrender  their  arms  at  Plymouth.  But  the  promise 
was  not  kept,  and  after  a  second  one,  made  on  September  26,  1671, 
the  Indians  were  generally  and  forcibly  disarmed,  with  the  trouble 
that  was  bound  to  ensue. 

Most  of  the  so-called  battles  of  this  war,  from  our  viewpoint, 
were  little  more  than  a  few  skirmishes,  with  a  handful  of  people  on 
either  side  contending— that  is,  as  the  present  Bristol  county  bounds 
have  to  do  with  the  trouble.  Yet  the  results,  so  comparatively  few 
were  the  white  and  Indian  inhabitants  here  at  the  time,  were  looked 
upon  either  as  terribly  calamitous  or  as  wonderful  victories.  The 
dispatching  of  the  three  Indians,  the  slaying  of  the  Swansea  family 
— both  were  events  of  the  most  serious  kind,  and  they  so  alfected 
both  parties. 

While  our  concern  is  mth  the  greater  affairs  of  the  Indians  and 
of  this  war,  we  shall  refer  to  the  main  facts  that  featured  the  action 
of  the  war  to  its  close,  in  this  region.  After  the  Swansea  attack,  a 
battle  was  fought  at  Punkateset,  now  the  south  part  of  Tiverton,  by 
a  small  number  of  white  men  under  command  of  Captain  Benjamin 
Church,  and  three  hundred  Indians.  The  record  has  it  that  a  Cap- 
tain Golding,  who  approached  the  land  in  his  sloop,  was  the  means 
of  saving  the  colonists  from  their  predicament.  Again,  Philip  and 
Weetamoe  and  some  Indians  were  engaged  in  battle,  July  IS,  1675, 
in  the  Pocasset  swamp,  near  the  present  Fall  Eiver.  The  English 
on  this  occasion  lost  sixteen  of  their  men,  and  took  possession  of 
one  hundred  wigwams,  while  about  one  hundred  Indians  fell  into 
their  hands.  Philip  and  Weetamoe  and  most  of  their  party  got  away. 

Infantry,  volunteers  and  mounted  men  stationed  at  Swansea, 
the  contingent  furnished  by  Massachusetts  Bay  for  this  section, 
were  in  charge  of  Captain  Daniel  Henchman,  Samuel  Moseley  and 

242 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Thomas  Prentice;  and  Captain  James  Cudworth  commanded  a  com- 
pany from  Plymouth  Colony.  He,  as  ranking  officer,  had  charge 
of  all,  with  headquarters  at  Barneyville.  Besides  skirmislies  like 
that  at  MjTcs  Bridge,  where  colonists  were  killed  and  wounded, 
Captain  Moseley  led  in  an  open  fight  against  the  Indians,  killing 
some,  and  on  his  way  finding  the  decapitated  heads  of  English,  which 
he  buried.  "When  he  arrived  at  Mount  Hope,  he  found  that  King 
Philip  and  his  followers  had  fled  to  Pocasset,  where  he  was  able  to 
re-enforce  his  outfit  with  the  help  of  Weetamoe  and  Awashunks. 
Meantime,  Major  Thomas  Savage  having  arrived  at  Swansea  from 
Boston  with  one  hundred  and  twenty  men,  Captain  Prentice  led  a 
skinnish  at  Eehoboth,  June  30,  with  disastrous  results  to  a  number 
of  Indians. 

Philip  coiitinued  to  lay  waste  the  white  settlements.  A  battle 
was  fought  at  PaAvtucket,  then  within  this  county's  bounds,  when 
Captain  Michael  Pierce  and  nearly  all  his  command  were  slain  by 
Indmns  under  Canonchet.  Kehoboth  was  burned  March  28,  nearly 
seventy  buildings  being  destroyed,  and  on  April  9  the  fighter  Can- 
onchet was  captured.  Swansea  received  its  second  attack  June  19, 
and  was  burned  flat.  Taunton  was  attacked  July  11,  and  houses 
burned;  and  it  was  about  this  time  that  the  battle  of  Lockety  Neck 
occurred,  with  Indian  defeat.  Twenty  Taunton  men  captured  "Wee- 
tamoe and  the  last  of  her  followers,  at  Swansea,  August  6,  with 
the  result  referred  to.  King  Philip  himself  was  killed  at  Mount 
Hope,  August  12,  1676,  and  on  Augnst  28  his  leading  captain,  Ana- 
wan,  was  captured  by  Captain  Benjamin  Church  at  the  place  kno^vn 
as  Anawan's  Rock,  at  Eehoboth.  Thereafter,  peace  prevailed  be- 
tween the  races  in  this  county.  The  place  and  power  of  the  aborigi- 
nal regime  were  superseded  by  those  of  the  newcomer.  Henceforth 
the  colonists  availed.  The  wig-wam  perished  and  towns  and  cities 
appeared  and  flourished. 

The  piratical  visitations  of  pre-Pilgrim  times,  and  afterwards 
the  inevitable  intrusions  of  racial  pride,  preferment  and  greed  for 
gain,  as  well  as  the  cruelties  practiced  by  individuals  on  both  sides, 
were  causes  of  all  the  trouble  the  later  men  of  the  Old  Colony  and  of 
Bristol  county  had  with  the  original  holders  of  the  land.  The  pre- 
ponderances of  statements  of  any  who  have  written  concerning  the 
Indians  (particularly  of  those  remnants  of  the  Algonquin  tribes  of 
the  Massachusetts  shores),  and  the  conduct  of  the  white  men  to- 

243 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

wards  them,  is,  in  effect,  that  humane  treatment  of  them  was  a  pre- 
determined factor  of  the  Pilgrim  methods.  Had  the  precedent  es- 
tablished by  the  first  governors  and  their  councillors  with  regard 
to  popular  treatment  of  the  Indians  been  preserved  and  held  sacred 
by  all  the  to^^^lsmen  of  the  settlements,  there  could  have  been  no  war. 

An  ideal  basis,  at  least  for  all  transactions  ^yith  the  Red  Race, 
was  that  set  forth  by  the  Plymouth  General  Court  in  1643,  when  it 
was  enacted  that  **it  shall  be  holden  unlawful  and  of  dangerous  con- 
sequence, as  it  hath  been  our  constant  custom  from  the  very  first 
beginning,  that  no  person  should  purchase,  rent  or  hire  any  lands, 
herbage,  wood  or  timber  of  the  Indians  but  by  the  magistrates' 
consent."  And  even  so  far  along  as  the  year  1660  it  was  further 
enacted  that  the  law  should  be  so  interpreted  as  to  prevent  any  from 
taking  land  as  a  gift. 

The  consensus  of  belief,  too,  is  that  the  Indians  were  paid  all 
their  lands  were  worth.  There  is  a  generally  understood  axiom  con- 
tained in  the  history  of  property  that  the  value  of  the  latter  is  des- 
tined to  vary  according  to  its  successive  eras  and  possessors.  Bris- 
tol county  lands  today,  comprising  the  wealth  of  the  townships,  high- 
ways, railroads  and  bridges,  have  gi'eatly  amassed  values  over  those 
of  other  ages.  The  impoverished  province  of  1640,  for  example,  was 
worth  to  the  nomad  Indian,  who  cared  but  little  for  it,  and  to  the 
white  man,  who  gave  all  he  could  afford,  only  that  wampum,  those 
useful  tools,  and  often  the  specie  of  circulation  that  were  used  as 
medium  of  exchange.  Again  and  again  we  are  told  that  the  Wam- 
panoags  and  the  Narragansetts  were  satisfied  with  the  bargains 
made.  "That  he  do  not  too  much  straiten  the  Indians,"  was  the 
proviso  of  Captain  Thomas  Willett,  who  was  given  liberty  to  make 
purchase  of  lands  in  this  county.  The  Taunton  deed  of  the  early 
purchasers  was  well  understood  by  the  previous  owners,  and  its 
equitable  title,  made  in  1637,  signed  by  Massasoit,  was  confirmed  by 
Philip  in  1663.  And  moreover,  reservations  of  land  for  the  Indians 
were  made  both  by  the  white  men  and  the  Indians  themselves. 

A  word  genealogical,  concerning  recent  generations  of  the  In- 
dian race  in  this  county.  At  the  time  the  writer  interviewed  Zerviah 
(Mitchell)  Robinson,  it  was  of  more  than  passing  interest  to  note 
these  facts  that  had  been  gleaned  by  herself  and  the  late  General  E. 
W.  Pierce.  Zerviah  was  one  of  the  children  of  Thomas  C.  and  Zer- 
viah Gould  ^fitchell,  most  of  whom  were  born  in  North  Abington, 
though  Zers'iah  was  born  in  Charlestown,  June  17,  1828.    She  re- 

244 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

ceived  her  education  at  the  Abiiigton  High  School,  graduated  at  Un- 
ion Academy,  and  married  Joseph  Eobinson,  November  14,  1854.  In 
her  younger  days  Mrs.  Eobinson  taught  school,  and  later  traveled 
with  her  husband  in  South  America.  Her  sisters,  Deloris  B.,  Belin- 
da, Emma  J.  and  Charlotte  J.,  received  academic  training;  and  a 
brother,  Thomas  C,  prepared  himself  for  the  ministry,  but  was 
drowned  at  Elder's  pond,  at  Lakeville,  in  1859. 

The  record  of  the  descent  of  Zerviah  from  Massasoit  has  been 
kept,  and  is  as  follows :  Massasoit  had  five  children,  three  sons  and 
two  daughters.  Amie,  one  of  the  daughters,  married  Tuspaquin, 
who  was  known  as  the  "Black  Sachem"  and  was  chief  of  the  Assa- 
wampsett  branch  of  the  Wampanoags.  Tuspaquin  and  Amie  had 
sons,  one  of  whom,  Benjamin  Tuspaquin,  married  Weecum,  as  she 
was  known,  and  to  them  were  born  four  children.  One  of  their  sons, 
Benjamin,  married  Mary  Felix,  in  Lakeville,  Mary  herself  being 
a  direct  descendant  of  Chief  John  Sassamon.  It  was  Mary's  fath- 
er, Felix,  who  first  received  from  the  Indian  owners  Chief  Tuspa- 
quin's  deed  of  the  lands  at  "Betty's  Neck,"  which  place  was  so 
called,  as  was  shown,  because,  in  the  sixteenth  century,  the  English 
called  Assowetough,  the  daughter  of  Sassamon,  who  resided  there, 
"Betty."  There  lived  Charlotte,  a  sister  of  Zerviah.  Benjamin 
and  Mary  had  a  daughter  Lydia,  who  married  ""\Yamsley,"  also  an 
Indian.  Lydia  received  a  good  education  while  residing  with  a  fam- 
ily named  Moore  at  Petersham,  Massachusetts,  but  she  spent  her 
later  days  at  "Betty's  Neck,"  where  she  became  the  chief  amanuen- 
sis for  her  people. 

"Wamsley"  and  Lydia  had  five  children,  two  sons  and  three 
daughters.  A  daughter  Phoebe  married,  for  her  first  husband,  Silas 
Eosten,  an  Indian  soldier  of  the  patriot  army  of  the  Eevolution.  She 
married  (second)  Brister  Gould.  Of  the  seven  children  by  the  sec- 
ond marriage  (six  daughters  and  one  son),  a  daughter,  Zerviah, 
married  Thomas  C.  Mitchell,  October  17, 1824.  He  died  at  Fall  Elv- 
er, March  27,  1859.  She  received  her  education  in  Abington  and 
Boston  schools,  and  before  her  marriage  she  taught  school.  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Mitchell  were  the  parents  of  eleven  children,  of  whom 
Zerviah  (Mitchell)  Eobinson  was  one.  This  being  one  of  the  most 
unique  genealogies  in  New  England,  and  pertinent  to  the  subject  it- 
self, it  is  offered  as  a  vital  part  of  this  chapter. 


245 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Upon  gradual  effacemeiit  of  Indian  village  and  encampment, 
there  presently  began. and  throve  within  the  present  county  bounds 
of  Bristol  the  villages  and  the  to^^^ls  of  a  race  that  should  soon  dom- 
inate here,  as  their  Aryan  forefathers  had  done  in  the  course  of 
scores  of  other  migratory  eras  in  Asia  and  Europe,  ages  before 
America  was  dreamed  of  by  Europeans.  As  the  white  race,  ever- 
restless,  swarmed  from  overseas  and  sought  out  places  here  and 
there  for  their  western  homes,  it  came  about  that  a  place  should  soon 
be  secured  for  Taunton  of  New  England. 

The  immigrants  to  the  Taunton  or  Cohannet  neighborhood 
halted  at  or  near  the  river  and  the  ponds.  Where  the  bordering 
lands  were  of  proven  fertility,  the  Indians  had  been  used  to  raising 
corn,  the  river  itself  providing  vast  quantities  of  herring  in  their 
season,  that  were  made  use  of  both  as  food  and  as  means  of  fertiliz- 
ing still  further  the  land.  The  late  Senator  George  Goff  often  told 
the  writer  that  credible  traditions  of  his  family  had  it  that  the  first- 
comers  along  the  river  found  no  trouble  in  securing  literally  tons  of 
fish  in  the  spring,  w]iich,  either  ploughed  into  the  ground,  or  set  into 
the  hills  with  the  beans  and  corn,  was  the  source  of  the  production 
of  rich  crops.  But  as  the  years  passed  on,  the  too  abundant  use  of 
such  fertilizer  became  the  cause  of  the  deterioration  of  the  primitive 
value  of  the  soil.  Then,  besides  the  fish,  the  river  was  the  kno%\Ti 
means  of  transportation;  water  power  was  available  for  mills  in 
prospect ;  timber  grew  in  abundance ;  and  there  was  plenty  of  wood 
for  the  mnter  fires.  These,  taken  together,  are  not  mere  hearsay 
reasons  for  the  coming  of  the  white  man,  but  the  practical,  estab- 
lished report  of  the  warranted  traditions  of  throe  hundred  years. 

We  are  aware  of  the  presence  here  of  John  AYinthrop  Jr.,  in 
1636,  and  of  his  letter  to  Governor  John  AVinthrop,  his  father,  in 
regard  to  his  exploration  of  the  Tetiquet  river  and  adjacent  country. 
We  do  not  know  what  his  errand  was ;  bat  the  records  of  New  Eng- 
land industry  show  that  he  was  a  leader  in  bog-iron  working  at 
Lynn  and  Braintree,  and  that  he  had  prospected  to  a  great  extent 
that  part  of  the  country  for  possible  iron-working.  History  has  not 
revealed  the  cause  of  his  brief  sojourn  along  the  Tetiquet,  neither 
can  we  conjecture  here;  but  we  do  know  that  in  about  fifteen  years 
from  that  time,  Taunton's  early  settlers  had  formed  a  company  here 
for  the  manufacture  of  iron.  In  his  letter,  W^inthrop  reported  ' '  very 
fertyle  and  rich  ground  here,"  and  within  three  years  the  settlers 

246 


/-^^^^^ 


•ii 


i  : 


Seir 


Monument  of  Miss  Pool,  Taunton  VcmcUry. 


'-^^ 


TAUXTOxX  GREEN,  1839 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

had  assured  themselves  that  that  statement  was  true.  We  are 
told  in  the  general  history  of  the  county  how  Edward  Winslow  and 
Stephen  Hopkins,  with  the  Indian  Squanto,  on  their  way  to  Mon- 
taup  (Mount  Hope),  had  passed  through  the  future  Taunton  lands 
in  1621,  and  of  their  particular  satisfaction  with  the  appearance  of 
the  country. 

But  at  length  we  peruse  the  most  vital  and  interesting  record  of 
those  times,  as  regards  the  founders.  It  is  in  Governor  John  Win- 
throp's  ''History  of  New  England,"  dated  1G37,  that  he  has  set 
do^\^l  this  statement:  ''This  year,  a  plantation  was  begun  at  Teti- 
quett,  by  a  gentle  woman,  an  ancient  maid,  one  Miss  Poole.  She 
came  late  thither,  and  endured  much  hardships,  and  lost  much  cat- 
tle." And  this  statement  in  the  Winthrop  letter  is  confirmative, 
too,  of  the  "Poole  Family  Eecords,"  still  preserved  at  Taunton, 
England,  which  inform  us  that  in  1635,  "Elizabeth,  ninth  child, 
third  daughter  of  Sir  William  Poole,  and  aged  about  50  years,  is 
now  in  New  England." 

Such,  in  their  original  brevity  and  not  to  be  gainsaid,  constitute 
the  announcements  of  the  first  arrival  here,  that  of  Elizabeth  Poole, 
daughter  of  a  baronet,  and  whose  brother  William  was  later  to  train 
Taunton  men  in  the  use  of  arms.  No  one  can  with  certainty  state 
what  was  the  motive  for  her  removing  in  this  direction  from  Dor- 
chester,— w^hether  religious  or  industrial.  Yet  there  is  an  authenti- 
cated record  that  Elizabeth  Poole  and  members  of  her  family  while 
residing  in  England  were  interesting  themselves  in  certain  salt- 
works in  New  England.  Among  the  "Uncalendared  Proceedings  of 
the  Court  of  Charles  I"  is  that  to  the  effect  that  Miss  Poole  and  her 
brothers.  Sir  John  and  Periam,  w^ere  among  the  associates  of  Rev. 
John  White  of  Dorchester,  who  had  some  interest  in  salt  works  at 
Cape  Ann  during  the  years  1623  to  1628.  Eventually  then  she  had 
arrived  at  Tetiquct,  and  there  bought  lands  of  the  Indian  o^\^lers, 
known  as  Josiali,  Peter  and  David, — for  a  jack-knife  and  a  peck  of 
beans,  as  tradition  has  it.  The  lands  thus  purchased  she  designated 
as  her  Littleworth  and  Shute  farms,  named  for  English  estates  in 
possession  of  her  family.  Money  had  no  currency  value  to  the  In- 
dians, though  money  w^as  also  paid  them  from  time  to  time  by  the 
Europeans ;  a  jack-knife,  to  them,  was  a  sign  of  riches ;  beans  meant 
more  food  for  the  nomad.    The  phrase  "Taunton  was  bought  for  a 

247 


BEGINxXINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

jack-knife  and  a  peck  of  beans"  is  often  made  use  of  today,  but 
usually  without  conception  of  the  originating  circumstances. ' 

The  bounds  of  Miss  Poole's  property  are  not  exactly  known, 
with  the  exception  that  the  brook  called  Littleworth  bounded  the  Lit- 
tleworth  farm  on  the  west,  and  that  it  was  joined  with  the  Shuto 
farm  on  the  south.  Another  tradition  has  pointed  out  the  Cain 
house  on  Precinct  road,  near  the  foot  of  Caswell  street,  as  the  site 
of  the  first  home  of  Miss  Poole,  and  a  hillock  to  the  west  as  the  site 
of  the  place  where  she  kept  her  cattle  that  first  hard  mnter.  It  is 
understood  that  the  boundaries  of  Miss  Poole's  properties  en- 
croached upon  lands  of  an  Indian  reservation  as  set  aside  by  the 
General  Court  at  Plymouth;  though  it  is  also  kno^nl  that  at  the 
time  of  the  Poole  purchase  there  had  been  made  no  formal  recogni- 
tion of  the  reservation  on  the  part  of  the  Indians.  As  time  went 
on,  portions  of  these  lands  for  this  reason  gradually  passed  from 
her  possession,  and  she  was  given  certain  allotments  in  Cohannet. 

It  was  the  Hon.  Francis  Baylies,  Old  Colony  historian,  who  first 
applied  the  quotation  from  Virgil,  "Dux  foemina  facti,"  to  Eliza- 
"beth  Poole,  and  the  incident  of  her  settling  here.  And  it  was  James 
Edward  Seaver,  historian  and  genealogist,  who  stated  a  well-found- 
ed belief  of  his  that,  according  to  the  Old  Colony  records  of  Decem- 
ber 4,  1638,  William  Poole,  Mr.  John  Gilbert,  Mr.  Henry  A^ndrows, 
John  Strong,  John  Deane,  Walter  Deane  and  Edward  Case  were 
nearly  contemporaneous  settlers,  Taunton  not  then  being  named  as 
a  township. 

The  Littleworth  fami  locality  retains  that  name  today.  The 
Shute  farm,  to  the  southeast  of  that,  ^yas  confiscated  by  the  govern- 
ment in  1781,  John  Borland,  OAvner,  a  grand-nephew  of  Elizabeth 
Poole,  being  a  Loyalist.  Elizabeth  Poole  was  an  energetic  and  en- 
terprising woman,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  first  religious  congre- 
gation in  Taunton,  and  a  member  of  the  ironworks  corporation. 
Eventually  she  removed  to  her  home  lot  on  the  south  side  of  the 
present  Main  street  in  Taunton,  and  there  she  died,  being  then 
in  the  sixty-sixth  year  of  her  age.  She  is  buried  at  the  Plain  ceme- 
tery, but  Taunton  women  have  erected  a  monument  to  her  memory 
at  Mount  Pleasant  cemetery.  The  phrase  "Dux  foemina  facti"  re- 
ferred to,  was  adopted  for  the  present  motto  of  the  city  seal,  Janu- 
ary 1,  1865,  as  advocated  by  Kev.  Mortimer  Blake. 

Elizabeth  Poole  ^'led  the  way."    Then  came  the  Forty-six  Pur- 

248 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

chasers,  and  the  building  of  a  permanent  town.  By  a  confirmatory 
deed  of  the  First  Purchase  from  Philip,  son  of  Massasoit,  wherein  it 
is  set  do^\^l  that  the  year  1638  was  that  in  which  the  plantation  was 
bought  of  Massasoit,  the  following-named,  from  most  of  whom  hun- 
dreds of  families  throughout  the  United  States  claim  descent,  were 
the  associated  purchasers,  each  name  filling  a  unique  place  in  these 
first  annals:  Henry  Andrews,  John  Briant,  Mr.  John  Broumc, 
Eichard  Burt,  Edward  Case,  Thomas  Cooke,  David  Corwithy,  Wil- 
liam Coy,  John  Crosman,  John  Deane,  AValter  Deane,  Francis 
Doughtye,  John  Drake,  William  Dunn,  Mr.  Thomas  Farwell,  Mr. 
John  Gilbert,  Thomas  Gilbert,  John  Gilbert,  John  Gingell,  William 
Hailstone,  George  Hall,  William  Harvey,  Hezekiah  Hoar,  Robert 
Hobell,  William  Holloway,  John  Kingsley,  John  Luther,  George 
Macey,  W^illiam  Parker,  John  Parker,  Richard  Paull,  William  Phil- 
lips, ^Ir.  William  Poole,  the  Widow  Randall,  John  Richmond,  Hugh 
Rossitor,  William  Scadding,  Anthony  Slocum,  Richard  Smith,  John 
Smith,  Francis  Street,  Henry  Uxley,  Richard  Williams,  Benjamin 
Wilson,  Joseph  Wilson.  Each  of  these  people,  \vith  the  exception  of 
Mr.  John  Bro^\iie,  was  o^\aier  of  six  to  twelve  shares. 

A  second  list  of  early  settlers,  descendants  of  whom  dwell  num- 
erously in  this  county  and  elsewhere,  include  Edward  Bobit,  James 
Burt,  Thomas  Coggan,  Robert  Crosman,  Benajah  Dunham,  William 
Evins,  John  Gallop,  Giles  Gilbert,  Joseph  Gilbert,  Richard  Hart, 
Thomas  Harvey,  Nicholas  Hathaway,  William  Hodges,  Samuel  Hol- 
loway, Thomas  Joans,  Aaron  Knapp,  Henry  Leonard,  James  Leon- 
ard, Thomas  Lincoln,  senior,  Thomas  Lincoln,  Jr.,  John  Macomber, 
Clement  Maxfield,  Edward  Rew,  Oliver  Purchase,  Ralfe  Russell, 
William  Sheppard,  Giles  Slocum,  Richard  Stacy,  Robert  Thornton, 
Christopher  Thrasher,  John  Tisdale,  John  Turner,  James  Walker, 
James  Wiatt,  Ja~cob  Wilson. 

Taunton  families  had  hardly  become  settled  in  their  new  hold- 
ings and  built  them  their  shelters, — and  Taunton  was  still  Cohannet, 
— when  the  settlement  was  called  upon  to  share  in  representation  at 
the  court  of  the  Pilgrims,  at  Plymouth.  '' Taunton  began  to  be 
added  to  this  booke"  is  first  found  in  the  Colonial  Court  Records 
under  date  of  October  2,  1637,  although  the  historians  have  shown 
that  it  must  have  been  entered  there  after  March  3,  1640,  since  it 
was  not  until  then  that  the  act  was  passed  that  ''Cohannet  shall  be 
called  Taunton."    And  then,  December  4,  1638,  appears  the  record 

249 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

that  'Mohii  Strong  is  sworne  constable  of  Cohannett  until  June 
next";  and  again,  on  March  5, 1639,  there  came  the  General  Court's 
order  that  "Captain  Poole  shall  exercise  the  inhabitants  in  their 
arms" — the  two  ofllcers  representing  the  '* civil  and  military  exist- 
ence and  authority  of  the  ancient  Cohannett." 

Afterwards,  in  due  order,  came  the  General  Court  decrees  for 
the  grants  and  disposal  of  the  lands  at  Taunton  and  the  fLxing  of 
boundaries, — the  Cohannet  lands  being  laid  out  by  order  of  the 
court  in  May,  1639,  by  Captain  Myles  Standish  and  John  Bro^\^le, 
and  bounded  by  the  same  men,  in  1640,  by  order  of  the  court.  In 
June,  1639,  therefore,  Captain  William  Poole,  John  Gilbert  and 
Henry  Andrews  first  represented  Taunton  at  the  Plymouth  General 
Court,  at  a  time  when  a  number  of  the  "Ma^-fiower"  Pilgrims  were 
of  that  membership.  The  last  General  Court  of  PhTuouth,  be  it 
stated  here,  met  in  July,  1691,  the  date  that  has  been  accepted  as 
marking  the  close  of  the  Colonial  Period — the  Old  Colony  having 
been  divided  in  1685  into  the  three  counties  of  Pl^^nouth,  Barnstable 
and  Bristol.  These  were  local  epoch-making  days,  for  on  March  3, 
1640,  the  Indian  name  Cohannet,  or  Quahannock,  was  changed  to 
Taunton,  and  the  first  bounds  of  the  town  were  set  by  the  Plymouth 
Court.  The  township  then  comprised  a  territory  of  sixty-four 
square  miles,  or  more  than  forty  thousand  acres. 

The  dissatisfaction  with  dominant  religious  institutions  and  con- 
ditions in  England,  that  Governor  AVilliam  Bradford  himself  assert- 
ed was  the  cause  of  the  emigration  of  the  "Mayflower"  Pilgrims,  ex- 
tended to  shipload  after  shipload  that  followed,  and  among  whose 
passengers  were  Taunton's  first  settlers — some  Independents,  many 
Congregationalists,  here  and  there  a  f ew^  of  the  Church  of  England ; 
some  Baptists,  some  Quakers.  Others  came  here  for  new  fortunes' 
sake,  having  set  before  them  the  lure  of  broader  spaces  and  the  at- 
tractive task  of  sharing  in  building  the  w^estern  settlements. 

As  for  Taunton  settlers  themselves,  they  were  mostly  from 
Somerset,  Dorset,  Devon  and  Gloucester;  and  those  like  the.Deane 
leaders  who  hailed  from  Taunton,  in  Somersetshire,  were  influential 
enough  to  have  the  naming  of  Taunton,  as  thus  stated  in  a  report 
made  at  a  to^^^l  meeting:  "Whereas,  by  the  Providence  of  God,  in 
the  year  1638  and  the  year  1639,  it  pleased  God  to  bring  the  most 
part  of  the  first  purchasers  of  Taunton  over  the  great  ocean  into 
this  wilderness  from  our  dear  and  native  land     ...     in  honor 

250 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

and  love  of  our  dear  and  native  conntry,  we  called  this  place  Taun- 
ton. Signed  by  James  Walker,  John  Richmond,  Thomas  Leonard, 
Joseph  Wilbore,  John  Hall,  Richard  AVilliams  and  Walter  Deane." 
And  as  every  schoolboy  in  Taunton  now  knows,  the  et^^nology  of 
Taunton  is  thus — Tain  Ton,  Gaelic  and  Saxon  words,  meaning  'Hhe 
to^vn  on  the  banks  of  the  river";  and  so  situated  are  both  the  mother 
town  and  the  city  in  New  England.  And  here,  one  of  a  little  colony 
of  toA\ms,  drifted  away  from  the  Old  World,  strove  for  the  peculiar 
vantages  of  self-determination,  with  results  that  generations  have 
been  proud  to  o^^ii. 


"Provided  leave  can  be  procured  from  Ousamequin  (Massa- 
soit)".  The  phrase,  as  contained  in  an  order  from  the  Plymouth 
Court  of  1643,  relating  to  a  proposed  purchase  of  lands  for  Taun- 
ton, voices  the  considerate  and  just  spirit  of  the  colonial  executives 
themselves,  in  their  first  relationships  with  the  Indian  holders  of 
lands,  however  the  white  man  may  have  mistreated  the  red  man 
since  that  time.  In  the  case  from  which  the  quotation  is  made,  the 
Plymouth  Court  were  desirous  of  knowing  what  Chief  Massasoit 
thought  of  the  matter — his  sanction  was  sought  in  the  dealing;  for 
in  those  times  just  payments  were  made  in  land  transactions,  and 
large  reservations  of  land  were  set  aside  for  the  Indians.  It  is  of 
continuous  record  that  as  fast  as  the  English  settlements  extended, 
the  colonial  government  extinguished  by  fair  purchase  the  Indian 
titles.  And  it  sometimes  liax)pened  that  double  transfers  occasioned 
deeds  of  convej^ance  both  from  the  Indians  and  the  Colonial  govern- 
ment. Thus  was  Tetiquet  bought  of  the  Indians  by  Miss  Poole,  and 
confirmed  to  her  by  the  court.  These  are  main  facts,  in  spite  of 
isolated  cases  of  annulment  of  the  natives'  rights. 

Whenever  we  think  of  those  hardy  settlers  whom  we  have  re- 
corded in  New  England  history  as  First  Purchasers,  it  is  a  very 
rare  thing  for  us  to  give  due  regard  to  the  land  values  at  the  time 
of  their  purchase,  particularly  here  in  Bristol  county,  or  to  the  sort 
of  exchanges  that  were  made  during  the  purchase,  or  to  the  usages 
that  were  soon  established  to  secure  such  exchange.  We  have  done 
but  little  more  than  set  do^^^l  their  names  as  original  purchasers, 
and  as  those  of  founders  of  to\vns  and  ancestors  of  many  families  of 
our  times.  We  give  too  little  heed  to  the  transactions  themselves, 
that  were  performed  under  a  pro\'ision  of  the  General  Court,  to  the 

251 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

effect  that  no  group  of  vsettlers  could  go  into  the  ^^-ildernGSs  and  buy 
lands  indiscriuiinately  of  the  natives.  That  was  one  of  the  funda- 
mental dealings  between  civilization  and  the  people  of  the  wilder- 
ness. The  earlier  historians  have  quoted  very  nearly  in  full  from 
scores  of  old  deeds  and  agreements  and  colonial  records,  so  that 
the  already  fully  published  results  of  their  minute  research  need  not 
be  reduplicated  by  any  successor.  It  is  now  the  province  of  histori- 
cal publishment  by  no  means  to  annul  any  of  the  results  of  the 
comprehensive  labors  of  the  old  clerks  of  history;  but  it  is  prefera- 
ble, with  the  almost  miraculous  develoimients  of  nearly  a  half  cen- 
tury awaiting  introduction,  to  offer  chiefly  the  vital  essentials  of 
the  Forefathers'  day. 

From  this  viewpoint,  we  may  discern  the  conrse  of  the  business- 
like acquisition  of  properties  from  the  first  holdings  of  the  settlers, 
through  the  North  and  South  Purchases,  and  the  precinct  and  to^\^l 
establishments.  It  was  an  irreparable  loss  to  Taimton  when  the  fire 
of  1838  destroyed  to\^Ti  records,  among  which  was  the  deed  of  the 
original  Cohannet,  signed  by  Chief  Massasoit,  though  his  son  Philip 
(Metacomet)  made  a  confirmatory  deed  of  the  same  March  22,  1683, 
that  has  been  preserved;  the  Plymouth  Colonial  Kecords  also  hav- 
ing kept  intact  that  report  of  Myles  Standish  and  John  BroA\m  who 
in  1640  established  the  bounds  of  the  Eight  Mile  Square,  Taunton's 
original  territory  of  sixty-four  square  miles,  or  more  than  40,000 
acres;  likev>'ise  the  report  of  their  boundary  of  Miss  Poole's  lands 
in  Tetiquet;  and  again,  the  nearly  as  valuable  record  of  the  Hook 
and  Street  lands  at  Berkley — their  four  hundred  acres  of  upland 
and  thirty  of  meadow  that  after  their  departure  to  New  Haven  be- 
came the  property  of  John  Hathaway,  Edward  Bobbitt  and  Timothy 
Holloway,  founders  of  their  families  here. 

Then,  in  later  years,  to  verify  and  realize  to  us  the  bounds  of 
that  distant  period,  the  late  James  Edward  Seaver  in  1892  prepared 
and  published  a  map  of  that  long  square,  wherein  have  been  definite- 
ly set  do^\-n  the  places  where  the  first  settlers  were  to  be  found  at 
the  outset  of  civilized  life.  Upon  that  invaluable  map  are  to  be  seen 
the  lines  of  the  ancient  roads  and  paths,  and  the  homelots  of  the 
pioneers,  as  well  as  the  many  river  landings.  The  plantation  as 
thus  set  down  in  record  and  map,  was  bought  of  Ousamequin,  so 
state  the  Plymouth  Court  books,  but  for  what  consideration  that  sec- 
tion was  purchased,  we  know  not. 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Yet  the  Eight  Mile  Square  could  not  encompass  within  its 
limits  the  increasing  population  ^vho  were  discovering  values  for 
themselves  in  the  wood  and  river  lands ;  for  in  1642  came  the  request 
from  Taunton  for  the  purchase  of  more  wood  and  pasture  land.  The 
General  Court  was  ready  to  grant  the  request,  and  "that  the  best 
and  speediest  means  be  used  to  procure  their  further  enlargement 
on  that  side  of  the  main  river  to  answer  to  Mr.  Hooke's  and  Mr. 
Streete's  farms  on  the  other  side;  and  whereas  they  desire  the  neck 
of  Assonet  for  pasturing  young  beasts,  it  is  also  granted,  provided 
leave  can  be  procured  from  Ousamequin." 

The  colony  was  now  continuously  stretching  out  for  the  unused 
near-by  lands,  and  but  four  years  later,  June  2,  1646,  the  General 
Court  gave  the  to^^^l  permission  to  purchase  a  calf  pasture — the 
locally  celebrated  '^calves  pasture"  near  Nemasket  pond.  It  was 
this  lot,  a  landmark,  that  was  conveyed  to  Heiiry  Andrews,  April 
11,  1647,  in  payment  for  the  building  of  the  to^^^l's  first  meeting- 
house. The  southern  boundary  of  the  to^\ni  remained  undefined  un- 
til 1663,  when  it  was  fixed  by  the  General  Court.  The  settlers  had 
for  some  years  borne  in  mind  the  fact  that  a  strip  of  land  two  miles 
in  width,  knoAvni  to  them  as  the  '*Two  Mile  Strip,"  separated  the 
Eight  Mile  Square  from  Tetiquet.  Therefore,  as  a  result  of  their  pe- 
titions, in  1665  the  General  Court  granted  this  strip  to  William 
Brett,  Thomas  Haward,  senior,  x\rthur  Harris,  Richard  Williams, 
John  Willis  and  John  Carey,  *^to  each  of  them  three  score  acres  of 
land  lying  betwixt  the  lands  of  Taunton  and  Tetiquet."  The  centre 
of  the  Taunton  that  was  to  be  was  now  defined  by  the  lands  con- 
tained within  these  boundaries  named.  To  the  north  and  to  the 
south,  other  Europeans  w^ere  entering  and  making  their  homes — 
''purchased  of  the  Indians"  being  the  frequently  recurring  phrase 
in  all  records  and  agreements  of  the  time.  And  there  the  final  exten- 
sive purchases  of  territory  of  the  mother  to\\m  were  to  be  made, 
which  territory,  so  joined  onto  the  nucleus,  would  one  day  peace- 
fully secede  for  the  establishment  of  yet  other  townships. 

The  northwest  corner  of  the  Plymouth  Patent,  still  remaining 
under  Indian  oAvnership,  was  purchased  of  Alexander  (Wamsutta) 
son  of  Massasoit,  in  1661,  by  Captain  Thomas  Willett,  enterprising 
settler,  and  later  the  first  English  mayor  of  New  York.  This  pur- 
chase was  made  in  all  likelihood  at  the  suggestion  of  the  General 
Court,  who  placed  it  in  the  hands  of  a  committee— Thomas  Prence, 

253 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Major  Josias  Winslow,  Thomas  Soutliworth,  and  Mr.  Constant 
Southworth,  to  dispose  of  it  for  the  colonies*  use.  Part  of  this 
newly  acquired  property  became  what  is  kno\\Ti  as  the  Rehoboth 
North  Purchase,  the  remainder,  fifty  square  miles,  being  still  in  the 
Colony's  possession,  and  bounded  by  the  Massachusetts  Patent  on 
the  north,  Bridgewater  on  the  cast,  Taunton  on  the  south,  and 
Kehoboth  North  Purchase  on  the  west,  Taunton's  north  corner, 
kno\\Ti  as  Cobbler's  Corner,  projecting  at  the  south.  It  again  ap- 
peared to  be  Taunton's  opportunity  to  come  into  new  possessions; 
thereupon,  June  6,  1668,  a  deed  was  granted  to  fifty-two  purchasers. 
The  men  of  early  time  were  buying  lands  not  as  they  buy  them  in  the 
west  of  our  day,  with  some  large  outlook  for  fortune-making;  but 
chiefly  to  establish  a  home  site,  and  to  till  lands  and  to  live  the  sim- 
ple life  of  the  pioneer,  separated  by  an  ocean  from  native  land. 

Thus  the  North  Purchase  was  joined  onto  Taunton — an  area 
containing  32,000  acres,  and  £100  being  the  price  that  was  paid.  In 
the  deed  there  soon  were  made  those  lesser  changes,  when  the  name 
of  George  Shove  was  inserted  with  the  others,  and  the  two  parcels 
of  John  Bundy  and  Thomas  Briggs  were  excepted  from  the  sale. 
Complications  presenting  themselves  that  were  soon  solved,  were 
contained  in  such  cases  as  these :  One  claim  of  ownership  was  raised 
through  Josias,  Peter  and  David  Hunter,  Tetiquet  Indians,  who 
for  the  consideration  of  a  little  over  £3  gave  a  quit-claim  deed.  In 
1689,  again.  Major  William  Bradford  put  in  a  claim  for  Taunton 
territory,  and  once  more  satisfaction  was  obtained  by  a  quit-claim 
deed.  From  such  sources,  the  Taunton  North  Purchase  came  into 
possession  of  both  English  and  Indian  titles. 

The  South  Purchase  along  the  meadowlands  of  the  river,  south, 
was  attracting  settlers,  also.  This  noteworthy  purchase  required 
several  town  votes  before  James  Walker  and  John  Richmond  could 
be  empowered  to  "purchase  the  land  of  the  Indians  in  the  behalf e 
of  the  town  of  Taunton,  lying  on  the  west  side  of  Taunton  river, 
from  the  Three  Mile  river  doA\Ti  to  a  place  called  the  Store  House." 

Eventually,  October  1,  1672,  King  Philip,  Anawan  and  others 
signed  the  deed  whereby  a  tract  three  miles  long  on  the  Great  river, 
as  the  Tetiquet  was  sometimes  called,  and  extending  westerly  four 
miles,  beginning  at  the  mouth  of  Three  'Mile  river,  came  into  the 
hands  of  Taunton  colonists,  the  consideration  being  £143.  On  that 
day,  also.  King  Philip,  upon  receipt  of  £47  conveyed  to  Constant 

254 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY.  MASSACHUSETTS 

Southworth,  Assistant  at  the  General  Court,  another  strip  on  the 
south  of  the  first  tract,  one  mile  ^vide,  on  the  Great  river,  and  extend- 
ing four  miles  westerly  from  the  river,  Southworth  immediately 
assigning  this  deed  to  the  committee  of  the  first  deed.  Both  deeds 
were  paid  for  to  the  extent  of  £190. 

Again,  on  September  27,  1672,  Constant  Southworth  assigned 
a  prior  mortgage  on  the  whole  (from  Philip  and  the  colony)  to  Wil- 
liam Harvey  and  John  Richmond,  in  behalf  of  the  town,  for  the  sum 
of  £83.  So  that  the  South  Purchase  cost  £273  in  all.  By  a  declara- 
tory deed  of  November  26,  1672,  the  four-mile  square  tract  was  con- 
veyed to  the  parties  interested,  eighty-seven  persons  being  named  as 
probable  owners  at  that  time;  but  on  March  18,  1683-4,  another 
declaratory  deed  was  made  to  but  seventy-seven  of  that  list,  as  it  is 
likely  entire  compliance  was  ]iot  made  with  the  conditions  in  the 
deed. 

Up  to  this  time  the  natives,  from  whom  all  the  Taunton  pur- 
chases had  been  made,  with  or  without  a  confirmatory  deed  from  the 
government,  had  refused  to  part  with  Assonet  Neck,  which  is  two 
miles  long  and  less  than  one  mile  wide.  But  this,  the  first  seizure 
by  the  colony,  was  taken  in  1675,  to  pay  the  expenses  of  the  Indian 
wars,  its  value  being  placed  at  £200.  This  land  was  added  to  Taun- 
ton in  July,  1682,  but  when  Dighton  was  incorporated  in  1712,  it 
was  included  in  that  towii,  and  later  on  added  to  Berkley,  in  1799. 
Another  indication  of  earliest  colonial  and  native  dealings  ^\'ith  local 
territory  is  found  in  Governor  Thomas  Hinckley's  confirmatory 
deed  of  1685,  in  which  it  is  shown  that  the  first  purchase  of  Taun- 
ton's Eight  Miles  Square  was  made  from  Massasoit. 

Finally,  two  more  complications  with  regard  to  this  territory 
were  solved,  when  in  1689  Major  William  Bradford  making  some 
claim  to  all  this  territory,  was  paid  £20,  giving  a  deed  of  release  and 
confirmation  to  John  Poole  and  one  hundred  and  three  others.  The 
other  instance  occurred  in  1672,  when  a  controversy  over  the  new 
territory  made  between  Taunton  and  Swansea  was  settled  by  the 
addition  of  a  corner  of  Swansea  kno^\m  as  the  Two  ]\Iile  Purchase, 
to  a  part  of  Dighton.  Now,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  entire  set  of  Pur- 
chases amounted  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  square  miles,  or  approxi- 
mately one  hundred  thousand  acres. 

Confirming  much  that  has  been  written  with  regard  to  the  earli- 
est intention  to  deal  honestly  with  the  natives,  is  that  often-quoted 

255 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

letter  of  John  Eichmond,  son  of  the  first  settler  in  Taunton  of  that 
name,  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  Elisha  Hutchinson  and  others,  dated 
April  30,  169S,  to  be  seen  at  the  State  Archives,  Vol.  113,  p.  167, 
thus:  *'AVe  bought  it  first  of  "Woosamequin  in  the  year  39  or  40 
(this  was  in  my  minority)  the  sum  paid  I  know  not;  then  we  bought 
all  again  of  Philip,  and  paid  him  16  pounds  for  it ;  then  we  bought 
that  very  spot  of  Josiah,  he  claiming  some  land  there,  as  appears  by 
his  deed;  then  we  bought  that  spot  again,  ^\^.th  other  land,  of  ]\[ajor 
Bradford,  and  he  had  20  pounds  more. ' ' 

After  the  division  of  lands,  from  the  first  possession  of  the 
home  lot  to  the  complete  distribution  of  the  whole  territory  many 
years  after  the  first  settlement,  the  North  and  South  Purchases 
steadily  increased  as  to  their  jDopulation,  and  the  demand  arose  for 
the  setting  ofT  of  portions  of  the  settlement  into  precincts.  The 
first  of  such  petitions  was  from  the  North  Purchase  and  a  part  of 
Old  Taunton  to^vnship,  dated  November  2, 1707,  and  signed  by  forty- 
three  townsmen,  who  asked  for  a  minister  to  become  settled  among 
them.  There  were  remonstrants  who  desired  a  township  rather  than 
a  precinct,  and  the  controversy,  as  it  progressed,  became  a  very 
warm  one.  But  on  June  12,  1711,  the  bill  was  passed  for  raising  the 
new  tov^m  of  Norton,  though  but  two  years  previously  the  prospect 
of  a  precinct  was  by  far  the  more  encouraging  one.  In  the  mean- 
time, similar  demands  for  a  precinct  were  made  b}'  settlers  in  the 
South  Purchase  "by  reason  of  the  remoteness  from  the  meeting- 
house," and  thereupon  the  precinct  was  established,  Sej^tember  16, 
1709,  though  the  town  Dighton  soon  after  petitioned  for  was  raised 
May  30,  1712. 

From  that  time  onwards  for  nearly  twenty  years,  no  more  ter- 
ritorial changes  took  place  hero.  But  then  arose  petitions  and  coun- 
ter-petitions, the  new  movement  resulting  in  the  creation  of  the 
to^^^l  of  Raynham,  April  1,  1731.  Then  Berkley  asked  for  recogni- 
tion as  a  to^ni,  and  the  act  of  raising  the  to^^^l  was  passed  April  18, 
1735 ;  and  finally  in  1789,  Myricks  by  vote  was  taken  from  Taunton 
and  added  to  Berkley.  In  this  way,  and  for  reasons  of  "remoteness 
from  the  meetinghouse"  and  the  centre — though  there  were  local 
industrial  reasons,  too,  the  iron  forges  and  the  grist  and  other  mills 
sharing  in  the  later  groupings  of  the  interests  of  population— the 
new  towns  withdrew  from  the  mother  to%\ni.  Economical  and  in- 
dustrial, and,  according  to  the  statements  in  the  petitions,  religious 

256 


BEGIxXNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUXTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

forces,  had  performed  their  distributive  tasks.  Territorially,  the 
region  was  getting  ready  to  welcome  the  newcomer,  the  new  era,  and 
the  expanding  town  and  city  of  Taunton. 


The  insistence  of  the  leading  imjmrtance  of  present-day  events 
and  people  in  these  volumes  is  undeniable.  The  story  of  our  own 
day  and  its  directing  forces  and  the  individuals  that  control  them  is 
the  intimate  narrative  of  our  generation,  verifying  to  us  the  issues 
of  our  remarkable  times.  But  there  was  also  a  day  of  the  First 
Comers,  that  even  at  this  hour  is  a  continuous  portion  of  history, 
and  cannot  he  annulled.  Xo  one  appreciates  this  more  than  the  Xew 
Englander  and  the  thousands  of  descendants  of  the  first  Xew  Eng- 
landers.  The  founders  who  ventured  into  the  ^^'ilderness, — the 
sturdy,  hard-working  yeomen,  ^dth  their  faults  and  frailties,  too, 
— let  them  have  place  in  our  vision. 

Though  Elizabeth  Poole  did  not  buy  ''Taunton,"  as  the  popular 
account  sometimes  has  it,  but  only  a  small  portion  of  the  eastern 
borders  of  the  then  unoccupied  territory — it  is  the  brief  narrative 
of  her  coming  here  that  shall  always  remain  like  a  star  in  the  crown 
of  the  beginnings  of  the  city.  We  have  been  told  of  her  arrival  from 
England  to  Tetiquet  by  way  of  Dorchester,  and  how  she  actively  in- 
terested herself  in  every  fundamental  project  of  the  busy  settle- 
ment. Were  she  living  today,  every  cause  of  civic,  religious  and  in- 
dustrial advancement  would  at  least  have  her  approval. 

To  all  appearances,  her  brother.  Captain  William  Poole,  came 
here  when  his  sister  did;  but  though  they  both  went  to  Dorchester 
first,  he  is  not  mentioned  here  as  of  1637,  the  year  of  Elizabeth's 
arrival.  Whatever  the  reasons  of  the  latter  may  have  been  for  set- 
tling at  Tetiquet,  it  is  evident  from  all  other  accounts  as  well  as 
from  the  wording  of  her  will,  that  she  was  a  Puritan  woman  of 
piety,  with  inbred  reverence  for  the  religious  life  and  the  means  to 
religion.  She  was  interested  in  establishing  a  church  here,  accord- 
ing to  her  teaching  and  light,  and  with  William  Hooke  and  Xicholas 
Street,  Oxford  University  graduates,  she  did  begin  that  church.  It 
is  plain,  too,  that  here  she  was  accorded  equality  of  rights,  whether 
in  the  purchase  of  lands,  in  the  sharing  of  iron  works  holdings,  or  in 
the  establishment  of  religious  interests. 

Taunton  military  men  of  today  may  salute  the  memory  of  the 

257 


BEGINNIxXGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACJIUSETTS 

first  of  their  local  captains — William  PooIg.  As  soon  as  there  were 
men  enough  here  to  form  a  military  company,  and  that  was  only 
two  years  after  it  is  recorded  that  the  to^^^l  was  settled,  Captain 
Poole,  brother  of  Elizabeth  Poole,  was  appointed  by  the  General 
Court  the  captain,  and  ordered  to  exercise  the  inhabitants  in  their 
arms.  Pie  may  be  said  to  have  been  the  Myles  Standish  of  the  vil- 
lage; and  both  in  164=6  and  1658  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the 
Colony  Council  of  War.  He  lived  to  be  more  than  eighty  years  of 
age,  but  years  before  he  died  he  went  back  to  Dorchester  to  reside, 
and  while  there  he  was  not  only  the  to^^^l's  schoolmaster,  but  also 
clerk  of  writs  and  registrar  of  the  \dtal  records  of  the  to^\^l  for 
about  ten  years.  He  was  a  ''revered,  pious  man  of  God,"  remark 
the  Dorchester  records.  He  had  three  sons  and  two  daughters,  born 
in  Taunton,  namely — John,  Nathaniel,  and  Timothy,  and  Mary  and 
Bethesda.  Timothy  met  his  death  by  drowning,  and  John  went  into 
business  in  Boston;  and  it  was  through  him  that  his  aunt  Elizabeth's 
property  came  to  the  Borland  family,  from  whom  it  was  confiscated 
at  the  time  of  the  Eevolution.  John  married  Elizabeth,  a  daughter 
of  William  Brenton,  who  lived  in  Taunton  many  years,  and  from 
whom  the  famed  Haliburton  family  of  Nova  Scotia  claim  descent. 

Go  where  one  may,  in  any  of  the  old  to^\^lS  and  cities  of  New 
England,  and  there  ^^'ill  be  fourid  in  vogue  the  "prevailing  names," 
handed  down  for  seven  or  eight  generations,  like  the  Lincolns  of 
Hingham  and  the  Newhalls  and  the  Breeds  of  Lynn,  and  "their 
lines  have  gone  out  into  all  the  world,"  also.  Many  names  of  origi- 
nal settlers  survive  in  Taunton  today,  but  none  quite  to  the  extent 
of  those  of  Williams  and  Dean  and  Hall.  Genealogists  of  recent 
years  have  produced  a  vast  amount  of  information  from  their  re- 
searches concerning  the  Taunton  branches  of  the  families  of  those 
names,  and  inquiries  have  been  incessant  from  all  over  the  country 
with  regard  to  Colonial  and  Revolutionary  lines.  In  the  course  of 
his  voluminous  writings,  the  late  Judge  Josiah  H.  Drummond,  of 
Portland,  Maine,  registered  the  names  of  more  than  twelve  hundred 
descendants  of  Richard  Williams,  for  example. 

Richard  Williams'  descendants  for  nearly  three  hundred  years 
have  held  places  of  trust  and  honor  in  city,  county  and  State.  He 
is  generally  mentioned  among  the  first  of  the  Taunton  settlers  be- 
cause of  the  fact  that  he  was  an  energetic  pioneer  who  took  the  lead 
in  many  important  matters  of  to^\^l  building ;  he  was  a  t}Tpical  first 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

settler,  a  man  devoted  to  all  the  best  interests  of  the  new  to^\^l.  He 
came  originally  from  a  family  of  Glamorganshire  in  Wales,  and 
married  Frances  Dighton,  a  sister  of  Catherine  Dighton,  the  wife  of 
Governor  Thomas  Dudley,  of  the  Bay  Colony.  He  was  a  descendant 
in  the  same  family  as  that  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  the  Protector,  who 
sometimes  signed  himself  Oliver  Cromwell,  alias  Williams;  but  he 
was  not  related,  as  some  have  supposed,  to  Eoger  AVilliams,  founder 
of  Providence,  Rhode  Island. 

Eichard  Williams,  upon  his  coming  here,  bought  the  house  and 
lot  of  Henry  Uxley,  the  latter  leaving  no  trace  of  his  presence  other 
than  that  record.  Kichard  Williams  was  a  deputy  to  the  General 
Court  in  1643,  and  ho  served  thirteen  years  in  that  capacity ;  he  was 
selectman  1665-1677,  and  for  many  years  he  was  deacon  of  the 
church.  His  home  lot  on  Dean  street  is  still  pointed  out,  and  there 
he  died  in  1693,  at  the  age  of  87  years,  though  his  wife,  who  out- 
lived him,  died  in  1706,  at  the  age  of  96  years.  Although  he  could 
neither  see  nor  hear,  ho  announced  when  he  attended  "meeting"  in 
his  last  years,  that  it  was  "comforting  and  helpful  to  be  with  the 
people  of  God  in  their  worship. ' ' 

It  seems  that  John  and  Walter  Deane,  brothers,  had  more  to  do 
with  the  naming  of  Taunton  than  any  other,  they  having  originated 
at  Taunton  Dean,  in  England.  Thousands  of  the  name  are  descend- 
ants of  those  worthy  brothers,  in  city.  State  and  Nation ;  and  geneal- 
ogists have  compiled  a  number  of  records  relating  to  their  respec- 
tive families.  Both  men  were  of  that  sturdy  type  fitted  to  subdue 
the  wilderness.  Their  home  lots  at  the  Hartshorn  and  Newbury  es- 
tates on  Dean  street  are  still  pointed  out. 

John  Deane  was  one  of  the  first  seven  freemen  of  Cohannet ;  he 
was  also  constable  in  1640  and  1654,  surveyor  of  highways  in  1640, 
and  selectman  in  1657.  Walter  Deane  was  a  younger  brother  of 
John.  He  w^as  a  deputy  to  the  General  Court  in  1640,  and  a  select- 
man from  1666  to  16S6.  He  married  Elinor,  a  daughter  of  Thomas 
Coggan,  and  not  a  daughter  of  John  Strong,  as  had  for  years  been 
stated.  Descendants  of  both  John  and  Walter  Deane  are  prominent 
in  all  the  affairs  of  the  city  today. 

One  of  the  near-by  neighbors  of  the  Deane  family  at  the  outset 
was  John  Strong,  who  was  appointed  the  first  constable  of  the  town, 
in  1638.  Caleb  Strong,  governor  of  Massachusetts  from  1800  to 
1807,  was  one  of  the  descendants  of  this  Taunton  first  settler. 

259 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

Whenever  Ave  speak  of  George  Hall  today,  we  invariablj'  asso- 
ciate the  name  with  the  lirst  live  and  extensive  business  of  the 
toA\ni.  He  was  first  clerk  of  the  iron  works  established  by  James 
Leonard  and  his  associates,  and  town  and  city  owe  much  to  his  acu- 
men and  enterprise.  The  genealogist  has  traced  his  descendants  by 
hundreds  to  this  hour,  and  they  are  among  the  leaders  in  the  pro- 
fessions in  commonwealth  and  city.  George  Hall  was  a  constable,  a 
selectman,  and  a  large  lando^mer  on  Dean  street. 

Burt  is  another  of  those  names  of  w^ell-merited  perpetuation, 
that  was  introduced  here  by  Eichard  Burt, — father  and  son;  and 
later  by  James  Burt,  senior.  Eichard,  junior,  took  the  oath  of  fidel- 
ity in  1G57.  Both  he  and  his  Uncle  James  lived  at  Weir  Village, — 
"the  "Ware,"  as  they  called  it.  The  genealogists  have  thoroughly 
canvassed  the  lines  of  tliis  ancestr}-. 

John  Grossman  was  not  a  notably  prominent  first  settler;  but 
his  descendants  through  his  industrious  son,  Eobert,  are  very  num- 
erous. The  Grossman  house,  built  by  a  son  of  Eobert,  and  known 
to  have  been  in  use  in  1700,  and  kept  as  an  iisi'fti  Eevolutionary 
times,  still  stands  on  Cohannet  street. 

Genealogy  is  vrell-equipped,  too,  with  the  concerns  of  the  Eich- 
niond  family, — John  Eichmond  and  his  son  John  having  been  first 
settlers  and  large  o^\^lers  in  the  section  still  known  as  Eichmond- 
iovni.  The  same  may  be  said  of  Henry  Andrews,  the  family  lines 
having  been  notably  well  traced.  Yet  Henr}^  Andrews  was  foremost 
in  all  things — a  live  deputy  and  committee-man,  and  so  capable  a 
builder  of  the  first  little  meeting-house  here  in  16-±7,  that  he  was 
granted  a  large  section  of  land  kno\\m  as  "Calves'  pasture,"  still 
pointed  out  beyond  his  ancient  home  site.  The  Paulls,  too,  are  very 
many  in  descent  from  Eichard  Paull,  who  married  ^largery  Turner 
in  1638, — the  first  of  Cohannet  marriages. 

If  William  Harvey  were  living  here  today,  he  might  be  eligible 
for  any  office  of  trust — he  was  constable,  surveyor,  deputy  and  se- 
lectman, and  he  was  often  deputy  and  selectman  the  same  year.  He 
lived  not  far  from  the  Taunton  Gazette  building;  and  it  was  at  his 
house  that  the  conference  for  the  sale  of  Taunton  North  Purchase 
took  place  in  1668,  at  a  meeting  of  Governor  Prence,  Major  Josias 
Winslow,  Captain  Thomas  Southworth,  and  Constant  Southworth— 
an  eventful  affair  of  the  period. 

260 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  ^lASSACHUSETTS 

Many  here  and  elsewhere  are  descendants  from  AVilliam  Phil- 
lips, a  militia-man,  surveyor  and  lando\\'ner.  Ilezekiah  Hoar,  first 
proprietor,  constable  and  surveyor,  was  one  of  the  leaders  on  the 
ironworks  enterprise.  William  Holloway  w^as  a  first  settler;  and 
though  he  removed  to  Boston,  his  sons  remained,  and  preserved  the 
name  here. 

An  exemplary  pioneer,  soldier  and  officer,  was  George  Macey, 
lieutenant  of  the  Taunton  company  through  the  Indian  w^ars.  Wil- 
liam Parker  is  recalled  as  the  toAvn's  first  "Keeper  of  Eecords,"  and 
he  was  authorized  to  take  oaths  and  to  marry.  John  Parker,  his 
younger  brother,  was  at  one  time  a  deputy  to  the  General  Court. 
Little  is  kno\\m  of  the  first  settlers  who  bore  the  names  of  Henry 
Uxley,  Joseph  Wilson,  Benjamin  Wilson,  William  Coy,  John  Smith, 
Eichard  Smith,  John  Drake,  Robert  Hobell,  David  Corwithy,  John 
Luther,  Hugh  Eossiter,  John  Kingsley,  Thomas  Farwell,  John 
Briant,  or  William  Scaddings — though  the  name  of  the  latter  is  per- 
petuated in  that  of  the  Scaddings  pond  and  meadows. 

"Pondsbrooke"  in  Berkley  is  still  pointed  out  as  the  home  of 
John  Gilbert.  Late  in  life  he  emigrated  to  England,  and  Thomas 
Gilbert,  his  eldest  son,  followed  him.  Edward  Case,  one  of  the  first 
freemen  here  in  1637,  had  lands  on  Caswell  street,  that  Avere  after- 
wards sold  to  Samuel  Wilbore,  town  clerk,  later  to  the  Caswell  fam- 
ily, from  whom  were  descended  President  Caswell  of  Bro^^^l  LTni- 
versity  and  President  Angell  of  Yale.  John  Brown  was  prominent 
in  the  affairs  both  of  colony  and  town;  in  Plymouth  he  was  one  of 
the  governor's  assistants,  and  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  commis- 
sioners of  the  ITnited  Colonies,  on  tlie  part  of  Plymouth  colony,  in 
1644.  He  became  an  original  settler  and  proprietor  in  Taunton  as 
well  as  in  Rehoboth;  and  his  son-in-law  w^as  Captain  Thomas  AVil- 
lett,  the  first  English  mayor  of  New  Y^orK. 

William  Hailstone  was  the  only  one  of  his  name  here.  William 
Dunn,  sea-captain,  was  an  original  purchaser,  and  he  brought  AVil- 
liam  Witherell,  first  settler  within  the  bounds  of  Norton,  and  from 
whom  leading  business  men  hereabouts  have  descended.  The  '^  wid- 
ow Eandall"  was  one  of  the  first  purchasers  in  the  eastern  section 
of  the  settlement.  Thomas  Cooke  and  his  son  Thomas  were  recorded 
as  subject  to  military  duty  in  1643.  John  Gingell  was  among  the 
first  to  take  the  oath  of  fidelity.  Francis  Doughty  was  a  first  set- 
tler, and  an  opponent  to    the  first    church    gathering   here.     Dis- 

261 


BEGINNINGS  OF  BRISTOL  COUNTY,  MASSACHUSETTS 

gruntled  and  mischief-making,  he  soon  afterwards  left  the  settle- 
ment. 

Rev.  William  Hooke  and  Rev.  Nicholas  Street  were  the  first 
ministers  in  succession.  Jointly,  they  were  granted  a  tract  of  four 
hundred  acres  of  upland  and  thirty  acres  of  meadow  in  Berkley, 
which  farm  eventually  went  into  the  hands  of  John  Hathaway,  Ed- 
w^ard  Bobbitt,  and  Timothy  Hathaway,  the  tract  still  being  kno^^^l 
as ''The  Farms." 

Anthony  Slocum,  surveyor  of  highways  here,  later  removed  to 
Dartmouth,  and  became  one  of  that  to^\Ti's  first  settlers,  as  well. 
Edward  Bobbitt  was  first  of  the  Bobbitt-Babbitt  clan  in  this  section, 
and  he  was  first  to  lose  his  life  in  King  Philip's  War  in  1675,  in  Taun- 
ton. Captain  John  Gallop  was  not  only  a  first  comer  in  Taunton, 
but  also  a  professional  pilot  in  Boston  harbor,  and  Gallop's  Island 
in  that  harbor  was  named  for  him.  He  was  killed  in  the  Narragan- 
sett  Swamp  fight. 

One  of  the  most  thorough  and  comprehensive  genealogies  that 
have  been  written  is  that  of  the  Hodges  family,  tracing  descent  from 
William  Hodges,  w4io  o^^^led  much  land  here,  and  whose  descend- 
ants, owning  property  on  High  and  Tremont  streets,  have  been  lead- 
ers in  affairs  of  village  and  towm. 

Of  Thomas  Lincoln,  James  Leonard,  James  Walker  and  John 
Turner,  there  is  much  to  be  said  industrially  and  otherwise.  John 
Macomber  was  a  surveyor  in  1670.  Oliver  Purchase  was  a  first  set- 
tler and  to^vn  clerk.  John  Tisdale  w^as  founder  of  a  large  family  of 
descendants.  James  Wyatt  was  constable  and  surveyor.  Later  ar- 
rived the  progenitors  of  the  Kings,  the  Reeds,  the  Harts,  and  many 
others  who  have  added  to  the  advancement  of  the  town  and  city's  in- 
terests. 


262 


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WASHIXGTOX   MEMORIAL  CHAPEL 


Valley  Forge — Its  Park  and  Memorials 

By  Will  L.  Claek,  Woodbine,  Iowa. 

^S^iNE  CAN  hardly  avoid  traveling  over  sacred  ground  in 
passing  through  Montgomery  county,  Pennsylvania. 
Nearly  everywhere  one  turns,  his  eye  falls  upon  some 
association  with  the  Revolution,  apart  from  the  preemi- 
nent one  of  all  America,  that  of  Valley  Forge.  Yet  it  is  to  be  re- 
gretted that  these  historic  spots  have,  as  a  rule,  not  been  sufficiently 
appreciated  by  the  neighboring  citizc-ns  to  move  them  to  place  prop- 
er ''markers"  of  wood,  stone  or  bronze  to  inform  the  passer-by  that 
he  is  traveling  over  historical,  almost  sacred,  ground. 

But  it  is  of  Valley  Forge  that  we  write  at  this  time,  and  which  is 
a  gratifying  exception  to  what  is  written  above. 

Cornwallis  remarked  at  Yorktown  to  Washington:  ''Sir,  3- our 
greatest  victory  was  not  at  Yorktown,  but  at  Valley  Forge."  Then 
no  wonder  the  residents  in  and  surrounding  this  spot  should  take 
on  a  just  pride  and  delight  themselves  by  showing  to  the  stranger 
the  sights  at  hand,  and  pointing  to  the  everlasting  hills  and  majes- 
tic windings  of  the  Schuylkill,  on  whose  charming  scenes  the  eyes  of 
Washington  rested  in  "the  times  that  tried  men's  souls"— 1777-78 
—when  the  destiny  of  a  new-born  nation  was  being  determined. 

Valley  Forge  Park  is  the  direct  result  of  the  untiring  work  of 
the  Valley  Forgo  Park  Commission  appointed  by  the  General  As- 
sembly of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  in  June,  1S93,  and  providing 
"for  the  acquisition  by  the  State  of  certain  ground  at  Valley  Forge 
for  a  park."  What  was  styled  the  Valley  Forge  Monument  Asso- 
ciation began  its  work  in  1882,  and  men  like  George  W.  Childs  be- 
came its  charter  members.  Congress  was  appealed  to  for  aid,  but 
nothing  was  accomplished  through  such  effort.  Then  appeal  was 
made  to  Pennsylvania  to  throw  out  its  protecting  arm  around  the 
sacred  spots  about  AVashington's  Headquarters  at  this  point.     At 


Note — This  article  treats  on  General  Washington's  occupancy  of  Valley  Forge 
and  its  environs,  in  Montgomery  and  Chester  counties,  Pennsylvania,  including  the  pres- 
tnt  State  Park  and  Memorials. 

263 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORL-VLS 

first  it  was  asked  that  a  befitting  monument  like  that  at  Bunker 
Hill,  or  the  AVashington  jMonument  in  the  National  Capital,  should 
be  erected  by  the  Commonwealth.  Fortunately,  a  better  judgment 
prevailed,  and  the  idea  of  preserving  the  entire  grounds  containing 
fifteen  hundred  acres  was  developed,  and  the  bill  making  an  ap- 
i:>ropriation  for  such  purchase  was  passed  in  1S93.  There  is  ever 
some  courageous,  far-sighted  person  who  has  to  do  with  the  begin- 
nings of  all  great  accomplishments,  of  all  meritorious  institutions. 
Such  was  the  case  here.  Just  who  this  person  might  have  been,  it  is 
certain  that  as  early  as  1842  (so  said  the  late  Governor  Penny- 
packer),  Dr.  Isaac  Anderson  Pemiypacker  wrote  in  behalf  of  the 
jn-eservation  of  this  encampment,  and  in  1S45  suggested  the  erection 
of  a  suitable  monument  on  Mount  Joy.  To  this  end  came  the  great 
Daniel  Webster,  William  li.  Seward,  Xeal  Dow,  and  others,  to  Val- 
ley Forge.  But  enthusiasm  soon  died  out  with  the  greater  interests 
of  a  Nation  that  was  destined  soon  to  be  baptized  in  the  blood  of  her 
own  people  before  true  liberty  and  freedom  could  be  vouchsafed. 

The  first  act  passed  as  above  stated,  in  1893,  provided  $25,000 
for  the  purpose  of  the  Commission,  and  in  189'5  the  sum  of  ten  thou- 
sand dollars  was  appropriated.  Pennsylvania  has  now  expended 
several  hundred  thousand  dollars  in  purchasing  the  lands,  and  the 
})uilding  of  excellent  paved  roads,  etc.  But  prior  to  all  of  these  ef- 
forts was  the  celebration  of  the  one  hundredth  anniversary  of  :he 
evacuation  of  Valley  Forge.  To  bring  about  this  centennial  ob- 
servance a  society  was  organized,  known  as  '^'The  Centennial  and 
Memorial  Association  of  Valley  Forge,"  of  which  Mrs.  xVnna  M. 
Holstein  was  elected  regent.  Subscriptions  and  the  sale  of  mem- 
bership tickets  to  the  Association  were  earned  on  successfully,  until 
the  old  stone  headquarters  house  of  AYashingion  and  an  acre  and 
one-half  of  land  surrounding  it,  had  been  secured  at  an  expense  of 
$6,000,  one-half  being  on  credit  and  secured  by  a  mortgage.  Later 
the  Association  found  it  impossible  to  ]Day  the  interest  on  this  mort- 
gage, and  an  appeal  was  made  to  the  Patriotic  Sons  of  xVmerica  in  its 
convention  at  Norristown  in  1885.  Six  months  later,  this  worthy 
order  had  paid  off  the  interest  and  principal  and  received  thirty-six 
hundred  shares  of  stock,  which  gave  it  a  voice  in  the  management 
of  affairs  at  Valley  Forge.  In  1887  the  State  provided  $5,000  to 
further  the  work  of  improvement,  and  in  1887  the  building  was  re- 
stored to  its  original  condition.    Additional  lands  were  purchased  in 

264 


\'A[.Li':v  F()k(;i-.-M.\ss.\(.nL'M:r'is  moxumi-.X'I'.  xaiioxai.  akc 

l-ORT  WASIllX(7r(jX  AXl)  COXllXKXTAL  A1^\I\'   IILT 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORLVLS 

18S9  and  in  1904.  A  small  fee  had  always  been  charged  to  visit 
tlie  "Headquarters  Building,"  that  line  stone  structure,  but  in  190-i 
the  Park  Commission  suggested  that  the  State  take  over  the  prop- 
erty, and  in  August,  1905,  it  became  so  possessed.  The  amount  paid 
the  Association  by  Pennsylvania  was  $18,000,  which  the  courts  held 
must  be  forever  held  in  trust  by  the  Association  and  not  be  divided 
or  alienated. 

Since  the  State  took  possession  of  this  immense  natural  park, 
with  its  numerous  buildings,  vast  improvements  have  been  effected. 
But  so  great  have  become  the  interests  centering  around  this  na- 
tional shrine,  that  outsiders  are  desirous  of  having  a  part  in  the  mak- 
ing more  beautiful  and  perfect  this  spot,  visited  annually  by  tens 
of  thousands  of  people  from  both  our  own  and  foreign  lands.  Just 
at  this  time  (1923)  a  chune  of  thirteen  bells,  one  for  each  Colony,  is 
being  placed  at  Valley  Forge.  The  first  bell  was  donated  by  the 
^Massachusetts  Society  of  the  Daughters  of  the  Revolution,  and  is 
named  "Paul  Kevere".  The  great  tenor  bell,  weighing  over  one 
ton  and  a  half,  w^ill  be  given  by  the  Pennsylvania  Daughters  of  the 
American  Eevolution.  The  Xew  Jersey  Society  will  soon  have  the 
fund  raised  for  their  bell.  The  Colonial  Dames  of  Delaware  will 
furnish  one  bell  for  their  State.  Xew  York  will  have  one  of  the 
heaviest  bells  in  the  chime,  at  a  cost  of  five  thousand  dollars.  Each 
bell  will  be  endowed,  so  that  a  ringer  will  be  present  every  day  of 
the  year,  and  every  hour  will  be  marked  by  a  patriotic  air.  The  na- 
tional anthem  will  be  played  each  day  at  sunset. 

The  Valley  Forge  Park  Commission  recently  endorsed  and  ap- 
proved the  plan  of  building  an  historic  shrine  at  Valley  Forge,  in 
honor  of  the  heroes  who  fell  in  the  late  World  War,  and  the  project 
is  being  forwarded  by  the  American  Legion,  War  Mothers,  and  oth- 
er patriotic  societies.  It  is  to  be  a  memorial  of  rare  size  and  exqui- 
site beauty.  Such  buildings  are  much  more  practical  and  truly  use- 
ful than  the  old-fashioned  monuments  of  marble  and  granite.  AVith 
the  completion  of  the  above  chime  of  bells  and  this  Victory  Hall, 
the  improvements  around  a  spot  almost  neglected  and  forgotten  by 
the  average  American  up  to  thirty  years  ago,  will  indeed  be  a  credit 
to  Pennsylvania,  ]\Iontgomery  county,  and  the  location  so  long 
known  as  Valley  Forge. 

Upon  the  occasion  of  the  services  held  on  Evacuation  Day  in 
1904,  at  Valley  Forge,  President  Roosevelt  said:    "H  the  men  of  '61 

265 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORL\LS 

had  failed  in  the  great  struggle  for  national  unity,  it  would  have 
meant  that  the  work  done  by  AVashington  and  his  associates  might 
almost  or  quite  as  well  had  been  left  undone.  There  would  have 
been  no  point  in  commemorating  what  was  done  at  Valley  Forge  if 
Gettysburg  had  not  given  us  the  national  right  to  commemorate  it." 

As  one  visits  Valley  Forge,  his  eye  will  be  greeted,  as  he  passes 
over  the  thousand  of  acres  within  the  State  Park  and  its  surround- 
ing lands,  by  man}"  an  interesting  and  truly  historical  object,  nearly 
all  of  which  have  been  provided  within  this  present  generation. 
Among  these  may  be  named:  Washington's  Headquarters,  the  fine 
old  stone  residence  given  over  to  the  "Father  of  His  Country,"  by 
the  pioneer  settler  Potts  during  that  long  memorable  winter  of 
1777-78;  the  Earthworks;  the  Washington  Memorial  Chapel,  an 
Episcopal  church  of  rare  arxd  costly  design,  which  is  open  daily 
from  eight  in  the  morning  to  six  in  the  evening,  and  which  has  been 
made  possible  only  through  the  untiring  zeal  and  natural  ability  of 
the  present  rector,  Eev.  W.  Herbert  Burk,  D.  D.,  who  is  also  presi- 
dent of  the  Valley  Forge  Historical  Society ;  the  Cloister  of  the  Col- 
onies ;  the  Valley  Forge  Museum  of  American  History ;  the  Soldiers' 
Hut;  the  Old  Camp  School;  the  Waterman  Monument;  the  Wayne 
Monument;  the  Muhlenberg  Monument;  the  Delaware  Marker;  the 
Maine  Marker;  the  Massachusetts  Monument;  the  New  Jersey  Mon- 
ument; the  Pennsylvania  Columns;  the  Monument  to  the  Unknown 
Dead;  the  Brigade  Hospital;  (reproduction);  the  Headquarters  of 
Commanding  Officers  (no  admission) ;  the  view  from  the  Observa- 
tory on  Mount  Joy;  the  Defenders'  Gate,  near  the  Chapel  and  Mu- 
seum. 

But  the  most  interesting  object  of  interest  to  the  thoughtful  vis- 
itor is  the  original  field  tent  General  Washington  used  as  his  head- 
quarters the  first  week  he  spent  upon  the  exposed  hillsides  at  this 
point,  before  Mr.  Potts  took  pity  upon  him  and  gave  him  quarters 
in  the  now  historic  stone  house,  the  first  building  one  sees  after 
alighting  from  the  railway  train  when  entering  the  little  hamlet  of 
Valley  Forge.  To  look  upon  the  real  canvas  tent  which  the  Great 
■Commander  used  as  his  sleeping  place  and  general  headquarters, 
rivets  the  attention  upon  its  every  thread  and  fold,  as  it  is  seen  in 
the  Museum,  in  the  last  place  where  one  would  think  to  find  so  valu- 
able a  relic.  It  was  secured  by  Dr.  Burt  from  its  owner.  Miss  Mary 
Custis  Lee,  the  daughter  of  Mrs.  Kobert  E.  Lee,  wife  of  the  great 

266 


OLD   CAMP    SCTlOOl,   IIOUSF 


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JXTi':Ki()i';  (_)i-  (jld  camp  school  hocsi-: 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORIALS 

Coiifedorate  commander,  first  on  an  option  for  its  purchase  at  five 
thousand  dollars,  and  on  August  19,  1909,  the  first  payment  was 
made,  amounting  to  five  hundred  dollars.  The  remaining  forty-five 
hundred  dollars  was  to  be  paid  with  money  procured  from  exhibition 
of  the  tent,  and  the  money  to  go  to  the  support  of  the  Old  Confeder- 
ate Women's  Home  at  Richmond,  Virginia,  of  which  ^liss  Lee  was 
president.  This  tent  is  in  fine  condition,  about  eight  by  fifteen  feet  in 
size,  and  high  enough  to  walk  under  easily.  The  Washington  Me- 
morial Library  now  contains  about  fourteen  thousand  volumes, 
awaiting  a  proper  home  for  safekeeping  and  use. 

The  Valley  Forge  Historical  Society  was  organized  by  the  Rev. 
W.  Herbert  Burk,  D.  D.,  June  19,  1918,  to  collect  and  preserve  docu- 
ments and  relics  relating  to  Valley  Forge  and  the  history  of  the 
United  States  of  x\jnerica,  and  other  objects.  But,  as  has  been  well 
said  by  another,  "the  exhibition  of  the  character  of  Washington  is 
the  crowning  glory  of  Valley  Forge. ' ' 

The  latest  achievement  of  Mrs.  Griffith  of  Philadelphia,  a  noted 
artist  and  sculptor,  is  a  remarkable  portrait  in  bronze  of  Rev.  W. 
Herbert  Burk,  D.  D.,  founder  of  the  Washington  Memorial  Chapel. 
Dr.  Burk  is  shown  wearing  his  academic  gown  and  doctor  of  divinity 
hood.  The  artist  has  given  her  creation  a  touch  of  real  life.  The 
Daughters  of  the  Empire  (an  English  society  of  Philadelphia), 
made  up  of  women  of  British  origin,  i3resented  this  portrait  to  the 
Valley  Forge  Historical  Society,  in  appreciation  of  Dr.  Burk's  re- 
markable work  for  the  American  people. 

The  village  of  Valley  Forge  is  situated  on  the  south  bank  of  the 
beautiful  Schuylkill  river,  at  the  mouth  of  East  Valley  creek,  which 
for  nearly  a  mile  forms  the  boundary  line  between  the  counties  of 
Montgomery  and  Chester.  It  is  six  miles  above  Norristown,  and 
twenty-three  miles  from  Philadelphia.  That  portion  of  the  village 
within  Montgomery  county  and  Upper  Merion  township,  forty  years 
ago  was  credited  with  having  a  general  store,  a  gi'ist  mill,  a  paper- 
mill,  and  ten  houses,  including  the  old  Potts  two-story  stone  house, 
known  as  "Washington's  Headquarters"  to  travelers  of  today,  now 
has  no  commercial  interests  whatever,  save  for  the  dimes  to  be 
picked  up  by  sellers  of  pictures  of  the  historic  objects  throughout 
the  extensive  park  now  under  State  control,  or  providing  meals  and 
lodgings  in  the  summer  months  only,  to  the  ' '  stranger  within  the 
gates."    "WTiat  is  known  as  the  Washington  Inn  is  a  largo  hotel 

267 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORLVLS 

building  whioli  at  some  seasons  of  the  year  does  a  good  business. 
The  attractive  stone  "Headquarters"  building  ^hicli  pioneer  Isaa.-^ 
Potts,  the  iron  founder  of  Eevolutionary  days,  invited  Washing-ton 
to  occupy  so  long  as  his  army  was  stationed  thereabouts,  will  never 
cease  to  be  of  interest  to  student  and  traveler  from  whatever  clime 
they  may  come.  This  house  is  under  the  daily  watch-care  of  a  man 
regularly  engaged  to  look  after  the  premises  and  guide  visitors 
around  and  through  the  historic  building,  now  containing  numerous 
Washington  real  relics.  The  Philadelphia  &•  Reading  Railway 
Company  a  few  years  ago  erected  one  of  the  neatest  stations  at  this 
point  along  its  line.  Its  double  tracked  storm-sheds  are  supported 
by  more  than  one  hundred  fluted  colonial  colums,  which  are  all  the 
more  attractive  for  the  reason  that  the  road  at  this  point  is  around  a 
sharp  curve,  thus  giving  the  platform  and  columns  a  semi-circular 
appearance. 

The  real  business  transacted  at  what  is  called  Valley  Forge,  is 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  creek  that  divides  the  two  counties,  hence 
is  within  Chester  county,  and  not  Montgomery.  AYhere  once  stood 
the  old  "Valley  Forge"  (the  iron  works)  is  now  seen  a  simple  iron 
post  with  a  metalic  sign-board  telling  the  passer-by  that  the  post  is 
to  indicate  where  the  iron-works  once  stood.  This  refers  to  the  re- 
built iron-works,  for  the  British  soldiers  destroyed  the  first  iron- 
works of  the  locality. 

Bean's  "History  of  Montgomery  County,"  has  the  following  on 
Valley  Forge  and  its  name : 

"The  name  of  this  place  was  derived  from  a  forge  erected  here 
by  Isaac  Potts,  a  son  of  John  Potts,  the  founder  of  Pottstown.  How 
early  this  forge  was  erected,  we  cannot  say;  but  it  must  have  been 
before  1759,  for  it  is  noted  on  Nicholas  Scull's  map  of  the  Province, 
published  in  the  same  year,  as  being  on  the  Upper  Merion  side  of 
the  stream,  which  is  confirmed  on  William  Scull's  map  of  1770.  On 
September  19,  1777,  a  detachment  of  the  British  army  encamped 
here,  and  burned  the  mansion  house  of  Colonel  Dewees  and  the  iron 
works,  leaving  the  grist  mill  uninjured.  From  all  that  history  and 
tradition  can  show  ni  this  matter  of  where  the  'forge'  actually  did 
stand,  it  is  now  generally  believed  that  it  was  on  the  Montgomery 
side,  and  not  on  "the  west  side  of  East  Valley  creek,  as  some  have 
hitherto  asserted.  Another  proof  is  that  Isaac  Potts  was  in  Upper 
Merion,  as  well  as  the  iron  ore  obtained  near  by,  that  necessarily, 
for  convenience,  the  forge  would  also  be  on  the  same  side." 

268 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  TARK  AND  xME:\IORL\LS 

Valley  Forge  being  within  Upper  Merion  civil  township,  of 
Montgomery  county,  naturally  much  Revolutionary  war  history  is 
attached  thereto.  On  December  11,  1778,  Washington  with  his 
army  left  "Whitemarsh  township,  and  on  the  afternoon  of  the  13th 
crossed  at  Swede's  Ford  and  proceeded  towards  the  Gulf  and  the 
vicinity  of  King  of  Prussia,  and  remained  there  until  the  19th,  when 
Valley  Forge  was  reached,  where  the  troops  were  destined  to  re- 
main until  the  following  June  18th,  exactly  six  months.  Owing  to 
the  lateness  of  the  season,  the  men  at  once  set  about  building  huts 
to  shelter  them  from  the  rigors  of  winter.  General  Porter,  who  had 
been  stationed  at  the  Gulf  in  Xovember,  now  marched  towards 
Swede's  Ford  and  joined  AVashington's  army,  Avhen  a  court  martial 
was  held  to  try  such  men  as  threw  away  their  arms  and  equipment 
for  the  pur]Tose  of  facilitating  their  escape  in  the  late  attack  made 
at  the  Gulf  by  the  British  from  the  city.  A  number  were  sentenced 
to  be  publicly  whipped,  which  was  carried  into  effect,  and  produced 
not  a  little  excitement  in  the  camp.  Although  at  some  distance  from 
Philadelphia,  the  citizens  suffered  considerably  from  the  marauding 
expeditions  of  the  British  anny. 

Historian  V.'illiam  J.  Buck  states  that  Norristown  came  in  for 
its  share  of  Revolutionary  war  history,  and  among  other  things  has 
the  following: 

''Only  two  days  after  the  defeat  of  AVashing-ton  at  Brand>"wine, 
he  dispatched  General  Armstrong,  with  a  portion  of  the  militia, 
along  the  Schuylkill  to  throw  up  redoubts  at  the  different  fords 
which  were  to  be  occupied  that  in  case  the  enemy  should  attempt  to 
cross  they  might  be  opposed.  At  that  time  the  principal  place  for 
crossing  was  at  Swede's  Ford,  and  on  this  account  it  was  expected 
that  they  might  pass  there,  and  for  this  reason,  under  the  direction 
of  Chevalier  Du  Portail,  an  engineer  formerly  in  the  French  army, 
Armstrong's  men  threw  up  entrenchmeiits  and  breastworks  oppo- 
site that  place,  and  now  in  the  borough,  and  it  is  said  that  they  were 
scarcely  completed  before  the  British  made  their  appearance  on  the 
other  side,  but  in  consequence  changed  their  line  of  march  toward 
Valley  Forge.    Remains  of  these  works  were  still  visible  in  1843. 

"\Vliile  AVashington  was  near  Pottsgrove,  the  enemy  crossed  the 
Schuylkill  at  Fatland  Ford,  five  and  a  half  miles  above  Xorristown, 
on  the  night  of  September  22,  1777,  and  proceeded  leisurely  on  their 
march  to  the  city.  On  the  23rd  a  portion  of  their  anny  was  over 
night  in  or  near  the  present  borough  of  Xorristown,  on  which  occa- 
sion they  set  fire  to  and  burned  down  nearly  all  the  buildings  in  the 

269 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORIALS 

place.  So  great  Tvas  the  damage  done  that  on  a  valuation  being 
made,  the  State  allowed  to  Colonel  Bull  for  his  loss  2,080  pounds ;  to 
the  University  1,000  pounds;  to  Hannah  Thompson,  870  pounds,  and 
to  "William  Dewees  329  pounds,  — the  whole  equivalent  to  $11,240  of 
our  present  money." 

Upper  Dublin  township,  Montgomery  county,  contains  some 
landmarks  of  the  great  Revolutionary  struggle,  in  way  of  the  large 
stone  building  used  by  General  "Washington  as  his  headquarters 
from  October  to  well  into  December,  when  he  removed  his  army  to 
Valley  Forge.  This  stone  farm-house  stands  on  the  south  side  of 
Camp  Hill,  only  a  few  yards  from  the  Spring-field  township  line.  In 
the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century  it  belonged  to  Caleb  Emlin, 
but  in  1810  it  passed  into  other  hands,  the  farm  being  subdivided  in- 
to smaller  tracts.  The  last  knowni  of  its  owniership  to  the  author, 
■was  when  it  was  in  the  hands  of  Charles  T.  Aimen,  who  was  then 
still  preserving  it  perfectly  as  a  landmark  of  those  long  ago  days. 
It  is  a  stone  structure  thirty-five  by  seventy-five  feet,  and  two  sto- 
ries high.  The  steps  at  the  front  are  of  the  finest  quality  of  soap- 
stone,  neatly  wrought.  The  general  appearance  of  the  entire  build- 
ing shows  it  to  have  been  a  well  planned  and  finely  executed  edifice 
for  the  day  in  which  it  was  erected.  While  Washing-ton  was  here, 
the  army  was  camped  on  the  hill  to  the  north  of  the  mansion,  which 
was  certainly  a  strong  military  position.  On  the  night  of  Decem- 
ber 5, 1777,  General  Howe  came  hither  from  Philadelphia,  by  way  of 
Chestnut  Hill,  with  a  view  of  surprising  the  camp ;  but  on  seeing  the 
position,  and  unable  to  draw  out  the  American  army,  he  returned 
by  way  of  Abington  and  Jenkintown,  counting  his  attempt  a  dismal 
failure. 

Washington  had  numerous  headquarters  within  this  county,  as 
well  as  that  at  Valley  Forge.  There  is  still  standing  today  a  fine  old 
style,  well  preserved,  solid  stone,  two-story  farm  house,  known  as 
' 'Washington's  Headquarters,"  October,  1777.  It  stands  between 
the  Skippack  and  Morris  roads,  six  miles  from  Norristown,  and 
about  one  mile  out  of  the  present  borough  of  Ambler  Station.,  It 
has  been  well  preserved  in  every  detail,  and  now  looks  as  though 
built  but  a  decade  or  so  ago.  For  many  years  it  was  the  property 
of  Saunders  Lewis. 

Pottstown  also  comes  in  for  her  share  of  Revolutionary  events. 
At  the  time  of  that  great  struggle,  Pottstown  was  only  a  village 

270 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORIALS 

containing  one  public  bouse,  one  or  two  mills,  at  least  one  bouse  of 
worsbip,  and  probably  tvrenty  dwellings.  Tlie  battle  of  Brandy- 
wine  was  fouglit  September  11,  1777,  and  resulted  disastrously  to 
the  Americans.  The  next  day  Washington  and  his  aiTQy  proceeded 
to  Germantown,  and  after  resting  and  refreshing  the  men  one  day, 
returned  over  the  Schuylkill  with  the  intention  of  giving  battle  to 
General  Howe.  Near  the  Warren  Tavern  they  met,  but  owing  to  a 
severe  storm  and  heavy  fall  of  rain  a  general  engagement  was  pre- 
vented. The  British  then  moved  to  Swede's  Ford,  but  beholding 
the  entrenclmients  thrown  up  there  on  the  opposite  side  to  dispute 
the  passage,  proceeded  up  the  Schuylkill  to  the  vicinity  of  Valley 
Forge,  which  led  Washington  to  believe  that  their  object  w^as  to 
capture  the  military  stores  that  had  been  collected  at  Reading.  This 
now  induced  him  to  cross  to  the  other  side  of  the  river  on  the  19th, 
at  Parker's  Ford,  five  miles  below  Pottstown.  There  the  American 
army  went  into  camp  and  remained  until  the  26th,  for  Washington's 
report  states  ''Here  we  lay  until  the  26th,  on  which  day  we  marched 
downwards  as  far  as  Pennyj^acker  's  Mills.  ^^Tlile  we  lay  near  Potts- 
grove  the  enemy  crossed  the  river." 

From  General  Muhlenberg's  orderly-book  it  is  learned  that  the 
army  did  not  arrive  near  Pottsgrove  until  the  evening  of  Septem- 
ber 22d.  On  this  day  orders  were  given  to  the  "the  clothier-general 
immediately  to  distribute  all  the  clothing  and  shoes  in  his  posses- 
sion." The  result  of  this  was  that  Washington,  in  a  letter  to  Con- 
gress, dated  "Cami")  near  Pottsgrove,  September  23d,"  states  that 
he  had  ''early  in  the  morning  received  intelligence  that  they  had 
crossed  the  fords  below.  Why  I  did  not  follow  inmiediately,  I  have 
mentioned  in  the  former  part  of  my  letter;  but  the  strongest  rea- 
son against  not  being  able  to  make  a  forced  march  is  the  want  of 
shoes.  Messrs.  Carroll,  Chase  and  Penn,  who  were  some  days  with 
the  army,  can  inform  Congress  in  how  deplorable  a  situation  the 
troops  are  for  want  of  that  necessary  article.  At  least  one  thou- 
sand men  are  barefooted,  and  have  performed  the  marches  in  that 
condition."  On  this  day  general  orders  were  issued  that  "each 
regiment  is  to  proceed  in  making  cartridges  for  its  own  use,  that 
may  be  held  in  store.  General  Knox  will  furnish  them  with  mate- 
rials. It  is  expected  as  the  weather  is  growing  cool,  that  the  troops 
will  never  have  less  than  two  days  provisions  by  them."  On  the 
25th  a  general  court-martial  was  held  for  the  immediate  trial  "of  all 

271 


V    VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AXD  MEMORL-\LS 

persons  ttIio  may  be  brought  before  them."  The  orders  were  on 
the  morning  of  the  26th  to  march  at  nine  o'clock,  and  that  afternoon 
found  them  encamped  on  the  hills  of  the  Perkiomen,  near  the  pres- 
ent village  of  Schwenks\'ille. 

From  what  has  now  been  stated,  it  will  be  observed  that  AVash- 
ington  and  his  army  was  encamped  in  this  vicinity  from  the  even- 
ing of  September  '2'2d  until  the  morning  of  the  26th,  making  all  of 
three  days  and  four  nights.  From  Jesse  Ives'  relation  in  1850,  it 
was  learned  some  of  the  soldiers  while  here  had  been  quartered  in 
the  Friends'  meeting-house.  Kev.  H,  M.  Muhlenberg,  who  resided 
at  the  Trappe,  states  in  his  journal,  under  date  of  September  23d, 
that  '"'the  main  body  of  the  American  army  is  up  in  New  Hanover, 
thirty-six  miles  distant  from  the  city,  as  it  was  supposed  the  Brit- 
ish troops  would  go  up  the  Schuylkill  to  Eeading."  The  inference 
of  this  is  that  the  main  body  of  AVashington's  army  while  here  was 
encamped  below  Pottsgrove,  very  probably  where  Sprogell's  run 
crosses  the  Philadelphia  road,  which  would  be  about  the  distance 
mentioned  from  the  city,  and  then  in  the  township. 

Among  the  early  fords  of  the  Schuykill  river  is  Swede's  Ford, 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Norristown  and  Bridgeport.  At  twelve 
o'clock  at  night,  after  the  battle  of  Brandy  wine  (September  11, 
1777),  AVashington  wrote  a  dispatch  to  Congress  from  Chester,  in 
which  he  says,  ''this  day's  engagement  resulted  in  our  defeat."  On 
the  13th  he  formed  his  headquarters  at  Germantown,  with  the  de- 
termination of  having  another  engagement  before  the  fate  of  Phila- 
delphia should  be  decided.  General  Armstrong,  with  a  portion  of 
the  militia,  was  posted  along  the  river  Schuylkill  to  throw  up  re- 
doubts at  the  different  fords  where  the  enemy  would  be  the  most 
likely  to  cross,  and  which  were  to  be  occasionally  occupied  while 
"Washington  moved  with  the  main  army  to  the  other  side  to  make 
another  attack.  Apprehending  that  it  vrould  be  very  likely  that  the 
British  would  attempt  to  cross  at  Swede's  Ford,  Chevalier  DuPor- 
tail,  a  French  engineer,  constructed  a  number  of  redoubts  on  the 
east  side  of  the  river,  upwards  of  half  a  mile  in  length,  with  the  as- 
sistance of  Amistrong's  command.  It  is  said  that  they  had  scarce- 
ly completed  these  works  before  the  British  made  their  a  :)pearance 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river,  and  on  beholding  the  defenses, 
changed  their  purpose  and  crossed  at  Fatland  Ford. 

When  Washington  broke  up  his  encamp:..^. n-  at  Whitemarsh, 

272 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORL\LS 

with  the  intention  of  going  into  ^vinter  quarters  at  Valley  Forge,  it 
was  liis  intention  to  cross  the  Schuylkill  at  ]\Iatson's  Ford,  novr  Con- 
shohocken,  for  which  purpose  a  temporary  bridge  was  formed;  but 
on  reaching  there  they  found  Lord  Cornwallis  was  in  possession  of 
the  Gulf  Hills,  when  the  troops  were  recalled,  and  he  proceeded  up 
the  east  side  of  the  river.  It  was  ascertained  afterwards  that  the 
British  troops  on  this  occasion  had  only  been  out  here  on  a  foraging 
expedition.  At  Swede's  Ford  the  army  crossed  December  13th, 
which  was  witnessed  b}'  Major  Holstein,  then  a  boy,  accompanying 
his  father,  who  related  that  it  was  effected  by  making  a  bridge  of 
wagons  all  backed  to  each  other.  The  aforesaid  date  is  confirmed 
by  an  eye  witness  in  a  letter  of  Colonel  John  Laurens,  Washington's 
private  secretary,  to  his  father,  from  which  we  take  an  extract : 

"The  army  was  ordered  to  march  to  Swede's  Ford  and  encamp 
with  the  right  to  the  Schuylkill.  The  next  morning  the  want  of  pro- 
visions—I could  weep  tears  of  blood  when  I  say  it— rendered  it  im- 
jjossible  to  march— we  did  not  march  till  the  evening  of  that  day. 
Oi.^  ancient  bridge,  an  infamous  construction  which  in  many  parts 
obliged  the  men  to  march  in  Indian  file,  was  restored,  and  a  bridge 
of  wagons  made  over  Swede's  Ford,  but  fence  rails  from  necessity 
being  substituted  for  plank,  and  furnishing  a  very  unstable  footing, 
the  last  served  to  cross  a  trifling  number  of  troops.  On  the  19th 
instant  we  marched  from  the  Gulf  to  this  camp." 

The  aforesaid  is  interesting,  showing  conclusively  that  Wash- 
ington crossed  here  at  the  aforesaid  date,  and  that  his  army  re- 
mained encamped  in  the  vicinity  until  the  19th,  when  they  reached 
Vally  Forge. 

It  may  be  of  no  little  interest  to  know  how  Washington  came  to 
decide  on  making  his  ''winter  quarters"  at  Valley  Forge.  From  the 
much  said  by  historians  on  this  subject,  the  writer  believes  the  facts 
to  be  along  the  following  line:  Both  Washington  and  his  officers 
were  satisfied  that  Whitemarsh,  where  he  was  located  in  the  au- 
tumn of  1777,  would  not  be  a  suitable  place  to  remain  the  ensuing 
winter.  The  General  consequently  requested  his  general  officers  to 
communicate  to  him,  in  writing,  their  sentiments  respecting  the 
most  eligible  site  for  that  purpose.  A  council  of  war  was  held  on  the 
30th  of  November,  at  which  a  wide  difference  of  opinion  prevailed 
as  to  the  locality  and  the  best  manner  of  cantoning  the  troops.  So 
various  and  contradictory  were  the  opinions  and  councils  that  unan- 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORL\LS 

imity  could  not  be  hoped  for,  and  it  T\-as  necessary  for  Washington 
to  act  according  to  his  own  judgment  and  upon  his  ovrn  responsibil- 
ity. He  decided  to  form  an  encampment  at  Valley  Forge,  where  he 
might  be  near  enough  the  British  araiy  to  watch  its  movements, 
keeping  its  foraging  parties  in  check,  and  protect  the  country  from 
the  depredations  of  the  enemy.  For  this  purpose  the  patriot  army 
left  Whitemarsh,  Montgomery  county,  December  11,  1777,  but  did 
not  arrive  at  Valley  Forge  until  the  19th.  Two  days  before,  Wash- 
ington issued  a  proclamation  to  the  army,  in  which  he  gave  his  rea- 
sons for  the  course  he  was  about  to  pursue.  It  was  an  interesting 
document,  and  breathes  throughout  the  language  of  devotion  and 
patriotism,  while  at  the  same  time  it  evinces  the  cool  determination 
to  conduct  the  war  to  a  happy  close.  Owing  to  the  great  length  of 
this  document,  only  the  subjoined  paragraph  will  here  be  given: 

''The  General  ardently  wishes  it  were  now  in  his  power  to  con- 
duct the  troops  into  the  best  winter  quarters;  but  where  are  they  to 
be  found?  Should  we  retire  to  the  interior  of  the  State,  we  should 
find  them  crowded  with  virtuous  citizens,  who  sacrificing  their  all, 
have  left  Philadelphia  and  fled  hither  for  protection;  to  their  dis- 
■^resses  humanity  forbids  us  to  add.  This  is  not  all.  We  should 
leave  a  vast  extent  of  fertile  country  to  be  despoiled  and  ravaged  by 
the  enemy,  from  which  they  would  draw  vast  supplies,  and  where 
many  of  our  firm  friends  would  be  exposed  to  all  the  miseries  of  an 
insulting  and  wanton  depredation.  A  train  of  evils  might  be  enum- 
erated, but  these  will  suffice.  These  considerations  make  it  indis- 
pensably necessary  for  the  army  to  take  such  a  position  as  will  en- 
able it  to  most  effectually  to  prevent  distress  and  give  the  most  ex- 
tensive security ;  and  in  that  position  we  must  make  ourselves  the 
best  shelter  in  our  power.  AAlth  alacrity  and  diligence,  huts  may  be 
erected  that  will  be  warm  and  dry.  In  these  the  troops  will  be  com- 
pact, more  secure  against  surprises  than  if  in  a  divided  state,  and  at 
hand  to  protect  the  country.  These  cogent  reasons  have  determined 
the  general  to  take  post  in  the  neighborhood  of  this  camp,  and,  in- 
fluenced by  them,  he  persuades  himself  that  the  officers  and  soldiers, 
with  one  heart  and  one  mind,  will  resolve  to  surmount  every  diffi- 
culty with  a  fortitude  and  patience  becoming  their  profession  and 
the  sacred  cause  in  which  they  are  engaged.  He  himself  will  share 
the  hardships  and  partake  of  every  inconvenience." 

It  is  not  the  intention  here  to  enter  into  the  details  of  the  im- 
portant events  that  transpired  at  Valley  Forge  during  the  six 
months  encampment,  for  that  belongs  rather  to  the  Revolutionary 

274 

\ 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORLVLS 

history  of  the  county,  but  merely  mention  a  few  local  facts  outside 
of  that  subject.  Washington,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  summer  of 
1796,  when  his  second  term  as  President  of  the  United  States  had 
nearly  expired  and  he  was  about  to  return  to  private  life,  concluded 
once  more  to  visit  this  place,  the  scene  of  so  many  toils  and  strug- 
gles. This  information  was  received  through  Mr.  Henry  Woodman, 
a  native  of  the  vicinity  in  1S5S,  then  aged  sixty-three  years,  as  ol> 
tained  from  his  father,  who  at  the  time  was  engaged  in  plowing  on 
his  farm  near  the  place  of  the  encampment.  In  the  afternoon  he 
had  observed  an  elderly  man,  of  dignified  appearance,  on  horseback, 
dressed  in  a  plain  suit  of  black,  accompanied  by  a  colored  servant, 
ride  to  a  place  in  the  road  nearly  opposite,  where  he  alighted  from 
his  horse  and  came  into  the  field.  He  stated  that  he  had  called  to 
make  some  enquiry  concerning  the  owners  and  occupants  of  the 
different  places  about  there,  and  also  in  regard  to  the  system  of 
farming  practiced  in  that  part  of  the  country,  and  numerous  other 
questions  relating  to  agriculture.  He  also  made  enquiry  after  cer- 
tain families  in  the  neighborhood.  As  answers  were  given,  he  no- 
ted them  down  in  a  book.  Mr.  Woodman  informed  him  he  could  not 
'give  as  correct  answers  as  he  wished,  as  he  had  only  moved  to  the 
neighborhood  since  the  war,  though  he  had  been  in  the  army  while 
encamped  here.  This  gave  a  new  turn  to  the  conversation.  The 
stranger  informed  him  that  he  had  also  been  in  the  army  and  at  the 
camp,  and  as  he  expected  to  leave  the  city  in  a  few  months,  with  the 
prospect  of  never  returning,  he  had  taken  this  journey  to  visit  the 
place  which  had  been  the  scene  of  so  much  suffering  and  distress,  and 
to  see  how  far  the  inhabitants  had  recovered  from  its  eiiects.  On 
learning  that  it  was  Washington,  he  told  him  that  his  appearance 
had  so  altered  that  he  did  not  recognize  him,  or  else  he  would  have 
i:)aid  more  respect  to  his  late  commander,  now  the  chief  magistrate 
of  the  nation.  He  replied,  that  to  see  ihe  people  happy  and  the  deso- 
late fields  recovering  from  the  disasters  they  had  experienced,  and 
to  meet  with  any  of  his  old  companions,  now  peaceably  engaged  in 
the  most  useful  of  all  emplo^^nents,  afforded  him  more  satisfaction 
than  all  the  homage  that  could  be  paid  to  his  person  or  station.  He 
then  said  that  pressing  engagements  rendered  it  necessary  for  him 
to  be  in  the  city  that  night,  and  taking  him  by  the  hand,  bade  him 
an  affectionate  farewell. 

In  a  journal  kept  by  one  of  the  prisoners  taken  by  General 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  :^IEMORL\LS 

Biirgoyne,  Captain  Thomas  Anbury,  appears  among  other  graphic 
descriptions  of  the  winter  at  Valley  Forge,  the  following: 

*'A  Loyalist  at  whose  house  I  was  quartered,  at  Valley  Forge, 
and  who  resided  here  at  the  time  Washington's  army  was  eilcamped, 
told  me  that  when  General  Washington  chose  that  spot  for  his  win- 
ter cpiarters  his  men  were  obliged  to  build  their  huts  with  round 
logs  and  suffered  exceedingly  from  the  inclemency  of  the  season. 
The  greater  part  of  them  Avere  in  a  manner  naked  at  that  severe 
season  of  the  year,  many  without  shoes  and  stockings,  and  very  few 
except  the  Virginia  troo])3  with  the  necessary  clothing.  His  army 
was  wasting  away  with  sickness,  that  raged  with  extre'me  mortality 
in  all  his  different  hospitals,  which  were  no  less  than  eleven.  His 
army  was  likewise  so  diminished  by  constant  desertions  in  com- 
panies, from  ten  to  fifteen  at  a  time,  that  at  one  period  it  was  re- 
duced to  four  thousand,  and  those  with  propriety  could  not  be  called 
effective. 

''The  horses,  from  being  constantly  exposed  to  showers  of  rain 
and  falls  of  snow,  both  day  and  night,  were  in  such  a  condition  that 
many  of  them  died,  and  the  rest  were  so  emaciated  as  to  be  unfit 
for  labor;  had  he  been  attacked  and  repulsed  he  must  have  left  be- 
hind all  his  artillery  for  want  of  horses  to  convey  it.  In  addition  to 
all  those  distresses,  Washington  had  not  in  camp  at  any  one  time, 
not  a  week's  provisions  and  sometimes  he  was  totally  destitute. 
The  Loyalists  greatly  censured  General  Hovre  in  suffering  Washing- 
ton to  continue  in  this  weak  and  dangerous  state  from  December  to 
]\[ay,  and  equally  astonished  what  could  be  the  motive  ho  did  not 
attack,  surround  or  take  by  siege  the  whole  army  when  the  severity 
of  the  weather  was  gone.  They  expected  that  in  the  month  of  March, 
April  and  May  they  should  hear  of  the  camp  being  stormed  or  be- 
sieged, but  it  seems  that  General  Howe  was  in  exactly  the  same  sit- 
uation as  General  Burgoyne  respecting  intelligence,  obtaining  none 
he  could  place  a  perfect  reliance  on." 

The  house  occupied  by  Washington  as  liis  headquarters  is  still 
standing,  and  was  visited  in  the  month  of  January,  1923,  by  the  wri- 
ter. It  was  owned  in  time  of  the  Revolution  by  Isaac  Potts,  i)roprie- 
tor  of  the  iron  forge.  It  is  a  two-story  stone  building,  situated  near 
the  Eeading  railroad.  The  main  portion  of  it  has  a  front  of  about 
twenty-four  feet  and  is  thirty-three  in  depth.  The  outside  is  of 
dressed  stone,  pointed.  The  interior  woodwork  is  in  a  good  state  of 
preservation,  and  with  care  this  building  may  be  made  to  last  for 
centuries,  as  its  walls  appear  as  durable  as  when  first  built.  Xo  one 
familiar  with  our  Pievolutionarv  historv  can  enter  the  room  that 

276 


A' 


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W  A  S  H I X  G  T  OX'S  H  !•: A 1 )  Q  U  A  R  T  E  R  S 


VALLEY  FORGE— ITS  PARK  AND  MEMORL\LS 

served  the  great  chief  for  nearly  half  a  year,  both  as  reception  and 
bed-chamber,  and  where  he  wrote  many  important  dispatches,  with- 
out feelings  of  the  deepest  emotion.  In  the  sill  of  the  east  window 
of  this  room,  and  out  of  which  can  be  seen  much  of  the  camjDing 
ground,  is  still  pointed  out  a  small,  rough  box,  as  having  contained 
his  papers  and  writing  material.  AYe  gazed  at  this  depository  and 
other  objects  around  with  much  interest.  Adjoining  is  a  wing  one 
and  a  half  stories  high  and  about  twenty-four  feet  in  length,  which 
has  been  built  since  the  war,  but  it  occupies  the  site  of  a  smaller 
structure  that  was  erected  for  the  accommodation  of  ]\Irs.  Washing- 
ton. In  a  letter  to  a  friend  this  lady  remarks:  ''The  General's 
apartment  is  very  small;  he  has  had  a  log  cabin  built  to  dine  in, 
which  has  made  our  quarters  much  more  tolerable  than  thev  were 
at  first." 

This  property  was  long  owned  and  carefully  preserved  by  Mrs. 
Hannah  Ogden,  of  whom  in  1S7S  it  was  purchased  by  the  Centennial 
and  Memorial  Association  of  Valley  Forge,  which  was  especially  or- 
ganized for  this  purpose,  and  it  can  therefore  no  longer  be  regarded 
as  private  property,  and  is  now  looked  upon  as  a  sacred  shrine  of 
the  American  republic.  At  its  front  stands  a  very  tall  flagpole,  from 
which  between  sunrise  and  sunset  beautiful  "Old  Glory"  floats  to 
the  breeze  every  day  in  the  year,  being  run  up  and  down  by  the 
faithful  caretaker  of  the  premises. 

Kind  American  reader,  don't  ''go  abroad"  until  first  you  have 
visited  A'alley  Forge.  It  is  safe  to  state  that  not  ten  per  cent,  of 
our  native  born  population  have  any  knowledge  concerning  this 
sacred  shrine ;  many  do  not  even  know  where  it  is  situated,  what  it 
now  consists  of,  or  what  it  meant  to  the  Revolutionary  soldiers.  On 
your  next  outing,  take  in  Valley  Forge. 


1^ 


277 


Hackensack,  County  Seat  of  Bergen 
County,  New  Jersey 

By  Frances  A.  Westervelt,  Curator  of  Bergex  County  His- 
torical Society.  j 

.,.  JHEX  the  Legislature,  during  the  month  of  November, 
"^^  li**'  1921,  passed  the  bill  which  designated  Hackensack  as  a 
city  with  a  commission  form  of  government,  it  gave  to 
the  place  for  the  first  time  the  official  name  of  Hacken- 
sack. Previous  to  this  the  legal  name  was  New  Barbadoes  township, 
which  it  had  borne  for  two  hundred  twenty-eight  years,  despite  the 
fact  that  the  community  had  been  designated  by  the  name  of  Hack- 
ensack, which  was  in  common  use. 

The  whole  tract  of  land  from  the  Passaic  river  to  the  Hacken- 
sack river  was  known  as  ''Xew  Barbadoes,"  Essex  county.  The 
patent  for  these  lands  was  granted  March  26,  1668,  to  Xathaniel 
Kingsland,  of  the  Island  of  Barbadoes.  This  island  was  discovered 
in  the  Sixteenth  Century,  and  on  account  of  its  tropical  forests  in 
which  the  trees  were  hung  with  long  pendants  resembling  a  beard,  it 
was  given  the  name  of  Barbadoes,  or  the  Bearded  Isle.  It  was,  how- 
ever, sometimes  called  Little  England. 

The  county  of  Bergen  was  established  in  1682,  and  included  all 
of  the  land  between  the  Hudson  and  Hackensack  rivers  on  the  east 
and  west,  and  the  New  York  Province  line  on  the  north,  and  Newark 
bay  on  the  south.  The  northern  part  of  this  strip  of  land  o]i  the  east 
side  of  the  Hackensack  river  was  known  by  the  Indian  name  with  its 
various  spellings;  then  "Old  Hackensack,"  by  inference  to  the  old 
Indian  site,  where  Oratam,  the  Sachem  of  the  Achkincheshacky 
tribe  of  Indians,  had  his  village.  In  1693,  when  the  township  divi- 
sions were  made,  it  was  designated  as  the  Township  of  Hackensack, 
the  unofticial  name  of  the  locality  used  with  the  prefix  Township,  as 
occurred  in  the  case  of  the  Township  of  Bergen  and  the  Township  of 
New  Barbadoes,  the  name  of  the  homeland  of  the  three  gentlemen 
who  held  the  first  patent  from  the  Indians  for  the  locality— Messrs. 

278 


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4 


;;•  i^"  s7="'T 


li^  _ 


f5,    !>V.' 


W^^mmmmm 


THE  GRKEX  IX  i;8o.  AND  HACKEXSACK  AI50UT   1820 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

Kingsland,  Saiiford  and  Berry.  In  ICiiS  it  became  the  legal  name. 
In  1686,  when  thirty-three  of  the  inliabitants  of  Old  Ilackensack 
formed  a  religious  organization,  it  was  tlie  logical  procedure  to  give 
in  the  title  the  name  of  the  location.  In  the  records  we  lind  ' '  Minutes 
of  the  Consistory  of  Ackensack."  First  were  written  in  this  book 
the  memoirs  of  Do.  Petrus  Tassemaker.  In  the  year  1686  the  follow- 
ing persons  were  elected  and  installed  as  elders  and  deacons  of  the 
congregation  of  Hackensack  (having  no  church  building). 

John  Berry,  of  New  Barbadoes  township,  county  of  Essex, 
learning  of  this  condition  and  their  anxiety  to  build  a  church  build- 
ing, gave  in  1696  two  and  three-quarter  acres  of  land  in  New  Bar- 
badoes township  (on  the  Green)  for  a  church  site  for  the  inhabitants 
of  Hackensack,  New  Barbadoes  and  Acquiggenouck.*  They  built 
the  church  on  the  Green  in  the  same  3'ear,  and  the  official  name  was 
the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  of  Ackensack,  thus  unknowingly  be- 
stowing on  the  location  an  unofficial  name  that  it  carried  two  hundred 
twenty-five  years  before- it  was  righted  by  the  vote  of  the  people  in 
November,  1921,  and  became  the  City  of  Hackensack.  The  land  be- 
tween the  Hackensack  and  Passaic  rivers  in  1682,  from  Newark  bay 
to  New  York  Province  line,  was  titled  the  County  of  Essex,  and  in 
1693  the  whole  section  was  called  the  Township  of  New  Barbadoes, 
and  Acquiggenounk.  The  former  township  in  1709  was  detached 
from  Essex  county  and  became  a  part  of  the  county  of  Bergen,  and 
also  its  county  seat.  The  first  court  house  was  evidently,  according 
to  records,  built  about  1715,  south  of  the  creek,  near  present  Hud- 
son street.  The  second  was  on  the  Green,  and  was  enlarged  several 
times  and  in  1780  was  burned  by  the  British.  As  this  act  had  been 
feared  by  the  authorities,  their  good  judgment  called  for  an  act  be- 
ing passed  authorizing  the  building  of  a  temporary  gaol  and  court 
house  at  Yaupaw,  and  the  county  records  to  be  taken  by  Abraham 
Westervelt,  the  county  clerk,  to  Xew  York  for  safe  keeping,  all  this 
being  done  before  the  attack  was  made.  After  the  war  was  over, 
there  was  a  new  court  house  built  on  Bridge  street,  near  Main.  jlr. 
"Westervelt  went  to  New  York  and  brought  back  the  county  records. 
In  1819  another  court  house  was  built  on  Court  street,  near  the 
church  on  the  Green.  About  1905  the  great  need  of  a  larger  court 
house  and  jail  was  very  evident.     The  following  record  puts  some 


*In  this  and  similar  instances,  the  author  follows  the  variations  of  orthography,  as 
they  appear  in  old  documents. 

279 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

liglit  on  the  situation:  '^1909,  Nov.  12.  Having  succeeded  in  sur- 
mounting various  obstacles  in  the  three  ^^ears'  preparation  for  the 
building  of  a  new  court  house,  the  Bergen  County  Building  Com- 
mittee, composed  of  James  'M.  Gulnac,  chairman,  Collector  Walter 
Christie  and  Sheriff  George  M.  Brewster,  last  Saturday  morning 
announced  the  awarding  of  the  contract  for  erecting  the  new  build- 
ing to  J.  T.  Brady  Company,  of  New  York,  at  a  figure  of  $827,672.25, 
to  be  built  on  Court  street  and  Main."  These  figures  could  not  have 
covered  the  full  expense,  according  to  other  records  as  follows: 
''1910,  July  8.  The  cornerstone  of  the  'New  Million  Dollar'  Court 
House  in  Hackensack  was  laid  with  appropriate  services  on  AVed- 
nesday.  1912,  May  1.  Prosecutor  "Wendal  Wright  moved  from  the 
Van  Valen  building  to  the  second  floor  of  the  new  court  house.  Manj- 
of  the  other  officers  were  located  in  their  new  quarters  also. ' ' 

There  has  been  taken  at  various  times  from  the  limits  of  this 
original  tovkiiship,  territory  to  construct  other  townships,  and  in 
1879  it  was  reduced  to  its  present  area,  Vvhich  is  now  included  in  the 
city  of  Hackensack,  a  strip  of  land  on  the  Avest  bank  of  the  Hacken- 
sack river  of  about  five  miles  in  length  with  an  average  width  of  two 
miles,  having  for  its  northern  and  southern  boundaries  on  the  Hack- 
ensack river.  New  Bridge  on  the  north  and  Little  Ferry  on  the  south, 
hence  the  Township  of  Ne^v  Barbadoes  became  obsolete  as  a  ci\il 
organization.  Thus  it  can  be  readily  seen  that  the  present  city  of 
Hackensack  can  be  confused  with  that  of  old  Hackensack  and  the 
township  of  Hackensack,  which  in  the  past  have  been  the  cause  of 
many  historical  problems. 

The  name  of  the  location  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  in  the 
colonial  records  has  been  spelled  in  various  ways,  the  present  ortho- 
graphy being  adopted  in  1685,  credit  being  given  for  it  to  the  Dutch. 
Previous  to  this  date  it  was  spelled  Achkincheshacky,  Hackinkesh- 
haeeky,  Hackinghsackin,  Ackinsack,  and  sometimes  Hackquinsach 
and  Hockgumdachque.  The  primary  application  of  the  name  was 
to  the  Indian  tribe  and  settlement  or  village,  river  and  adjacent  dis- 
tricts ;  and,  as  Van  Tienhoven  wrote,  to  a  certain  savage  chief  named 
Hackquinsacy.  The  Rev.  Thomas  Campanus  (Holm),  who  was  chap- 
lain to  the  Swedish  settlements  on  the  Delaware,  164-2-49,  and  who 
collected  a  vocabulary,  wrote  the  name  Hochung,  also  Hockueng, 
signifying  "hook."  This  sound  of  the  word  may  have  led  the  Dutch 
to  adopt  Hackingh  as  an  orthography,  the  modern  Haking,  i.  e., 

280 


HACKExNSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

* 'hooking"  incurved  as  a  hook,  like  the  letter  S.  The  most  satisfac- 
tory interpretation  of  the  name  is  suggested  by  the  late  Dr.  Trum- 
bull, from  Huckqua  or  Hocquann,  a  liooJc,  and  sank,  mouth  of  a  river, 
literally  hook-shaped  mouth,  descriptive  of  the  course  of  the  stream 
around  Bergen  Point  by  the  Kill  von  Kull  to  the  New  York  bay. 
The  Lenapes  called  the  place  Hocquoan. 

The  fertility  of  the  land  was  an  attraction,  and  the  section  soon 
became  a  great  producer  of  vegetables  for  New  York  City.  Clay  was 
also  to  be  found  in  abundance  in  the  vicinity,  and  great  brickyards 
soon  dotted  the  land  along  the  Hackensack  river.  Among  the  early 
residents  was  Abraham  Aekerman,  who  lived  in  1704  in  what  is  now 
Essex  street.  In  this  house  was  found  a  painting  of  the  old  pioneer 
representing  him  ploughing  in  a  iield,  on  the  back  of  which  was  an 
invocation  in  the  Dutch  language,  the  translation  of  which  was  as 
f  oUows : 

Abraham  Ackermax  Born  May  15,  Anno  Domixi  1659 

O  Lord,  teach  me  to  count  my  days  and  to  keep  death  before  my  eyes ; 
How  could  an  Aekerman  thrive  if  there  was  no  sunlight,  or  without  the  stars  or 
the  moon? 

The  law  of  our  forefathers  is  just  as  necessary; 

Keep  the  Lord  before  your  eyes. 

Live  piously,  and  think  on  the  Angel  of  Death. 

The  Demarests  three  years  later  were  located  on  the  corner  of 
the  Polefly  road  and  Essex  street.  The  records  show  a  deed  in  1708 
from  Jan  Berdan  and  his  \vife  Eva  to  Paulus  Van  derbecker,  and  a 
house  on  this  plot  of  land  bearing  the  date  1717,  was  razed  in  1921. 
On  the  site  of  the  present  Ajiderson  Hall  (now  Van  Stone  building) 
in  1710  stood  the  house  of  W.  A.  Waldron.  John  "Wright  and  his 
\die  Anna's  homestead,  in  1723,  was  on  the  present  Main  street  in 
front  of  the  west  side  of  the  court  house.  Prior  to  the  Revolution,  in 
1751,  Peter  Zabriskie  resided  on  the  site  of  present  Mansion  House. 
He  deeded  land  to  the  county  in  1785,  beginning  at  the  public  road 
leading  through  the  tow^i  of  New  Barbadoes.  In  the  latter  half  of 
the  eighteenth  century  and  the  first  part  of  the  nineteenth  century, 
Peter  AVilson  and  his  wife  Catherine  lived,  in  1787,  on  Main  street, 
on  the  present  site  of  the  building  now  owmed  by  E.  H.  Gilbert.  In 
1800  Tennis  Banta  resided  at  the  corner  of  the  present  Main  and 
Passaic  streets.  Albert  Doremus  lived  on  Main  street,  near  Bergen 
street,  and  on  the  present  site  of  the  library  the  Bordans  resided.  On 
the  corner  of  the  present  Ward  and  Main  streets  there  is  an  old  type 

281 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

of  a  residence  that  has  stood  for  many  years.  In  the  year  1S18  the 
Van  Giesons  lived  north  of  Warren  street,  on  Main  street;  John  J. 
Anderson  resided  on  the  corner  of  Main  and  East  Passaic  streets; 
John  Anderson,  his  grandfather,  had  a  homestead  which  is  now  a 
part  of  the  Oratani  Chib  House;  Adam  Boyd's  house  was  on  Main, 
west  of  Bridge  street;  Archibald  Campbell's  pre-Revolutionary  site 
was  where  the  Union  League  Club  is  now  located,  and  the  AVashing- 
ton  Institute  (17G8)  was  corner  of  Main  and  Warren  streets.  Dr. 
Peter  Wilson  was  the  first  instructor. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  Hackensack  in  1767,  a  long  discussion  was 
had  whether  Queen's  (now  Eutgers)  College  should  be  located  in 
Hackensack  or  Xew  Brunswick,  and  the  matter  going  to  the  Legisla- 
ture, the  contest  was  decided  in  favor  of  Xew  Brunswick,  as  the 
modesty  of  Dr.  Peter  Wilson,  who  was  a  member  of  Assembly,  would 
not  permit  him  to  cast  the  deciding  vote  for  his  own  to^\'n.  That  is 
why  Hackensack  is  not  a  college  town. 

The  only  notable  event  that  occurred  during  the  K evolutionary 
War  in  what  is  now  the  city  of  Hackensack,  was  the  British  and 
Hessian  raid  on  March  23,  17S0.  The  raiding  party  consisted  of 
about  four  hundi-ed  Britisli,  Hessians  and  refugees,  commanded  by 
Lieut. -Col.  McPherson,  of  the  42nd  Regiment.  They  passed  on  their 
way  through  Hackensack  to  attack  some  Pennsylvania  troops  sta- 
tioned at  Paramus.  They  entered  the  lower  part  of  the  town  about 
three  o'clock  in  the  morning.  The  town  was  garrisoned  by  a  small 
company  of  militia,  numbering  twenty  or  thirty,  who  had  retired 
for  the  night.  The  first  half  of  the  enemy  marched  quietly  through 
toAvn,  the  remainder,  consisting  mostly  of  Hessians,  broke  open 
doors  and  windows,  robbed  and  plundered,  and  took  a  few  prisoners, 
amo]ig  whom  was  Archibald  Campbell,  who  in  the  confusion  escaped 
and  hid  in  the  cellar  of  a  house.  The  Hessians  destroyed  two  dwell- 
ings, Adam  Boyd's  and  John  Chappie's,  also  the  court  house  sit- 
uated on  the  Green,  the  tavern  of  Archibald  Campbell  being  saved 
by  the  family  throwing  water  over  the  roof.  By  this  time  the  militia 
was  aroused  and  alarmed  the  troops  at  Paramus,  and  when  the 
enemy  arrived  at  Red  Mills  (now  Areola),  four  miles  from  Hack- 
ensack, the  Americans  were  on  their  way  to  meet  them.  Disap- 
})ointed  in  not  surprising  the  Americans,  the  enemy  retraced  their 
steps,  and  on  nearing  Hackensack  turned  to  the  north  on  the  road 
leading  to  a  bridge  to  the  left  of  which  there  was  an  elevation  about 

282 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

a  half  mile  distant  from  the  road,  the  intervening  ground  being  level. 
The  Continentals  and  militia  ^ere  kept  at  a  distance  by  flanking 
movements  of  the  enemy,  who  were  detained  about  two  hours  in  re- 
placing the  plank  of  the  bridge,  which  had  been  torn  up  by  the 
Americans.  Plaving  crossed  over  the  river,  the  enemy  marched 
down  the  east  bank  of  the  Hackensack  through  the  English  Neigh- 
borhood and  were  pursued  by  the  Americans  twelve  miles  to  Bergen 
Woods.  The  British  lost  many  killed  and  wounded ;  the  casualties 
of  the  Americans  numbered  only  two— a  young  man  was  wounded 
by  a  spent  ball,  which  cut  his  upper  lip,  knocked  out  four  teeth  and 
lodged  in  his  mouth;  and  Captain  Cutwater,  who  commanded  the 
militia,  received  a  ball  below  the  knee,  that  was  never  extracted.  The 
county  records  were  removed  to  New  I'ork  City  before  the  time  of 
the  burning  of  the  court  house,  which  is  evidenced  by  an  entry  in  the 
minutes  of  Justices  and  Freeholders,  dated  May  12,  17S4,  when  an 
account  was  rendered  by  Abraham  Westervelt  for  expenses  amount- 
ing to  £2  for  obtaining  the  records  in  that  city. 

It  is  interesting  in  these  days  with  the  complaint  of  the  high 
cost  of  living,  to  review  the  prices  that  were  established  by  the  court 
for  the  supplies  for  the  Continental  army  located  in  Bergen  county 
in  1779-80.  For  the  first  year  mentioned,  wood  was  $8  a  cord;  hay, 
$4  a  hundred  weight ;  rye  and  corn  by  the  bushel  was  $14 ;  buckwheat 
and  oats  $8  a  busheL  For  transportation  for  firewood  and  provi- 
sions to  the  army,  $12  a  day  was  allowed.  The  following  years  these 
prices  were  considerably  increased:  Hay  of  the  first  quality  was 
$200  a  ton,  second  quality  $180  a  ton,  a  third  quality  $160  a  ton. 
Corn  and  rye  was  $18  a  bushel,  buckwheat  and  oats  $12  a  bushel,  a 
cord  of  wood  was  worth  $12.  The  price  of  carting  was  $32  a  day, 
and  a  viewer  of  damages  received  $20  a  day.  Of  course  these  large 
prices  are  in  the  depreciated  Continental  currency. 

The  following  is  taken  from  the  recollections  of  the  late  George 
J.  Ackerman,  a  prominent  citizen  of  Hackensack,  which  was  first 
published  in  1902.  The  recollections  are  from  fifty  to  sixty  years, 
antedating  the  publication,  when  there  were  no  names  to  any  of  the 
streets  in  the  village : 

The  first  acquisition  of  land  in  city  of  Hackensack  (New  Barba- 
does  township),  was  a  grant  to  John  Berry,  which  included  all  of 
what  is  now  the  city  of  Hackensack.  Berry's  grant  was  subsequent- 
ly subdivided.    Isaac  VanGieson  purchased  the  tract  from  what  is 

2S3 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

now  Warren  street  north  to  the  sonth  side  of  the  store  formerly 
occupied  by  Julius  Ellis,  and  which  at  the  present  day  is  occupied 
by  the  Woohvorth  site  and  C.  A.  Bogert  candy  kitchen.  Kynier  Van- 
Gieson,  who  was  a  son  of  Isaac  VanGieson,  donated  in  1762  the  plot 
of  ground  on  which  now  stands  the  Washington  Institute.  Another 
early  purchaser  was  Jan  Berdan,  who  on  the  ninth  day  of  June, 
1708,  being  the  seventh  year  of  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne,  purchased 
*^all  that  tract  lying  between  Isaac  VanGieson 's  north  line  and  the 
Kings  road  (now  Passaic  street)  from  the  Hackensack  river  to  the 
Saddle  river. ' '  He  and  his  wife  Eva  executed  in  1717  a  deed  for  one- 
half  of  this  tract  to  Paulos  Vanderbeek,  the  money  consideration 
being  £87  of  the  current  money  of  the  Province  of  New  York.  The 
said  Vanderbeek  and  his  heirs  and  assigns  also  agreed  to  pay  yearly 
on  the  twentieth  day  of  March  as  a  cheife  or  quit-rent  to  John  Berry, 
his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  the  sum  of  seven  shillings  and  one 
penny,  current  money  of  the  Province  of  New  Y^ork.  These  early 
landowners  had  their  residences  on  the  main  thoroughfare,  to  which 
they  opened  lanes  for  the  purpose  of  going  to  and  from  their  farms, 
which  extended  beyond  the  Red  Hill,  and  it  is  probable  there  was  a 
back  lane  or  street  farther  west ;  these  lanes  did  not  run  beyond  the 
eastern  line  of  this  lane,  therefore  we  find  that  all  of  the  three 
original  lanes  were  but  a  block  long;  what  is  now  Camden  street  led 
to  the  Berdan  property,  Salem  street  to  Vanderbeek  and  Warren 
street  to  the  VanGieson.  The  last  of  the  Berdan  homestead  w\as 
destroyed  in  1921 ;  its  cornerstone  bore  the  date  of  1717,  and  it  was 
the  original  residence  of  the  first  settler,  Jan  Berdan,  and  was  lo- 
cated near  what  is  now  Salem  street.  On  this  proi)erty  in  1822,  after 
enlarging  the  original  house,  was  established  by  Isaac  Vanderbeek, 
the  noted  Hackensack  Tavern.  The  beautiful  Dutch  colonial  house 
of  Paulos  Vanderbeek,  built  in  1717,  has  been  used  for  several  years 
by  the  New  Y'ork  Telephone  Company  as  a  store  house,  but  is  to  be 
demolished  (in  1922)  to  make  room  for  enlarged  improvements.  On 
the  west  side  of  the  back  lane  (State  street)  were  farm  and  pasture 
lands  and  many  orchards  of  trees  laden  with  luscious  apples,  and 
immense  fields  of  corn  and  waving  grain  w^ere  not  an  uncommon 
sight  during  the  early  autumn  months. 

The  AVashington  Mansion  House,  still  standing  (though  now 
much  enlarged),  was  kept  by  David  D.  Demarest.  It  had  always 
been  a  noted  place  of  resort  for  travelers  and  people  having  busi- 
ness at  the  county  seat.  Historical  records  tell  us  it  was  the  private 
residence  of  Peter  Zabriskie  (at  the  time  of  the  Pevolutionary  War), 
who  was  a  friend  of  General  Washington,  who  made  the  home  his 
headquarters,  his  meals  being  sent  to  him  from  Archibald  Camp- 
bell's tavern.  In  1834  the  Weehawk  Bank  had  its  headquarters  in 
this  building,  John  DeGroot  president,  and  George  Y^.  Alliare 
cashier.    The  bank  was  subsequently  removed  to  the  house  built  for 

284' 


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KIXG  GEORGE'S  CROWX 
Homespun  Blanket  from  Rurdett  Home,  Fort  Lee 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEX  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

it,  standing-  east  from  the  Mansion  House.  The  bank  failed  and  the 
honse  is  still  standing,  occupied  as  la^v  oflices.  The  old  church  stand- 
ing east  of  the  Green  is  a  time-honored  monument  which  was  held 
in  respect  by  our  ancient  Dutch  progenitors.  The  pews  were  sold 
to  the  members,  who  received  a  deed  for  the  same,  in  which  0A\'ner- 
ship  lasted  forever,  with  the  provision  "that  it  should  not  be  de- 
stroyed or  defaced."  The  church  was  heated  by  two  wood-burning 
stoves  placed  on  either  side  of  the  main  entrance,  each  of  which  had 
a  pi])e  extending  the  full  length  of  the  building.  In  cold  weather  the 
women  folks  generally  carried  little  foot  stoves  in  which  was  a  metal 
pan  tilled  with  live  coals  to  keep  the  feet  warm  during  the  services, 
which  were  of  rather  long  duration,  generally  three  hours.  The 
pulpit  was  quite  small,  being  semi-circular  in  front  and  elevated 
about  five  or  six  feet  above  the  floor.  It  was  reached  by  a  circular 
stairway  placed  on  each  side  of  it.  Directly  underneath  and  in  front 
of  the  pulpit  was  a  desk  and  chair  occupied  by  the  precentor,  who 
would  sing  the  hymn,  to  be  followed  by  the  congregation.  He  used 
a  tuning  fork  to  get  the  pitch.  There  was  no  choir,  and  there  was 
not  even  an  organ  or  any  other  musical  instrument  in  any  of  the 
churches.  In  fact,  it  was  considered  by  some  profane  and  irreverent 
to  have  any  instrument  of  music  in  their  houses  of  worship,  and  was 
deprecated  in  the  most  caustic  terms  by  the  old  dominies. 

Across  the  Green  was  another  tavern,  afterwards  called  the 
Hackensack  House,  kept  by  Edward  YanBeuren.  Next  door  to  it, 
looking  east,  was  the  coitnty  cotirt  house  and  jail,  built  1819.  At 
that  time  the  building  was  much  smaller  than  at  present.  The  jail 
was  in  the  building  and  the  cells,  four  in  number,  two  on  each  side 
of  the  main  entrance,  were  reached  by  a  narrow  passageway  rtmning 
in  front  of  them,  and  secured  by  two  doors,  one  of  iron  and  one  of 
wood,  with  massive  lock  and  key.  It  was  in  one  of  these  cells  the 
ill-fated  murderer,  Billie  Keating,  was  confined  in  1850.  At  the 
execution,  the  sheriff,  John  V.  H.  Terhune,  attired  in  full  military 
regalia,  with  sword,  cocked  hat  and  feathers,  officiated,  and  Sam 
Dawson,  who  was  the  jailor,  ctit  the  rope.  The  scaffold  was  erected 
in  the  triangle  enclosure  on  the  west  end  of  the  court  house,  in  full 
view  of  everybody  who  wanted  to  see  enacted  the  last  drama  in  the 
life  of  that  unfortunate  murderer.  The  Green  was  crowded  with 
people  from  all  parts  of  the  county,  and  rich  and  poor  jostled  each 
other  to  get  a  view  of  the  tragedy.  He  was  clothed  in  a  white  suit 
and  cap  made  by  a  tailor  named  Royce.  At  that  time  there  was  a 
flagpole  about  one  hundred  feet  high  standing  in  the  centre  of  the 
Gi'een,  surmounted  by  a  Cap  of  Liberty.  An  American  flag  was 
generally  displayed  from  the  top  of  the  pole  on  every  Fourth  of 
July,  and  the  old  Revolutionary  cannon,  "The  Bergen"  (bereft  of 
the  carriage  and  \ving  now  in  the  cellar  of  Johnston's  Public  Li- 

285 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

brary,  the  property  of  the  Bergen  County  Historical  Society),  boom- 
ed forth  its  voice  of  terror. 

The  Zabriskie  mansion,  with  its  Corinthian  columns,  stood  on 
the  present  site  of  the  Bergen  County  Children's  Home.  On  the 
other  side  of  the  street  just  beyond  the  New  Jersey  &  New  York 
railroad  crossing,  still  standing,  is  the  Mabon  residence,  one  of  the 
famous  lanchnarks  of  Hackensack,  which,  if  it  could  only  speak, 
could  tell  a  remarkable  history.  It  vv'as  here  that  the  first  progenitor 
of  the  Aekorman  family  in  Bergen  county  settled  and  built  a  house  in 
1704,  .which  was  evidently  the  old  end  that  was  demolished  lately, 
and  the  large  and  beautiful  house  was  built  later.  On  stones  in  the 
east  end  wall  is  the  following  inscription : 

A.  A.  M.    G.  A.  M. 
D.  A.  M. 

Anno  170-i 

It  was  accompanied  with  the  symbols  of  husbandry,  viz.:  A 
plough  and  spinning  wheel  and  three  hieroglyphics.  The  letters 
stand  for  Abraham  AckerMan,  his  wife  Gietje  AckerMan,  and  his 
oldest  son,  David  Acker]\[an.  It  is  still  in  the  possession  of  the  de- 
scendants of  the  original  owner.  The  parsonage  of  the  church  on 
the  Green  stood  by  the  creek.  It  was  moved  about  1S5S  to  ])roperty 
OAvned  by  the  church  on  Sussex  street,  sold  and  still  stands  in  line 
condition.  Bert  Campbell  o\\med  and  lived  in  the  house  on  the  west- 
erly corner  of  State  and  Essex  streets.  Old  Hannah  Simonson,  as 
she  was  familiarly  called,  o^v^led  and  occupied  a  little  low  one-story 
house  between  State  street  and  the  creek,  on  the  site  of  the  house 
of  Schuyler  Boyd. 

One  of  the  ancient  landmarks  of  Hackensack  is  the  Green,  its 
history  dating  back  to  1696,  the  date  of  John  Berr^^'s  gift  of  two  and 
three-quarters  acres  of  land  to  the  inhabitants  of  Hackensack  and 
New  Barbadoes  townships.  Here  stood  the  whipping  post  and 
stocks,  public  notices  were  posted,  and  training  bands  met  for  drill 
and  parades.  The  ground  on  the  Green  was  trod  by  the  feet  of 
Washington  and  Lafayette  and  the  patriotic  soldiers  in  the  great 
struggle  for  freedom.  After  the  American  troops  had  taken  their 
departure  from  the  town  about  November  20,  1776,  a  different  pic- 
ture was  presented  the  next  day,  when  at  about  noon  time  the  Brit- 
ish took  possession  of  Hackensack,  and  in  the  afternoon  the  Green 
was  covered  with  Hessians,  a  horrid,  frightful  sight  to  the  inhabi- 
tants. There  were  between  3,000  and  4,000  Hessians,  with  their 
whiskers,  brass  caps,  and  kettle  drums.    A  part  of  these  troops  were 

286 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

taken  prisoners  two  months  later  at  Trenton.  Here,  too,  the  fore- 
fathers of  the  hamlet  of  Eevokilionary  days  saw  their  court  house, 
which  stood  on  the  Green,  facing  Main  street,  burned  to  ashes,  and 
the  town  sacked  and  plundered  by  British  invaders  in  17S0.  The 
Hessians  threatened  also  to  destroy  the  old  church  on  the  Green, 
but  it  escaped  their  sacrilegious  hands. 

The  Green  as  pictured  in  1S20  was  a  bare  plot  of  ground,  with  a 
tall  flag-pole  in  the  center,  and  willow  trees  on  the  side,  with  the  old 
church  and  court  house  to  the  east,  while  the  Mansion  House  was  on 
the  north  and  the  Hackensack  House  on  the  south  of  the  park.  In 
1858  the  Green  Avas  the  subject  of  acrimonious  contention  between 
the  church  people  and  common  citizens  of  the  town.  The  citizens 
wanted  the  spot  enclosed  with  an  iron  railing;  the  consistory  object- 
ed and  combatted,  but  the  people  scored  a  victory  and  contributed 
$200  for  the  posts  and  iron  railing.  Editor  Kimball,  who  published 
the  ''Bergen  County  Journal"  in  Hackensack  at  that  time,  manifest- 
ed his  satisfaction  over  the  matter  with  this  glowing  comment:  "It 
is  our  duty  as  Christians,  as  citizens  of  Hackensack,  as  lovers  of  the 
beautiful,  to  insist  upon  the  improvement  of  this  spot.  It  is  to 
Hackensack  what  the  Common  is  to  Boston,  what  the  Central  Park 
will  be  to  New  York."  That  spelled  finis  for  the  gnarled  and  knotty 
old  \villows  that  had  stood  for  a  century  or  more,  and  they  were  re- 
moved and  new  trees  planted,  some  being  elms,  which  are  standing 
to-day.  Old  willows  which  were  familiar  landmarks  in  other  parts 
of  the  town  have  nearly  all  disappeared  within  the  recent  past.  The 
Green  has  been  made  use  of  for  various  purposes  ever  since  its  for- 
mation. Both  the  Democrats  and  Republicans  have  held  mass  meet- 
ings on  the  Green,  and  liberty  jDoles  have  been  erected,  and  the  late 
Judge  Joseph  D.  Bedle  spoke  there  in  his  campaign  for  Governor  in 
1874.  An  Assembly  District  caucus  was  held  by  the  Democrats  on 
the  Green  one  autumn  afternoon  in  1868,  and  Eben  Winton  received 
the  nomination.  That  is  somewhat  dilYerent  from  the  primary  pro- 
cedure to-day.  More  recently  ornaments  began  to  be  placed  on  the 
Green.  First  came  a  fountain,  then  a  band  stand,  the  gift  of  Frank 
Poor,  one  of  the  greatest  promoters  of  Hackensack,  which  served  its 
purpose  for  a  time  and  was  then  removed.  Just  east  of  the  fountain 
is  a  cannon  which  was  presented  by  the  War  Department  at  Wash- 
ington to  Hackensack  about  ten  years  ago.  On  the  following  Dec- 
oration Day  appropriate  exercises  were  held  around  the  big  gun,  on 

287 


HACKExNSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

^vhicli  occasion  Col.  Alfred  T.  Holley,  of  Ilaekensack,  delivered  a 
most  eloquent  oration.  This  was  followed  by  a  military  parade 
through  town. 

The  Green  is  not  fenced  in  to-day,  being  all  open,  with  concrete 
walks  running  across  it.  There  is  also  a  flagstaff  near  the  center  of 
the  park,  placed  there  by  the  Hackensack  Coromission,  and  ''Old 
Olory  "  is  hoisted  every  morning  by  one  of  the  town  employees,  pro- 
vided the  weather  is  fair.  After  the  "World  AYar  a  large  honor  roll 
board  was  placed  on  the  west  side  of  the  Green,  along  Main  street, 
containing  the  names  of  the  Hackensack  young  men  who  were  called 
to  the  service.    The  board  was  removed  in  1921. 

Hackensack  from  the  time  of  its  organization  in  the  dim  distant 
past  was  an  important  place  and  the  center  of  considerable  business 
activity,  becoming  more  so  as  the  years  rolled  along,  and  the  popu- 
lation in  the  outlying  districts  increased.  For  more  than  one  hun- 
dred years  it  was  the  business  center  for  all  the  surrounding  coun- 
iry,  and  to  the  northwest  it  commanded  the  trade  for  a  distance  that 
extended  to  the  extreme  limit  of  the  county  and  beyond.  At  that 
tim.e  there  was  considerable  navigation  on  the  Hackensack  river, 
especially  in  the  fall  and  spring,  of  farm  and  industrial  products 
seeking  transportation  to  Newark  and  New  Y^ork,  but  now  navigat- 
ing the  Hackensack  river  would  be  entirely  too  slow  in  these  days  of 
rapid  transit  by  rail  and  motor  truck.  Better  roads  and  more  rapid 
communication  with  the  cities  and  large  towns  in  more  recent  years 
have  reduced  the  limits  of  the  trade  and  business  of  Hackensack  by 
affording  other  commodious  outlets  to  the  surrounding  country.  The 
New  Jersey  &  New  Y'ork  railroad  and  the  Nevr  Y^ork,  Susquehanna 
&  Western,  which  pass  through  the  town,  bring  it  within  about  half 
an  hour  of  the  great  metropolis,  besides  which  there  is  the  Hudson 
river  trolley  line  to  130th  street.  New  York,  also  a  short  run.  Many 
business  men  reside  in  Ilaekensack,  while  their  place  of  business  is 
in  New  York  and  elsewhere.  It  is  largely  a  place  of  pleasant  homes 
and  beautiful  abodes,  although  there  are  several  industrial  plants. 
Some  forty  years  ago  the  finest  residences  in  town  were  located  on 
Essex,  Main  and  Passaic  streets,  but  the  scene  has  since  shifted  and 
now  the  most  pretentious  homes  are  found  in  the  hill  section  on 
Summit  and  Prospect  avenues,  etc. 

Hackensack  has  a  form  of  government  different  from  that  in 
operation  in  any  other  municipality  in  New  Jersey,  and  is  styled 

288 


HACKEXSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEX  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

the  Hackonsaek  Improvement  Commission.  This  commission  vras 
created  by  act  of  the  State  Legislature  in  1S68,  and  has  been  in  ex- 
istence fifty-four  years.  In  tlie  early  days  of  the  commission,  only 
]»roperty  owners  could  vote  for  commissioners  or  be  elected  com- 
missioner, and  a  $100  lot  constituted  a  property  owner.  By  secur- 
ing title  to  that  much  real  estate  on  a  certain  occasion,  one  citizen 
was  enabled  to  be  a  candidate  for  commissioner.  That  restriction, 
however,  has  long  since  been  removed,  and  commissioners  are  elect- 
ed the  same  as  candidates  to  any  other  public  office. 

The  commission  act  was  supplemented  in  April,  1S71,  by  a  pro- 
vision empowering  the  commission  to  organize  a  fire  department. 
On  June  1  following,  two  fire  companies  were  organized,  and  sub- 
sequently four  or  five  more  companies  were  formed,  but  the  volun- 
teer companies  have  all  gone  out  of  existence  and  a  dozen  years  ago 
a  paid  fire  department  was  organized  under  the  control  of  the  com- 
mission. Five  commissioners  constituted  the  full  membership  of  the 
commission  until  about  1911,  when  the  act  was  again  amended,  in- 
creasing the  number  to  seven,  the  law  providing  that  there  should 
be  one  commissioner  elected  from  each  of  the  five  wards,  a  commis- 
sioner-at-large,  and  a  president  of  the  commission.  The  term  of  the 
president  and  commissioner-at-large  is  two  years,  and  that  of  the 
commissioners  three  years.  There  is  no  salary  attached  to  the  of- 
fice. 

Two  or  three  efforts  have  been  made  to  change  the  form  of  gov- 
ernment to  something  different,  a  city  seeming  to  be  the  most  fav- 
ored, but  nothing  was  accomplished,  the  last  time  the  question  was 
agitated  being  about  ten  years  ago.  Then  the  matter  was  discussed 
and  a  city  plan  proposed,  but  no  conclusion  was  reached,  and  there 
the  matter  dropped.  After  slumbering  until  the  summer  of  1921, 
the  proposition  was  again  revived.  This  time  it  was  something  en- 
tirely different  from  what  had  formerly  been  proposed.  It  was  not 
to  change  the  form  of  government,  but  simply  to  change  the  name 
of  the  municipality.  The  question  that  was  submitted  to  the  voters 
at  the  general  election  on  November  8,  1921,  was  this:  ''Shall  the 
name  of  the  municipality  be  changed  from  "Township  of  Xew  Bar- 
badoes,  County  of  Bergen,  to  City  of  Hackensack?"  The  voters  de- 
cided in  favor  of  the  change  by  a  good  majority.  So  Hackensack  is  a 
city  in  name. 

Contemporaneous  with  the  organization  of  civil  government  in 

289 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEX  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

the  Province  of  New  Jersey,  the  Assembly  of  November,  1G6S,  in 
consideration  of  the  inconveniences  that  do  arise  for  the  want  of  an 
ordinary  in  every  town,  ordered  that  Bergen  and  other  counties 
provide  each  an  inn  for  the  relief  and  entertainment  of  strangers. 
Later  the  town  authorities  had  the  power  given  them  to  appoint 
innkeepers,  and  he  was  considered  a  town  oflicer.  The  appointment 
was  one  of  honor,  and  authorities  were  very  particular  to  whom 
licenses  were  granted,  requiring  the  innkeeper  to  provide  meat, 
drink  and  lodging,  and  to  those  holding  a  license  the  sole  privilege 
Tvas  given  to  retail  liquors  under  the  quantity  of  two  gallons. 

The  Legislature  in  May,  1668,  endeavored  to  correct  the  vice  of 
drunkenness  by  imposing  a  fine.  Innkeepers  were  assessed  from 
forty  shillings  to  three  pounds  for  the  use  of  the  poor.  They  wer« 
required  to  provide  two  good  spare  feather  beds  more  than  was 
necessary  for  family  use,  and  to  have  good  house  room,  stabling  and 
pasture  for  drovers.  Near  the  early  churches  there  was  always  a 
tavern,  as  many  of  those  attending  church  drove  many  miles,  they 
were  made  welcome  by  the  proprietors,  then  men  refreshing  them- 
selves with  one  of  the  popular  drinks  of  the  day,  and  it  is  said  the 
ladies,  too,  took  mild  refreshments  and  had  their  little  foot  stove 
pans  refilled  with  hot  coals  before  they  entered  the  church  for  the 
three-hour  service.  The  noon  hour  called  for  another  visit  with 
stoves,  as  another  three  hours'  service  was  ahead  of  them,  and  then 
before  leaving  for  the  long,  cold  ride  home,  the  stoves  were  refilled 
and  placed  in  the  sleighs  or  wagons,  the  seats  therein  being  chairs 
brought  by  the  women  for  use  in  the  chairless,  fireless  churches.  Lm- 
keepers  were  prohibited  from  allowing  tippling  or  drinking  in  their 
houses  on  the  Lord's  Day,  especially  ''during  time  of  Divine  Wor- 
ship," to  which  was  added,  ''excepting  for  necessary  refreshments." 
The  following  ofiicial  rates  are  from  the  original  copies : 

A  rate  for  Tavern  Keepers,  1763 — A  warm  dinner,  three  shill- 
ings; cold  dinner,  one  shilling;  supper,  one  shilling;  breakfast,  nine 
pence;  bottle  meadeary  wine,  five  shillings;  common  wine,  three 
shillings;  quart  lime  punch,  one  shilling  six  pence,  without  limes, 
one  shilling;  gill  of  rum,  five  pence;  quart  of  beer,  five  pence;  quart 
of  cider,  five  pence,  cpiart  of  oats,  three  pence ;  night  feed  of  English 
hay,  two  shillings;  salt  hay  for  a  horse,  nine  pence;  gill  of  brandy 
or'gellwine,  eight  pence;  a  lodging  one  night  for  a  person,  eight 
pence;  pasturing  one  horse,  one  shilling. 

The  following  rates  are  established  by  the  court  of  quarter 

290 


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t5iiifeiJfeglMKi?€i^ 


INX  SIGN 
Signboard  of  John  A.  Hopper's  Tavern,  Hoppcrstown  (now  Hohokus) 


HACKENSACK.  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEX  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

sessions  for  tavernkeepers,  March  29,  1781 — Dinner,  extraordinary, 
two  shillings,  six  pence;  common  dinner  or  breakfast,  two  shillings; 
supper  extraordinary,  two  shillings,  six  pence;  common  supjier,  one 
shilling,  six  pence;  gill  of  West  India  rum,  nine  pence;  quart  of 
cider,  six  pence ;  quart  of  beer,  six  pence ;  night's  lodging,  six  pence; 
feed  hay  for  a  horse,  one  shilling,  six  pence ;  common  or  salt  hay,  one 
shilling;  good  pasture  for  a  horse,  nine  pence,  quart  of  oats,  two 
pence. 

The  importance  of  the  inn  and  the  activities  therein  is  taken 
from  Lee's  *'New  Jersey  as  a  Colony  and  a  State."  '* During  the 
colonial  period  of  Xew  Jersey  the  Inn  became  a  social  and  political 
center.  Xot  only  were  these  houses  designed  for  entertainment 
of  man  and  baiting  of  beast,  but  they  served  as  meeting  places  for 
council  and  assembly,  as  the  temporary  executive  mansions  for  the 
governors,  as  county  court  houses,  polling  places,  tax  collectors, 
school  houses,  regimental  headquarters  on  training  days,  terminus 
for  post  and  passenger  stages,  post  offices,  banlvS,  and  traveling 
ministers  of  various  denominations,  while  the  county  freeholders 
frequently  had  no  other  building  in  which  business  could  be  trans- 
acted. ' ' 

The  arrival  of  the  itinerant  tax  assessor  at  the  local  tavern  was 
a  public  event  in  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century,  the  to\^Tl 
folks  gathering  to  receive  him,  to  indulge  in  a  holiday.  The  rounds 
in  the  First  District  of  New  Jersey  were  made  in  June,  1816,  by 
John  Dodd,  and  every  householder,  landholder  and  slaveholder  was 
duly  notified  to  be  present  and  give  an  exact  accounting  of  his  prop- 
erty, both  real  and  personal,  in  compliance  with  the  law.  Dodd  was 
due  at  Vanllouten's  Tavern,  Saddle  River,  June  20;  Hopper's 
Tavern,  Hopper  To^ra,  June  21;  Demarest  Tavern,  Harrington, 
June  22 ;  at  Hackensack  the  follo^nng  da}',  where  a  well-earned  rest 
was  taken  till  Monday  morning,  when  he  was  to  be  at  Vanderbeek 
Tavern.  At  each  of  these  places  the  assessor  made  a  speech  some- 
thing in  this  manner : 

Fellow  citizens,  I  am  here  for  the  purpose  of  securing  informa- 
tion that  may  be  furnished  as  to  the  changes  which  may  have  taken 
place  in  the  assessable  property  of  individuals  since  the  last  assess- 
ment, made  under  the  act  of  June  9,  1815,  and  previous  to  the  first 
of  June,  1816,  which  information  must  be  given  in  writing  under 
the  signature  of  the  person  whose  tax  may  be  affected  thereby.  First, 
assessable  property  omitted  to  be  assessed.    Second,  transfer  of  real 

291 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

estate  and  slaves.  Third,  change  of  residence.  Fourth,  burninc:  or 
destruction  of  houses  or  other  fixed  improvement.  Fifth,  shives  that 
have  been  born  or  have  died  or  have  run  away  or  have  otherwise 
become  useless  since  the  preceding  assessment.  Any  person  becom- 
ing the  owner  of  a  slave  by  transfer  to  him  from  collection  district 
other  than  that  in  which  he  resides  is  required  under  penalty  of  $10 
to  render  a  statement  specifying  the  age  and  sex  of  such  slave,  who 
is  to  bo  valued  according  to  his  or  her  existing  value.  Ahem!  The 
assessor  waits  for  the  citizen  to  walk  up  to  his  desk  and  make  his 
statement. 

John  Dodd  was,  at  the  end  of  his  trip,  the  best  informed  man 
on  about  every  stibjeet  in  the  district.  He  knew  of  every  public 
house  or  tavern,  every  home,  and  much  of  the  gossip.  Saddle  bags 
were  required  for  filing  books  and  papers. 

The  first  tavern  of  any  prominence  in  Hackensack  was  kept  by 
Archibald  Campbell,  on  the  site  of  the  present  Union  League  Club 
house,  corner  of  Main  and  Morris  streets.  Mr.  Campbell  was  the  first 
postmaster  of  the  to^\m,  and  was  succeeded  as  innkeeper  by  his  son  in 
about  1S04.  The  last  proprietor  was  evidently  James  Vanderpool, 
who  was  also  interested  in  a  line  of  stages  running  to  the  Hoboken 
ferry.  Among  other  early  taverns  mention  is  made  in  the  minutes 
of  the  Justices  and  Freeholders  of  a  meeting  held  in  1766  at  Mrs. 
Watson's,  near  the  Hackensack  river.  This  was  evidently  a  tavern 
in  jDursuant  to  an  act  of  the  Governor's  Council  and  General  As- 
sembly provided  for  that  purpose.  Adam  Boyd  was  also  another 
early  tavern  keeper,  his  home  being  where  Scivanies'  fruit  store  is 
now  located.  The  Morris  Earle  tavern  was  on  the  corner  of  Main 
and  Bridge  streets;  the  freeholders  met  there  in  1793;  the  build- 
ing is  still  standing.  Dr.  John  CamiDbell's  tavern  is  referred  to  in 
1802  as  being  located  at  the  end  of  the  Hackensack  and  Hoboken 
turnpike  in  Hackensack.  The  Hackensack  House  stood  on  the 
south  side  of  the  Green,  and  amongst  its  different  proprietors  were 
Abe  Van  Saun,  Mr.  Conkrite,  Mr.  Van  Buren  and  others.  This  was 
known  to  be  an  old  tavern  site  on  which  there  was  an  enlarged  build- 
ing, and  it  may  be  possible  that  it  was  the  pre-Eevolutionary  "Abra- 
ham Ackerman's  Tavern,  near  the  Court  House."  Isaac  Vander- 
beek  purchased  the  original  homestead  of  Jan  Berdan,  built  1717, 
on  Main  street,  near  Salem  street,  which  he  enlarged  and  opened  a 
tavern  called  the  Hackensack  Tavern,  in  1833,  which  was  a  popular 
resort  for  forty  years.     Later  it  became  a  private  classical  and 

292 


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HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

matlicmaUcal  school,  but  in  1921  was  demolislied  to  make  \\D.j  for 
more  modern  buildings.  There  is  no  doubt  that  there  were  other  tav- 
erns located  in  ITackensack,  but  there  is  no  record  establishing  their 
existence. 

The  residence  of  Peter  Zabriskie,  built  in  1751,  ^Yas  where 
Gen.  Washing-ton  had  his  headquarters  in  1776,  having  entered 
Hackensack  with  about  3,000  troops.     The  supplies  for  the  Gen- 
eral's table  while  at  the  Zabriskie  home  were  furnished  by  Archi- 
bald Campbell,  the  tavern  keeper  on  the  opposite  corner.    Before 
leaving  town  the  General  rode  to  the  dock  to  take  observations  of 
the  enemy's  encampment,  and  then  returned  to  Mr.  Campbell's  door 
and  called  for  some  wine  and  water.    A  bronze  tablet  placed  by  the 
Bergen  County  Historical  Society  on  the  outer  stone  wall  of  the 
Mansion  House,  on  the  Main  street  side,  to  commemorate  the  place 
as   Washington's  headquarters,   bears   the   follo^dng  inscription: 
''Placed  by  the  Bergen  County  Historical  Society  to  mark  the  site 
of  the  ^Mansion  House  occupied  as  headquarters  by  Gen.  George 
Washington  during  the  retreat  from  Fort  Lee,  1776."    Two  rooms 
of  especial  interest  to  visitors  to  the  Mansion  House  are  the  main 
parlor  and  Room  19,  on  the  second  floor,  one  with  brown,  the  other 
blue  tiling,  in  the  fireplaces.    These  tiles,  brought  from  Holland,  i^ic- 
ture  well  known  Bible  scenes.     In  this  respect  the  Mansion  House 
supplies  material  found  in  no  other  local  building  of  the  olden  days. 
The  next  record  tells  that  in  1834  David  D.  Demarest  was  pro- 
prietor of  a  tavern  in  the  Zabriskie  house.     The  same  year  he  was 
chosen  postmaster,  and  in  the  bar  room  of  the  tavern  the  mail  was 
kept  for  distribution  in  a  handy  box.    Mr.  Demarest  became  sheriff 
in  181-1  and  was  reappointed  postmaster  1843-45.    About  this  time 
the  tavern  was  known  as  the  Albany  Stage  Eoute  Tavern,    It  was 
probably  so  named  when  Albert  G.  Doremus,  the  noted  stage  coach 
owner,  was  running  for  the  government  his  route  to  Albany  to  carry 
the  mail.    When  passing  through  Hackensack  his  jDassengers  patron- 
ized the  tavern  while  Mr.  Doremus  changed  horses  at  his  own  sta- 
bles.   Mr.  Doremus  died  in  1851,  when  the  stage  business  was  at  its 
height.    His  son,  Eichard  A.,  succeeded  him  until  the  stage  coaches 
passed  out  of  service.     About  1858  must  have  been  the  time  the 
name  of  Washington  Mansion  House  was  given  to  the  ^Vlbany  Stage 
Iioute  Tavern,  which  has  still  been  retained.    Mr.  Albert  Doremus' 
home  was  the  lieautiful  stone  house  that  stood  on  Main  near  Bergen 

293 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

street  (on  which  were  his  stage  barns  and  stables,  later  turned  into 
dwellings),  later  owned  by  Dr.  A.  Frank,  who  has  altered  the  front 
into  stores. 

Elections  have  been  held  in  the  "ball  room"  of  the  Mansion 
House,  and  the  Democrats  made  it  their  headquarters  for  many 
years,  holding  county  conventions  and  mass  meetings  there.  Some 
noted  speakers  were  heard  there  in  the  old  days.  Old  Company  C, 
National  Guard,  when  first  organized  in  1872,  held  its  drills  in  the 
Mansion  House.  Entertaimnents  were  also  held  there.  In  Civil 
War  days  the  proprietor  of  the  Mansion  House  was  John  Lovett, 
who  continued  for  some  time  after  the  war  period.  More  recent 
proprietors  of  the  ancient  hostelry  were  :  Abraham  Brownson,  John 
Ryan  and  Erv\-in  Shivler,  the  latter  now  owning  the  property.  The 
Mansion  House  was  the  scene  of  a  great  jollification  on  June  25, 
1863,  when  the  comj^anies  of  the  Twenty-second  Regiment  who 
served  in  the  AVar  of  the  Eebcllion  returned  to  Hackensack.  Hav- 
ing been  mustered  out  of  service  at  Trenton  and  given  a  magnificent 
reception  by  ladies  and  citizens  at  the  State  Capital,  upon  their  ar- 
rival in  Hackensack  the  men  were  vrelcomed  with  warm  congratu- 
lations and  a  collation  was  served  at  the  Mansion  House. 

There  w^ere  several  stage  routes  having  their  headquarters  in 
Hackensack,  leading  to  Boiling  Spring  (Butherford),  Paramus,  Fort 
Lee,  Old  Bergen,  etc.  Then  came  the  railroads  and  steam  coaches, 
and  the  doom  of  the  stage  coach  was  at  hand.  Line  after  line  of 
stage  coaches  ^vas  discontinued,  and  tavern  after  tavern  fell  into 
disuse,  until  before  many  years  had  gone  by,  stage  coach  and  tavern 
Avere  found  only  in  isolated  regions.  But  in  the  present  period  has 
been  restored  something  of  the  early  methods  by  the  auto-bus  in 
operating  from  towm  to  town,  but  lacking  in  its  picturesqueness,  be- 
cause of  the  passing  of  the  taverns,  besides  other  attractions. 

Francis  Bazley  Lee,  in  ''New  Jersey  as  a  Colony  and  as  a 
State,"  says  from  the  opening  of  the  nineteenth  century  until  the  in- 
troduction of  railway  legislation  in  the  early  thirties,  marks  the  era 
of  the  turnpike,  when  Xew  Jersey,  following  the  example  set  by 
other  States,  as  well  as  by  the  national  government,  made  efforts 
to  unite  by  a  better  system  of  pulJic  roads  the  small  towms,  not  only 
one  wdth  another,  but  with  the  great  centers  of  Philadelphia  and 
Xew  York.  These  instruments  of  association,  crude  as  they  may 
have  been,  formed  the  connecting  link  between  the  colonial  avenues 

294 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

of  transportation,  out  of  which  thej-  grew,  and  the  days  of  steam. 
Thomas  F.  Gordon,  in  his  ''Gazetteer,"  published  in  1834,  in  ex- 
amining the  causes  leading  to  the  construction  of  turnpikes  in  New 
Jersey,  states  that  ''the  objects  of  their  incorporation  were  three- 
fold. First,  it  was  the  desire  of  facilitating  communication  between 
Philadelphia  and  New  York ;  the  need  of  an  outlet  for  the  products 
of  the  fields  and  mines  in  the  northern  interior;  and  the  creation  of 
a  market  in  New  l^ork  City,  to  whicli  end  metropolitan  capital  was 
largely  invested  in  New  Jersey  turnpike  enterprises."  The  am- 
bitious enterprise  of  the  proprietors  and  associates  of  the  Paulus 
Hook  scheme  led  to  the  chartering  of  a  turnpike  company  in  1804, 
connecting  Jersey  City  (Old  Bergen)  with  Hackensack,  to  vdiich 
plan  the  State  subscribed  $12,500.  Two  years  previously  a  charter 
for  a  turnpike  from  Hackensack  to  Hoboken  had  also  been  secured. 

Lamps  were  to  be  placed  and  lighted  every  evening  hereafter, 
so  long  as  the  said  bridges  or  either  of  them  shall  stand,  before  it 
grows  dark,  and  continue  lighted  until  daylight  in  the  ensuing  morn- 
ing, and  for  each  and  every  night's  neglect,  the  said  corporation,  or 
the  person  or  persons  operating  the  said  bridge  or  bridges,  his  or 
their  agent  or  manager,  shall  forfeit  and  pay  the  sum  of  $12.  There 
were  also  penalties  for  injuring  the  bridges,  and  attendance  was 
to  be  given  to  raise  the  draw.  The  Turnpike  Company  had  the  right 
to  enter  lands  and  convert  them  to  their  use,  damages  to  be  settled 
later,  also  stone  or  gravel  could  be  taken  from  any  land. 

It  was  further  enacted  that  the  said  corporation  shall  cause 
milestones  to  be  erected,  one  for  each  and  every  mile  on  said  road; 
and  on  each  stone  shall  be  fairly  and  legibly  marked  the  distance  the 
said  stone  is  from  Hoboken,  and  also  shall  cause  to  be  affixed  and 
always  kept  up  at  each  gate,  and  in  some  conspicuous  place,  a  print- 
ed list  of  rates  of  toll,  which  from  time  to  time  may  lawfully  be  de- 
manded, under  a  penalt}^  of  $10  for  each  omission  of  placing  and 
keeping  up  a  milestone  or  printed  rates,  to  be  recovered  before  any 
justice  of  the  peace  of  the  County  of  Bergen,  with  cost  of  suit.  The 
penalty  for  injuring  the  milestones,  etc.,  was  that  if  any  person 
shall  wilfully  break,  throw  down  or  deface  any  of  the  milestones  so 
erected  on  the  said  road  for  the  information  of  the  people  traveling, 
the  same  shall  forfeit  and  pay  a  fine  of  $20.  All  wagoners  and  driv- 
ers of  carriages  of  all  kind,  whether  of  burthen  or  pleasure,  using 
the  said  road  shall,  except  when  passing  by  a  carriage  of  slower 

295 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

draft,  keep  their  horses  and  carriages  on  the  left  hand  of  the  said 
road  in  the  passing  direction,  leaving  the  other  side  of  the  road 
free  and  clear  for  other  carriages  to  pass  and  repass,  etc.  The  toll 
gates  of  Bergen  eountj'  were  abolished  in  1915,  after  a  service  of 
one  hundred  and  thirteen  years. 

THE  TOLL   GATE   HOUSE. 

By  John  Drinkwater. 

'The  toll  gate's  gone,  hut  still  stands  lone, 
In  the  dip  of  the  hill,  the  house  of  stone, 
And  over  the  roof  in  the  branching  pine 
The  great  owl  sits  in  the  white  moonshine. 
An  old  man  lives,  and   lonely  there. 
His  windows  yet  on  the  crossroads  stare, 
And  on  Michaelmas  night  in  all  the  years 
A  galloping  far  and  faint  he  hears. 
His  casement  open  wide,  he  flings 
With  "Who  goes  there !"  and  a  lantern  swings, 
But  never  more  in  the  dim  moon  beam 
Than  a  cloak  in  the  night  can  he  see. 
Of  passing  spurs  in  the  night  can  he  see, 
F"or  the  toll  gate's  gone  and  the  road  is  free." 

Following  the  close  of  the  war,  a  number  of  roads  were  project- 
ed and  built  in  Passaic  and  Bergen  counties.  In  1815  came  the  Hack- 
ensack  and  Hoboken  and  the  Paterson  and  Hackensack  in  1816,  a 
pike  from  Hudson  to  the  Hackensack  and  Hoboken  road.  Broadly 
it  may  be  said  that  from  1800  to  1828  there  were  fifty-four  original 
charters  secured  for  turnpike  companies  in  New  Jersey,  of  which 
only  one-half  conformed  to  the  terms  of  the  act  of  incorporation. 
During  this  period  about  550  miles  of  gravel  and  dirt  were  laid,  but 
little  or  no  continuous  telford  or  macadamized  road.  Among  the 
people  who  frequented  the  highways  there  was  much  of  the  colonial 
manner  and  spirit.  There  could  be  found  old  men  who,  unmindful 
of  the  statute  in  the  case  made  and  provided,  drove  to  the  left  in 
passing  another  vehicle.  Men  of  quality  still  went  about  on  horse- 
back. In  the  mid-summer,  clouds  of  dust  betrayed  the  presence  of 
sheep  or  cattle  on  the  hoof  being  driven  to  market,  urged  by  the 
barking  of  dogs  and  the  ''gads"  of  the  drovers.  Stage  coaches  rum- 
bled along  the  highways,  the  great  steeds  tugging  in  their  harness. 
Then  came  winter  and  early  spring,  the  wagons  hub-deep  in  mud  or 
caught  unprotected  in  the  drifting  snow.  But  there  was  no  dearth 
of  taveriis  with  their  courtyards  alive  with  arriving  and  departing 
stages,  with  spacious  bars  and  heavy  dinners,  with  their  light  and 
life  and  joy,  now  but  memories  and  traditions.    But  few  of  the  sleep- 

296 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

iiig  rooms  of  the  taverns  were  warmed.  The  sojourner  was  sent  to  a 
cold  roon:  and  put  into  bed  with  a  copper  warming  pan  and  an  apple- 
brandy toddy,  "with"  or  "without,"  as  taste  and  the  extent  of  the 
pantry  might  dictate.  Stages  invariably  started  at  unseemly  hours, 
seldom  later  than  sunrise,  no  matter  whether  the  journey  was  five 
or  fifty  miles  in  length.  Romance  was  passing  away,  leaving  a  few- 
courtly  old  men,  much  rare  mahogany  which  was  later  to  give  place 
to  crude  painted  pine. 

The  name  of  Bergen  Pike  was  changed  in  January,  1920,  to 
State  Route  No.  10,  which  was  a  saving  to  Bergen  county  taxpayers 
of  about  one  and  a  half  millions  of  dollars.  The  checkered  career  of 
the  old  pike  from  plank  road  to  toll  road,  to  count}^,  to  State  high- 
T/ay,  marks  steadily  in  its  progress  the  growth  of  the  county  and  in- 
dicates the  epochs  in  American  history  from  stage  coach  to  trolley, 
to  motor  cars.  The  Bergen  pike,  known  in  its  early  days  as  the  Old 
Plank  Road,  was  the  only  outlet  for  this  part  of  the  country  to  New 
York  City.  Later  the  Bergen  Turnpike  Company  operated  it  as  a 
toll  road.  Then  with  the  coming  of  the  Public  Service  Corporation 
it  became  a  joart  of  that  great  system  used  mainly  for  trolley  pur- 
poses. The  Board  of  Freeholders  purchased  the  road  from  the 
Public  Service  and  abolished  forever  the  old  antiquated  toll  road 
system.  There  were  many  criticisms  of  this  official  deed,  as  the  cor- 
portation  had  passed  on  to  the  county  by  this  transfer  all  the  hea%^ 
financial  obligations  to  maintain  the  road,  but  it  was,  nevertheless,  a 
foi^ward  movement,  a  natural  evolution  toward  the  proper  place  for 
this  old  artery  of  travel. 

When  the  State  highway  system  was  being  worked  out,  the  pos- 
sibilities of  having  the  State  take  over  the  Bergen  pike  was  agitated. 
This  proposal  appealed  to  the  State  authorities,  and  on  examination 
of  the  route  by  General  George  Goethals,  at  that  time  head  of  the 
Highway  Department  of  the  State,  it  was  finally  accepted  and  be- 
came known  as  Route  10  of  the  State  highways,  thus  relieving  the 
taxpayers  of  Bergen  county  of  all  maintenance  cost,  to  say  nothing 
of  three  bridges  which  were  antiquated  and  which  it  would  be  neces- 
sary to  rebuild  in  the  near  future. 

The  early  colonies  were  indebted  about  1694  to  Colonel  John 
Hamilton,  a  son  of  Governor  Andrew  Hamilton,  twice  acting  gover- 
nor as  president  of  the  Council,  for  devising  a  scheme  by  which  the 
post  office  was  established.    Hamilton  received  a  patent  and  after- 

297 


HACKEXSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

wards  sold  liis  riglit  to  the  crown.  By  an  act  of  the  Legislature  in 
1785  the  stage  coach  was  allowed  to  carry  the  mail. 

The  rate  of  postage  established  by  an  act  of  Congress,  February 
1,  1816,  was  for  a  single  letter  not  exceeding  forty  miles,  six  cents ; 
over  forty  miles  and  not  exceeding  ninet}"  miles,  ten  cents;  over 
ninety  miles  and  not  exceeding  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles,  twelve 
and  half  cents;  over  one  hundred  .and  fifty  and  not  exceeding  three 
hundred  miles,  seventeen  cents;  over  three  hundred  and  not  ex- 
ceeding five  hundred  miles,  twenty  cents,  and  over  five  hundred 
miles,  twenty-five  cents.  If  the  letter  contained  two  pieces  of  paper 
the  charge  was  double ;  if  three,  triple ;  and  if  four,  quadruple.  Over 
four  sheets,  if  the  conveyance  was  by  land  routes  and  weighing  one 
ounce  or  more,  single  postage  for  each  quarter  of  an  ounce  was 
charged;  by  a  water  route  the  charge  was  not  to  be  more  than  a 
quadruple  postage.  Newspapers  carried  over  one  hundred  miles 
were  a  cent  each,  if  over  one  hundred  miles  one  and  a  half  cents  each, 
but  an^Wv'here  within  the  State  the  postage  was  one  cent.  Magazines 
and  pamphlets  were  rated  for  fifty  miles  one  cent  per  sheet;  over 
fifty  miles  and  not  exceeding  one  hundred  miles,  one  and  a  half  cents ; 
and  at  greater  distance,  two  cents.  By  order  of  the  postmaster- 
general  railroads  were  utilized  in  1838  to  carry  the  mail. 

It  took  one  hundred  and  nineteen  years  with  twenty-five  post- 
masters for  Hackensack  to  cover  the  period  from  its  first  post  oftice, 
which  was  in  a  bar  room  of  a  tavern,  to  the  present  government 
building  completed  in  1917.  The  present  office  is  a  distributing  cen- 
ter for  nineteen  square  miles  of  territory,  requiring  the  employ- 
ment of  a  2^ostmaster,  assistant  postmaster,  superintendent  of 
mails,  twenty-one  clerks,  twenty-six  regular  carriers,  four  special 
delivery  carriers,  twenty-two  rural  delivery  carriers  and  one  clerk 
and  one  laborer  in  each  sub-station.  There  are  three  branch  post 
offices — Leonia,  Hasbrouck  Heights,  and  Lodi;  seven  sub-stations, 
five  in  Hackensack,  one  in  Bogota  and  Leonia,  and  a  rural  sub-sta- 
tion in  Teaneck.    Each  rural  carrier  covers  twenty-two  miles  a  day. 

The  Bergen  County  Historical  Society  was  organized  in  1902 
with  sixty-seven  members,  was  incorporated  in  1907,  and  the  mem- 
bership now  numbers  six  hundred.  The  headquarters  of  the  socie- 
ty's assembly  room,  depository  of  records,  and  the  museum,  arc  lo- 
,cated  in  Johnson  Public  Library  building  in  Hackensack.    The  offi- 

298 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY.  N.  J. 

cers  for  1922  are:  Eeid  Howell,  president;  James  W.  Mercer,  treas- 
urer; Theodore  Romaine,  secretary,  and  Mrs.  F.  A.  "Westervelt, 
curator. 

The  museum  is  not  only  the  resort  of  authors,  newspaper  writ- 
ers, educators  and  the  general  public,  but  has  won  recognition  as  a 
necessaiy  cooperative  adjunct  to  what  is  known  as  the  visual  and 
tactile  method  of  teaching,  and  is  visited  by  large  classes  of  pupils 
from  the  schools  to  whom  the  curator  delivers  instructive  lectures 
on  the  various  topics  illustrated  in  the  collections  relating  to  local 
history.  These  lectures,  or  ** Dutch  Kitchen  Talks,"  as  they  are 
called,  are  practically  unlimited  in  their  range  of  subjects.  A  "talk," 
for  example,  was  on  a  well  preserved  Indian  dug-out  canoe,  un- 
earthed near  the  banks  of  the  Hackensack  in  1868.  In  it  were  some 
stone  implements  and  an  halberd.  The  life  of  Oratam,  the  great 
sachem  of  the  xVckinkeshacky  tribe  of  this  region  of  whom  an  ideal 
memorial  bronze  bust  has  been  presented  by  the  sculptor,  John  Ettl, 
now  adorns  the  assembly  room.  The  bust  is  thirty-one  inches  high, 
the  width  of  the  shoulders  being  twenty-four  inches.  On  the  panel 
in  the  base  is  printed  "A  Memorial  to  the  Life  of  Oratam,  Sachem 
of  the  xVckinkeshacky  Indians,  1577-1677."  Underneath  this  in- 
scription is  his  mark,  also  the  following:  "Prudent  and  sagacious 
in  council,  prompt,  energetic  and  decisive  in  war."  On  each  side 
of  the  panel  are  eagle  claws ;  on  the  left  side  is  an  Indian  reaping 
grain,  and  on  the  opposite  side  an  Indian  using  a  bow  and  arrow.  In 
a  space  fifteen  by  eight  inches  on  the  back  is  a  home  scene  represent- 
ing a  teepee,  child,  squaw,  and  warrior  using  a  bow  and  arrow. 
The  turtle  reproduced  on  the  breast  of  the  sachem  is  the  totem  of 
the  Delaware  tribe  of  Indians.  The  sculptor,  John  Ettl,  a  resident 
of  Leonia,  New  Jersey,  with  an  office  in  New  York  City,  after  ob- 
taining an  early  education  became  interested  in  the  study  of  art, 
primarily  giving  his  attention  to  sculpture.  He  studied  in  the  ate- 
liers of  France,  Hungary,  Switzerland,  Italy  and  Germany.  Among 
some  of  his  sculptural  productions  are  the  Memorial  Tomb  of  Esteves 
Island,  Peru;  the  bust  of  Professor  Orton,  of  Vassar  College;  the 
Michael  Conway  memorial  portrait  at  the  Elks'  Club,  Ithaca,  New 
York;  the  Abraham  Lincoln  bust  in  the  Leonia  High  School;  the 
sculpture  on  the  Palace  of  Justice,  Berne,  Switzerland,  also  on  the 
main  entrance  gate  of  the  Paris  Exposition  of  1900;  the  Soldiers' 
Monument  at  Haverstraw,  New  Y'ork,  and  the  War  Memorial  at 

299 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

East  Eutherford,  Xe^  Jersey.  The  pedestal  of  the  bust  of  Oratain 
is  to  be  made  of  the  native  sandstone  from  tlie  Indian  sachem's 
village  site. 

Among  other  native  curios  and  relics  of  the  museum  are  sam- 
ples of  wampum,  and  pictures  of  the  interior  of  the  building  in  vrhich 
the  white  man  carried  on  the  wampum  industry;  old  Dutch  Bibles; 
slave  papers;  early  pottery  of  local  manufacturers;  tavern  sign 
from  IToppertown,  1802,  bearing  Thomas  Jel^erson's  picture;  the 
last  of  the  toll  gate  period,  1802-1915,  shown  by  boards  bearing  the 
rates  of  toll ;  a  reproduction  of  a  Dutch  kitchen,  including  the  brick 
oven,  built  up  and  furnished  by  the  curator  from  jDarts  and  contents 
of  the  old  Bergen  Dutch  houses ;  hundreds  of  pictures  illustrating 
the  unique  domestic  architecture  of  our  Jersey  Dutch  ancestors, 
their  manners  and  customs,  their  religion,  their  system  of  education, 
their  faults  and  their  virtues.  All  these  and  many  other  subjects  of 
talks  and  lectures  are  a  delight  to  both  children  and  adults. 

The  fii'st  attempt  to  establish  a  public  library  in  Hackensack 
was  in  1833,  when  on  July  2  the  Hackensack  Library  Association 
was  formed,  the  following  acting  as  trustees:  Abram  Westervelt, 
Abram  Hopper,  Samuel  H.  Berry,  Kowland  Hill,  Eichard  W.  Steven- 
son, Henry  H.  Banta  and  Richard  Danah,  This  association  was  not 
of  a  long  duration,  but  another  organization  adopting  the  same 
name  was  fomied  January  3,  1859,  and  certificates  of  stock  were 
issued.  Seven  persons  were  elected  trustees,  but  the  association 
did  not  have  a  successful  existence.  Later,  about  1871,  another  as- 
sociation was  formed,  who  inherited  the  assets  of  the  defunct  or- 
ganization. The  trustees  for  this  new  endeavor  were:  R.  W. 
Farr,  W.  L.  Comes,  David  Terhune,  Dr.  Henry  Banta,  G.  I.  Blau- 
velt,  E.  E.  Poor,  Frederick  Jacobson,  James  Quackenbush,  W.  S. 
Banta  and  J.  N.  Gamewell.  The  library  was  located  on  the  second 
floor  of  the  Wilson  building,  where  it  remained  until  removed  to  its 
present  location.  Later  the  work  was  taken  up  by  an  association  of 
young  women,  who  emploj^ed  Mrs.  Arthur  Friend  as  librarian.  About 
1878  the  Hackensack  Lyceum,  a  literary  society  composed  of  young 
men,  took  charge,  and  through  subscriptions  and  entertainments 
were  enabled  to  increase  the  volumes  on  the  shelves  of  the  library. 
The  society  was  in  charge  of  the  library  until  it  was  dissolved  in 
1884,  part  of  the  time  the  members  acting  as  librarian,  and  the 
balance  of  the  period  ^frs.  Artlmr  Friend  was  employed.  The  library 

300 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

was  then  placed  in  charge  of  an  association  of  young  ladies  who 
called  themselves  ''The  Library  Girls,"  composed  of  Misses  Carrie 
Acton,  Kittie  Chrystal,  Lillie  and  Annie  Gumming,  Mary  Gamewell, 
EfBe  Gardner,  Nina  Price,  Kittie  Rennie,  Jennie  Sage,  Anna  Stagg, 
Fannie  Conklin,  Anna  AVilliams,  Louise  Claredon,  Emily  and  Susan 
Taplin,  ITelon  Voorhis,  Amelia  "Williams,  Jennie  Hatfield,  Mrs.  H. 
M.  Bogert,  Eva  Hasbrouck  (Sldnner)  and  Mrs.  James  A.  Eomeyn. 
They  took  the  name  of  the  former  association,  and  with  the  assist- 
ance of  a  few  citizens  went  to  work  mending  the  old  books,  covering 
new  books,  canvassing  the  town  for  subscribers,  and,  as  there  were 
no  funds  for  a  librarian,  these  ladies  perfonned  the  work.  Li  this 
way  the  library  was  kept  going,  and  finally  in  1898  the  Hackensack 
Improvement  Commission  made  an  annual  appropriation  of  $500 
towards  its  support.  Thus  through  careful  management  new  books 
were  added,  a  large  list  of  periodicals  placed  on  file,  and  the  read- 
ing room  was  free  and  well  patronized.  Through  the  energy  of  these 
ladies  there  was  a  creditable  and  marked  success,  and  Miss  Jennie 
H.  Labagh  was  installed  as  permanent  librarian. 

It  was  in  the  year  1901  that  AVilliam  M.  Johnson  announced  his 
intention  to  present  to  Hackensack  an  adequate  library  building. 
He  purchased  a  plot  of  land  on  the  corner  of  Main  and  Camden 
streets,  running  through  to  Moore  street,  measuring  about  100  by 
200  feet.  On  this  site  was  erected  a  two-story  building  of  attractive 
design,  of  rock-faced  Belleville  stone,  with  a  frontage  of  seventy-five 
feet  and  a  depth  of  fifty-sLx  feet.  The  first  story  contained  stock, 
reference  and  reading  rooms,  and  smaller  apartments  for  the  use 
of  the  library  force.  A  room  on  the  second  floor  was  set  apart  for 
the  children's  apartment,  and  in  another  room  was  housed  the  in- 
teresting collection  belonging  to  the  Bergen  County  Historical  So- 
city.  The  ladies  of  the  Library  Association  donated  the  3,G1:8  vol- 
umes on  their  shelves  and  contributed  to  the  new  building  the  furni- 
ture for  the  children's  room,  and  a  bronze  tablet  inscribed  to  the 
donor  of  the  building.  Under  the  provisions  of  the  State  Library 
act,  the  Hackensack  Improvement  Commission  on  April  1,  1901,  ap- 
pointed the  following  trustees:  Miss  Fannie  DeW.  Conklin,  Mrs. 
David  St.  John,  the  Rev.  William  Welles  Holley,  William  IL  John- 
son, and  W^illiam  A.  Linn.  The  president  of  the  Hackensack  Im- 
provement Commission  and  the  president  of  the  Board  of  Educa- 
tion were  trustees  ex-officio.    The  trustees  organized  April  4,  1901, 

301 


HACKENSACK,  COUNTY  SEAT  OF  BERGEN  COUNTY,  N.  J. 

under  the  corporate  name  of  The  Johnson  Free  Public  Library  of 
Hackensack,  with  liev.  Dr.  Holley  as  president,  Mr.  Linn  as  secre- 
tary, and  Miss  Conklin  as  treasurer.  Miss  Mary  Fair  was  engaged 
as  organizer,  but  she  gave  place,  May  1,  1902,  to  Miss  Mary  Boggan, 
the  present  librarian. 

With  the  gift  of  the  building.  Senator  Johnson  contributed  a 
fund  of  $5,000  for  new  books.  The  Library  was  opened't)ctober  5, 
1901,  with  appropriate  exercises.  The  annual  appropriation  was 
one-third  of  a  mill  on  each  dollar  of  valuation,  which  was  increased 
in  1905  to  one-half  of  a  mill.  Senator  Johnson's  contribution  exceed- 
ed $45,000,  and  it  becoming  evident  in  1915  that  larger  quarters  were 
necessary,  the  special  purpose  being  a  much  larger  stock  room  and 
an  adequate  reference  room  in  191C,  he  made  a  further  contribution 
of  $30,000.  The  Library  was  closed  for  ten  weeks  while  this  sub- 
stantial addition  was  built,  and  was  reopened  July  10,  1916.  The 
citizens  of  Hackensack,  in  recognition  of  Senator  Johnson's  liberal- 
ity, tendered  to  him  a  dinner  at  the  Hackensack  Golf  Club  on  the 
evening  of  June  13,  1916,  at  which  ex-Governcr  John  W.  Griggs 
made  the  principal  address. 

The  Library  is  indebted  to  many  persons  for  valuable  gifts  of 
books,  but  special  reference  is  made  to  the  contributions  of  the  late 
F.  B.  Van  Vorst,  numbering  1,676  volumes  covering  science,  Eng- 
lish history  and  philosophy,  and  a  collection  of  works  on  Italy,  many 
of  them  in  the  language  of  that  country.  The  Library  in  1921  cir- 
culated 104,288  volumes,  the  registration  of  borrowers  was  5,562, 
and  number  of  books  on  the  shelves  was  25,881. 


302 


rciM    *  ■    111' 


m^ii  ■:  w^^^3 


^vtng^ 


Ames  Family 

By  Mrs.  Herold  K.  Fixley,  St.  Louis,  Missouri, 

Artns — Argent,  on  a  bend  cotised  between  two  annulets  sable,  a  quatrefoil  between 
two  roses  of  the  field. 

Crest — A  rose  argent  slipped  and  leaved  proper,  in  front  thereof  an  annulet  or. 
Motto — Faiiia  Candida  rosa  dulcior. 

^^^^^  HE  family  of  Ames  is  said  to  have  been  originally  of 
r:?>^\5  Brutoii,  in  Somersetshire,  England.*  Here  a  certain 
jlr  '>u:-?ii  John  Ames,  or  Amyas,  the  first  progenitor  of  whom 
ili5s:^ik^Ji  there  seems  to  be  positive  knowledge,  was  buried  in  the 
year  1560.  Some  of  his  descendants  eventually  came  to  America  in 
1638  and  16-10,  and  settled  in  Duxbury  and  Braintree,  Massachusetts, 
and  later  removed  to  Bridgewater. 

With  this  Duxbury  and  Bridgewater  family,  the  Providence 
Ames  have  no  known  connection.  Whether  the  Providence  line 
actually  traces  back  to  John  Ames,  of  Bruton  in  Somersetshire,  yet 
remains  to  be  proved.  Judge  Samuel  Ames,  of  Providence,  Chief 
Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Rhode  Island,  was  fifth  in  descent 
from  Eobert  (1)  Ames,  of  Andover  and  Boxiord,  Massachusetts. 

/.  Robert  Ames  probably  came  from  Boxford,  England.  He 
settled  in  Boxford,  Massachusetts,  and  undoubtedly  resided  near  the 
Andover  line,  as  several  of  the  births  of  his  oldest  children  are  re- 
corded on  the  Andover  town  records.  His  home  estate  was  in  the 
West  Parish.  He  was  one  of  the  committee  chosen  by  the  town  of 
Rowley  and  the  village  of  Rowley  (afterwards  Boxford),  to  estab- 
lish the  dividing  line  between  the  two  towns,  July,  1685.  In  Decem- 
ber, 1689",  he  was  one  of  those  chosen  to  meet  with  the  Topsfield  com- 
mittee to  settle  the  line  between  that  town  and  Boxford.  This  com- 
mittee evidently  did  not  accomplish  its  object,  as  another  commit- 
tee was  appointed  for  the  same  purpose  in  March,  1695.  In  1692 
Eobert  Ames,  Sen.,  was  selectman  for  Boxford. 

Robert  Ames  married,  in  1661,  Rebecca  Blake,  eldest  daughter 


♦The  early  spelling  of  the  name  was  Eames.     Also   found   Ernes,   Emms,   Emmes. 
Eamms,  and  Amaes. 


AMES  FAMILY 

of  George  Blake,  of  Gloucester,  Massacliiisetls,  who  afterguards  set- 
tled in  Boxford.  In  1G92  she  was  arrested  as  a  witch  and  con- 
demned, but  after  seven  months'  imprisonment  she  was  included  in 
the  general  reprieve  of  July  22,  1693,  a  strong  reaction  and  protest 
against  the  amazing  and  incredible  superstition  of  those  days  hav- 
ing set  in,  A  full  account  of  her  trial  is  given  in  the  "History  of 
Boxford,  :\Iass."  (ISSO),  by  Sidney  Perley,  pp.  120-123.  Robert  and 
Eebecca  (Blake)  Ames  had  eight  children,  of  whom  the  third  was 
Robert,  mentioned  below. 

II.  Robert  (2)  Ames,  son  of  Robert  (1)  and  Rebecca  (Blake) 
Ames,  was  born  February  28,  1667-6S,  in  Andover,  ^Massachusetts. 
He  married,  April  20,  1694,  in  Boxford,  Bethiah  Gatchell,  of  "Sec- 
onke,"  of  whose  parentage  nothing  is  known.  Robert  Ames  was  a 
husbandman  and  lived  in  Boxford,  where  two  children  were  born. 
He  resided  in  Boston  between  1695  and  1700,  where  the  births  of 
three  children  are  recorded.  The  first  child  on  the  Boston  records 
was  Samuel,  through  whom  the  line  descends.  The  actual  date  of 
death  of  Robert  Ames  has  not  been  found. 

^11.  Samuel  Ames,  son  of  Robert  (2)  and  Bethiah  (Gatchell) 
Ames,  was  born  in  Boston,  Massachusetts,  February  24,  1695.  He 
was  a  resident  of  Andover  by  1719,  where  a  child  by  his  first  wife, 
Abigail  (Spofford)  Ames,  of  Rowley,  was  born.  She  died  June  25, 
1719,  and  he  married  (second),  January  13,  1720-21,  Hannah  Stev- 
ens, of  Andover. 

Samuel  .Ajoies  was  in  Lexington  in  1722,  when  he  bought  land; 
at  Natick  by  1729,  where  a  child  was  born;  at  Andover  again  by 
1734;  and  at  Groton  by  1756.  He  was  a  housewright,  also  called 
** yeoman"  in  some  of  the  deeds.  He  died  between  the  date  of  his 
will,  February  13,  1782,  and  April  20,  1784,  when  it  was  probated. 
His  wife  was  living  in  1782,  but  the  date  of  her  death  has  not  been 
ascertained. 

IV.  Nathan  Ames,  son  of  Samuel  and  Hannah  (Stevens) 
Ames,  was  born  in  Natick,  Massachusetts,  April  27,  1729.  He  w^as 
a  resident  of  Andover  and  of  Groton,  Massachusetts.  Ho  was 
called  ''of  "Westford"  in  1791,  but  he  probably  lived  in  the  extreme 
eastern  part  of  Groton,  next  to  the  Westford  line. 

Nathan  Ames  married  (first)  in  Groton,  April  19, 1763,  Deborah 

304 


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AMES  FAMILY 

Bowers,  daughter  of  Samuel  and  Deborah  (Farnsworth)  Bo\Yers.  of 
Groton.  She  was  born  in  Groton,  September  2,  1746,  and  died  there, 
April  8,  1782,  and  he  afterwards  married  again.  He  died  March  7, 
1791,  aged  sixty-one  years,  in  Groton.  By  his  first  wife  he  had 
nine  children,  of  whom  the  second  was  Samuel,  mentioned  below. 

V.  Samuel  (2)  Auies,  son  of  Nathan  and  Deborah  (Bowers) 
Ajues,  was  born  in  Groton,  Massachusetts,  February  7,  1766.  He 
married,  in  Boston,  Massachusetts,  September  8,  1801,  Anne  Check- 
ley,  born  August  13,  1785,  in  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  daughter 
of  John  ^Vebb  and  Aiine  (Bicker*)  Checkley,  of  Philadelphia.  John 
Webb  Checkley  was  on  Governor  Mifflin's  staff  (Pennsylvania)  dur- 
ing the  Revolution.  He  belonged  to  one  of  the  old  Puritan  families, 
whose  members  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  early  Colonial  history 
of  Massachusetts.  The  original  form  of  the  name  is  asserted  to  be 
Chichele,  which  passed  through  many  modifications  until  the  present 
form  of  Checkley,  as  used  by  the  emigrant  ancestor,  Colonel  Samuel 
Checkley,  of  Boston,  and  was  finally  established  in  America.  Col- 
onel Samuel  Checkley  was  born  at  Preston  Capes,  England,  Octo- 
ber 14,  1653.  He  came  to  America,  arriving  in  Boston,  August  3, 
1670.  liere  he  married,  in  1680,  Mary  Seottow,  daughter  of  Ensign 
Joshua  Seottow,  and  became  the  progenitor  of  the  American  family 
of  his  name. 

Samuel  Ames  removed  to  Providence  with  his  brother,  Asa, 
where  they  were  shopkeepers.  On  March  11,  1795,  a  petition  is  re- 
corded in  Middlesex  county,  Massachusetts,  probate  files,  wherein 
Samuel  and  Asa  Ames,  of  Providence,  shopkeepers,  acknowledge  a 
receipt  of  money  from  the  estate  of  their  grandfather,  Samuel  Bow- 
ers.    (See  ante  under  Nathan  Ames). 

The  children  of  Samuel  and  Anno  (Checkley)  Ames  were:  1. 
Samuel,  mentioned  below.  2.  John  Checkley.  3.  John  Checkley. 
4.  Frank.  5.  William.  6.  Ann  Checkley.  7.  Sophia  Bidder  (or 
Biehler).     8.  Elizabeth  Lothrop. 

VI.  Hon.  Samuel  (3)  Ames,  of  Providence,  son  of  Samuel  (2) 
and  Anne  (Checkley)  Ames,  was  born  there,  September  6,  1806.  He 
received  his  early  education  in  Providence,  after  which  he  was  pre- 
pared for  college  at  Phillips  (xVndover)  Academy,  Massachusetts. 


♦Name  also  found  "Bichlcr"  and  "Biehler. 

305 


AMES  FA.MILY 

Entering  Brown  University,  he  pin\sned  his  studies  with  distinction, 
.and  was  graduated  in  the  class  of  1S23,  at  the  age  of  seventeen  years. 
,Among  the  cUissniates  of  Judge  Ames  at  Brown  were  Judge  Edward 
,Mellen,  of  Massachusetts;  William  R.  AVatson;  George  Prentice,  of 
the  "Louisville  Journal;"  and  Dr.  Henry  Seymour  Fearing,  of 
Providence. 

After  his  graduation,  Samuel  Ames  immediately  entered  upon 
the  study  of  law  in  the  office  of  the  Hon.  S.  "W.  Bridgham,  also  at- 
tending for  a  year  the  lectures  delivered  by  Judge  Gould  at  the  law 
school  in  Litchfield,  Connecticut.  In  1S26  he  was  admitted  to  the 
Ehode  Island  bar,  and  opened  an  office  in  Providence,  Ehode  Island, 
where  he  at  once  began  the  practice  of  his  profession.  He  soon  be- 
came well  know^l  as  an  able  advocate,  and  his  fluency  and  earnestness 
of  style  gained  for  him  a  wide  reputation  as  a  popular  orator.  In  po- 
litical campaigns  he  was  a  most  effective  speaker,  and  in  the  exciting 
times  of  1S42  and  1843,  when  political  affairs  in  Ehode  Island  were 
undergoing  a  tremendous  upheaval,  his  voice  was  conspicuous  and 
frequently  heard.  He  became  quartermaster-general  of  the  State  in 
1S42,  and  served  also  in  the  City  Council.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
General  Assembly  for  many  years.  His  influence  throughout  the 
'entire  period  of  disturbance  was  most  jiiarked  and  beneficial  to  his 
native  State,  being  always  staunch  and  finn  on  the  side  of  law  and 
order.  In  1S44  and  1845  he  was  elected  speaker  of  the  Assembly, 
and  became  prominent  as  a  leader  in  all  debates.  His  practice, 
which  was  a  most  successful  one,  was  wide  and  far-reaching,  ex- 
tending into  the  Federal  courts  and  winning  for  him  distinguished 
honors  and  emolument. 

In  1853  he  was  appointed  by  the  Legislature  as  State  represen- 
tative to  adjust  the  boundary  between  Ehode  Island  and  ]\Iassa- 
chusetts;  and  in  1855  he  was  one  of  the  commissioners  for  revising 
the  statutes  of  Ehode  Island,  the  work  being  conducted  chiefly  under 
his  supervision  and  finished  in  1857.  In  1855  he  received  also  his 
degree  of  LL.  D.,  and  in  May,  1856.  the  year  following,  he  was  elected 
by  the  General  Assembly  to  the  office  of  Chief  Justice  of  the  Su- 
preme Court,  being  appointed  at  the  same  time  reporter  of  the  court. 
His  "Eeports"  contained  in  the  four  volumes,  IV  to  VII,  inclusive, 
are  "remarkable  for  their  clearness,  their  learning,  and  their  con- 
formity to  the  settled  principles  of  jurisprudence,"  and  remain  as 
a  monument  to  the  ability  and  industry  of  their  author. 

306 


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AMES  FAMILY 

Judge  Ames  was  also  the  author,  in  collaboration  with  Joseph 
K.  Angcll,  of  an  elaborate  treatise  entitled  ^'Angell  and  Ames  on 
Corporations,"  which  has  ever  since  been  regarded  as  a  standard 
work  on  corporations  and  has  passed  through  many  editions.  In 
18G1  Judge  Ames  was  one  of  the  delegates  from  Ehode  Island  to 
the  Peace  Convention  held  in  Washington,  before  the  outbreak  of 
the  Civil  War,  the  other  members  of  the  delegation  being  William 
H.  Hoppin,  Samuel  G.  Arnold,  George  H.  Bro^\Tie,  and  Alexander 
Duncan.  It  was,  however,  by  his  labors  on  the  bench  and  his  rare 
qualities  as  an  accomplished  lawyer  and  erudite  judge  that  his  name 
will  be  preserved  to  posterity. 

Judge  Ames  held  the  offtce  of  Chief  Justice  of  the  State  of 
Ehode  Island,  to  which  he  had  been  appointed  in  1856,  for  a  period 
of  nine  years,  covering  the  troublous  times  of  the  Civil  AVar,  and  on 
November  15,  1S65,  owing  to  failing  health,  he  was  constrained  to 
tender  his  resignation.  He  died  a  few  months  afterward,  very  sud- 
denly, in  Providence,  the  city  of  his  birth  and  center  of  his  life's 
activities,  December  20,  1865,  having  but  recently  entered  upon  his 
sixtieth  year.  He  was  a  man  no  less  distingiiished  for  his  social 
qualities  than  for  his  legal  and  political  services,  and  for  his  excel- 
lence as  a  man  of  learning  and  letters.  He  was  a  contributor  to  the 
New  England  Historic-Genealogical  Society,  of  which  he  was  elected 
a  corresponding  member  in  1845,  and  in  whose  cause  he  manifested 
keen  interest. 

Judge  Ames  married,  June  27,  1839,  Mary  Tliroop  Dorr,  a 
daughter  of  Sullivan  and  Lydia  (Allen)  Dorr,  of  Providence,  and 
sister  of  Thomas  Wilson  Dorr,  leader  of  the  famous  Eebellion  of 
1842,  during  vrhich  Judge  Ames,  notwithstanding  the  con- 
nection, distinguished  himself  by  his  patriotism  and  wisdom  of 
conduct,  standing  always  on  the  side  of  the  Constitution.  It  may  be 
said  of  his  wife's  brother,  however,  who,  though  subversive  of  law 
and  order,  was  a  brilliant  and  accomplished  man  even  before  his 
leadership  of  the  suffragist  party,  that,  "but  for  the  menace  of  civil 
war  the  suffrage  would  never  have  been  extended,"  and  made  uni- 
versal as  it  was  in  1843,  at  the  close  of  the  brief  and  easily  sup- 
pressed Eebellion.  Thomas  Wilson  Dorr,  convicted  of  high  treason, 
was  pardoned  within  three  years,  and  finally  restored  to  his  civil 
rights  in  1852;  time  dealt  leniently  with  him  after  all. 

Judge  Ames,  vrho  was  survived  by  his  widow,  left  four  sons  and 

307 


AMES  FAMILY 

one  daughter.  Two  other  children  died  in  infancy.  Two  of  these 
sons  became  prominent  figiires  in  public  affairs,  and  distinguished 
themselves  in  both  military  and  civil  life.    Their  children  were : 

y 

1.  Sullivan  Dorr,  mentioned  below. 

2.  Colonel  AVilliam  Ames,  born  in  Providence,  the  old  home  of 
the  family,  was  a  short  time  before  his  father's  death  in  command  of 
the  heavy  artillery,  and  served  with  much  honor  in  the  campaigns  of 
Virginia  and  South  Carolina  during  the  Civil  "War,  attaining  the 
rank  of  colonel.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Brown  University  in  the  class 
of  1S63,  and  received  the  degree  of  A.  M.  by  sjjecial  vote  in  1S91.  He 
was  a  leading  manufacturer  in  Providence,  having  been  connected 
with  Allen's  Print  AVorks  for  the  four  years  subsequent  to  the  Ci\il 
"War;  he  was  also  interested  in  many  large  enterprises,  and  was  an 
officer  and  director  in  several.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Khode  Isl- 
and House  of  Eepresentatives,  and  was  a  leading  Eepublican,  and 
belonged  to  a  number  of  clubs  both  in  Providence  and  New  York. 
Colonel  xVmes  married  (first)  Harriette  Fletcher  Ormsbee,  of  Pro\i- 
dence;  (second)  Anne  Ives  Carrington,  widow  of  Gamaliel  L^Tuau 
Dwight,  of  Providence. 

3.  Edward  C,  a  well  known  lawyer  of  Providence,  now  de- 
ceased. 

4.  Mary  Bernon,  wife  of  AVilliam  Gordon  Eeed,  of  Cowesett. 

5.  Samuel,  Jr.,  prominent  Providence  lawyer,  now  deceased. 

VII.  Commander  SuUivan  Dorr  Ames,  son  of  Judge  Samuel 
(3)  and  Mary  Throop  (Dorr)  Ames,  was  born  in  Providence,  Ehode 
Island,  July  16,  18-40.  He  served  with  distinction  with  the  Ehode 
Island  troops  during  the  Civil  AVar.  rising  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant. 
In  1865  he  was  commissioned  as  an  executive  officer  of  the  '"Colo- 
rado," attached  in  that  year  to  the  Mediterranean  squadron.  From 
this  time  until  shortly  before  his  death,  November  22,  ISSO,  he  was 
active  and  prominent  in  United  States  naval  affairs. 

Commander  Sullivan  Dorr  Ames  married,  February  21,  1870, 
Mary  Townsend  Bullock,  daughter  of  AA'illiam  Peckham  Bullock,  of 
Providence,  and  Phila  Feke  (To^^'nsend)  Bullock,  of  Newport,  his 
v:ife.  Their  children  were :  1.  Mary  Dorr,  born  January  16,  1871, 
who  became  the  wife  of  the  late  Frank  A.  Sayles,  of  Pawtucket.  (See 
Saylcs  VIII,  in  'Mmericana."  Vol.  XVIT,  p.  201).  2.  Sullivan 
Dorr,  born  January  5,  1S7S,  died  February  22,  1903. 

The  Ames  line  thus  runs  back  from  Mrs.  Frank  A.  Sayles  as 
follows: 

.-^.oS 


Bullock  Arms— Gules,  a  clievron  ermine  between  three  bulls' 
heads  cabossed  argent,  armed  or. 

Crest— Five  Lochaber  axes  sable,  encircled  by  a  ribbon  or. 
Motto— Nil  conscire  sibi. 

Toumsend  Arms— Azure,  a  chevron  ermine  between  three  escal- 
lops or. 

Crest— A  stag  trippant  proper. 

Richmond  ^;?/is— Argent,  a  cross  patonce  azure  between  four 
mullets  gules. 

Crest— A  tilting  spear  headed  or,  broken  in  three  parts,  one 
piece  erect,  the  other  two  in  saltire  entiled  with  a  ducal  coronet  of  the 
last. 

il/of^o— Eesolve  well  and  persevere. 

Winthrop  Arms— Argent,  three  chevrons  crenelle  gailes,  over 
all  a  lion  rampant  sable,  armed  and  langued  azure. 
<7re5^— A  hare  proper  running  on  a  mount  vert. 

Gorton  Arms— Gules,  ten  billets  or,  a  chief  indented  of  the  last. 
Crest— A  goat's  head  erased  argent,  ducally  gorged  or. 

Harris  Arms— Or,  three  hedgehogs  azure. 

6Ve5^— A  hedgehog  or.  -~»*^. 


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AMES  FAMILY 

(VIII)  Mary  Dorr  (^Vmes)  Saylcs,  of  Pro\^deuce  and  Paw- 
tucket. 

(YII)     Sullivan  Dorr  Ames,  of  Providence. 

(VI)     Hon.  Samuel  Ames,  of  Providence. 

(Y)  Samuel  Ames,  of  Groton,  Massachusetts,  and  Pro^'idence, 
Ehode  Island. 

(lY)     Xatlian  Ames,  of  Andover  and  Groton,  Massachusetts. 

(Ill)  Samuel  Ames,  of  Boston,  Andover,  Lexington,  Natick, 
and  Groton,  Massachusetts. 

(II)  Robert  Ames,  of  Andover,  Boxford  and  Boston,  Massa- 
chusetts. 

(I)     Eobert  Ames,  of  Andover  and  Boxford,  Massachusetts. 

Turning  from  the  direct  Ames  descent,  many  interesting  Co- 
lonial lines  are  found  in  the  ancestry  of  Mrs.  Frank  A.  Sayles. 

In  common  with  her  husband,  she  traces  descent  from  many 
prominent  Ehode  Island  families,  touching  Mr.  Sayles'  ancestry  on 
a  number  of  lines,  as  the  Whipple,  Smith,  Barker,  Holmes,  Angell 
and  Field  families. 

A  line  replete  with  historical  associations  is  that  of  Dorr.  There 
is  no  other  name  in  Ehode  Island  history  which  has  more  dramatic 
interest.  The  family  is  not  one  of  the  founder  families  of  Ehode 
Island,  although  closely  allied  by  marriage  with  several  of  the  most 
influential  and  notable  in  the  State,  but  the  name  is  written  indelibly 
for  all  time,  not  only  in  the  history  of  the  State  but  of  the  Nation, 
through  the  inmiortal  deeds  of  Thomas  '\\^ilson  Dorr,  the  apostle  of 
civil  equality  and  universal  manhood  suffrage.     (See  ante). 


Editor's   Note — The  related   Dorr  Family  will  appear  in  the  October   number  of 
"Americana." 


309 


John  Champe 

The  Story  of  a  Patriot  Spy 

N  interesting  incident  connected  with  Kevolutionary 
times,  occurring  within  the  confines  of  old  Bergen  vil- 
hige,  was  the  pursuit  of  eJohn  Champe,  who  vohmtarily 
subjected  himself  to  all  the  disgrace  and  obloquy  of  a 
renegade  and  deserter  in  order  to  carry  out  the  wishes  of  his  com- 
manding officer. 

The  revelation  of  the  treason  of  Arnold  and  the  capture  of  An- 
dre, with  the  intelligence  received  by  Washington  through  his  con- 
fidential agents  in  New  York  of  a  widespread  conspiracy  invoMng 
an  officer  high  in  command,  created  in  the  mind  of  the  commanding 
general  an  uncertainty  as  to  the  trustworthiness  of  some  in  whom 
he  had  placed  implicit  confidence.  As  soon  as  he  reached  the  army 
headcjuarters  in  the  vicinity  of  Tappan,  he  sent  for  Major  Lee,  who 
had  always  been  his  close  friend  and  adviser,  who  with  his  light 
horse  was  encamped  near  by,  and  gave  him  a  full  statement  of  the 
information  he  had  received,  with  the  papers  connected  therewith. 
After  their  perusal  the  major  was  inclined  to  attribute  the  state- 
ments to  an  English  plot  to  undermine  that  confidence  between  the 
commander  and  his  officers,  without  which  no  military  operations 
could  be  conducted  mth  any  show  of  success.  But  the  general  sadly 
replied,  ''that  the  same  suggestion  might  have  been  made  with  just 
as  much  force,  in  the  case  of  Arnold,"  and  continuing  said,  "I  have 
sent  for  you  in  the  expectation  that  you  have  in  your  corps  indi- 
viduals capable  and  willing  to  undertake  an  indispensable,  delicate, 
and  hazardous  project.  AVhoever  comes  forward  upon  this  occasion, 
wdll  lay  me  under  great  obligations  personally,  and  in  behalf  of  the 
United  States  I  will  reward  him  amply.  .  .  .  My  object  is  to 
probe  to  the  bottom  the  afflicting  intelligence  contained  in  the  papers 
you  have  just  read,  to  seize  Arnold  and,  by  getting  him,  to  save 


Note — This  interesting  narrative  is  by  Mr.  Daniel  Van  Winkle,  President  of  the 
Hudson  County  (New  Jersey)  Historical  Society,  as  it  will  appear  in  a  work  now  in 
press,  "History  of  the  Municipalities  of  Hudson  County.  New  Jersey."  (Lewis  His- 
torical Publishing  Company,  Inc.,  New  York  and  Chicago). 

310 


JOHN  CHAMPE 

Andre."  Major  Lee  suggested  Sergeant-Major  Champc  for  the 
mission,  and  on  receiving  the  concurrence  of  the  commander,  sent  for 
him  and  explained  the  nature  of  the  ser\^ce  wanted. 

The  sergeant-major,  while  appreciating  the  honor  of  his  selec- 
tion and  the  importance  of  the  undertaking,  disliked  the  plan  pro- 
posed because  of  the  ignominy  attached  thereto.  The  plan  was  for 
him  to  desert  and  join  the  enemy's  forces,  seek  an  opportunity  to 
seize  Arnold  and  bear  him  within  the  American  lines.  lie  olTered, 
however,  that  if  any  mode  could  be  contrived,  free  from  disgrace,  he 
would  cordially  em1)ark  in  the  enterprise.  Finally,  by  persuasive 
reasoning  his  scruples  were  overcome  and  the  details  determined 
upon. 

The  sergeant  returned  to  camp  and  taking  his  cloak,  valise  and 
orderly  book,  he  drew  his  horse  from  the  picket  and,  mounting  him, 
disappeared  in  the  darkness.  His  absence  was  soon  discovered,  and 
the  officer  of  the  day  reported  to  Major  Lee  that  one  of  the  patrol 
had  fallen  in  with  a  dragoon,  who  on  being  challenged  put  spur  to 
his  horse  and  escaped.  Desiring  to  delay  the  pursuit  as  long  as 
possible,  Lee,  pretending  to  be  fatigued  by  his  ride  to  and  from 
headquarters,  answered  as  if  he  did  not  understand  what  had  been 
said,  and  compelled  the  repetition  of  the  message,  thereby  gaining 
some  dela}^  Finally  he  was  obliged  to  order  a  pursuit,  and  directed 
Cornet  Middleton  to  take  command  of  the  pursuing  party.  His 
orders  were,  ''pursue  as  far  as  you  can  with  safety  Sergeaut 
Champe,  who  is  suspected  of  deserting  to  the  enemy  and  has  taken 
the  road  leading  to  Paulus  Hook.  Bring  him  alive,  that  he  may 
suffer  in  the  presence  of  the  army,  but  kill  him  if  he  resists  or  es- 
capes after  he  is  taken."  Major  Lee's  knowledge  of  Middleton 's 
disposition  convinced  him  that  the  orders  would  be  carried  out  only 
under  the  most  extreme  conditions.  A  shower  of  rain  falling  soon 
after  Champe 's  departure  enabled  the  pursuing  dragoons  to  take 
the  trail,  as  the  shoes  of  the  horses  belonging  to  the  camp  were  of  a 
peculiar  pattern.  When  Middleton  started  in  pursuit,  Champe  had 
about  an  hour's  lead,  and  because  of  the  shortness  of  time  Lee  was 
fearful  of  his  capture. 

The  pursuing  party  during  the  night  was  on  their  iiart  delayed 
by  the  necessary  halts  to  occasionally  examine  the  road.  Wlien  day 
broke,  Middleton  was  no  longer  obliged  to  halt,  and  he  pressed  on 
more  rapidly.     Ascending  an  eminence  just  before  reaching  the 

311 


JOHX  CHAMPE 

**Tliree  Pigeons,"  a  tavern  situated  some  miles  north  of  the  callage 
of  Bergen,  Champe  was  seen  but  little  more  than  half  a  mile  in  ad- 
vance. At  the  same  moment  the  sergeant  discovered  his  pursuers 
and,  giving  spur  to  his  horse,  determined  to  outstrip  them.  Middle- 
ton  responded  at  once,  and,  being  well  acquainted  ^nth  the  country, 
he  recalled  a  short  route  through  the  woods  to  the  bridge  over  the 
Mill  creek,  located  near  the  present  AVest  Shore  railroad  depot  at  the 
foot  of  the  hill  on  Xewark  avenue,  below  the  Dickinson  High  School. 
This  road  diverged  from  the  main  road  just  beyond  the  ''Three 
Pigeons."  Reaching  the  point  of  separation,  he  divided  his  party, 
directing  a  sergeant  with  a  few  dragoons  to  take  the  near  cut  and 
occupy  the  bridge,  while  he  A^-itli  the  remainder  of  his  force  followed 
Champe,  feeling  sure  that  vdth  this  disposition  of  his  force  he  must 
certainly  capture  the  fugitive. 

Champe  did  not  forget  the  short  cut  and  would  have  taken  it 
himself,  but  he  knew  it  was  the  usual  route  of  travel  for  raiding 
parties  and  decided  upon  the  other  road,  being  persuaded  that  his 
pursuers  would  avail  themselves  of  the  shorter  route.  He  likewise 
determined  to  abandon  his  first  design  of  reaching  Paulus  Hook,  and 
seek  refuge  from  two  British  vessels  lying  in  Xewark  bay  vrest  of 
Bergen.  This  was  a  well-known  place  of  rendezvous  for  the  vessels 
of  the  British  fleet,  and  he  felt  confident  of  escape  through  their  aid. 
Entering  the  village  of  Bergen,  Champe  turned  to  the  right  and  fol- 
lowed the  beaten  streets  (present  Summit  and  Bergen  avenues), 
and,  turning  as  they  turned,  he  passed  through  the  village  and  took 
the  road  toward  Elizabethto^\m  Point.  Middleton's  sergeant  gained 
the  bridge  at  the  Mill  creek,  where  he  concealed  himself  in  readiness 
to  seize  Champe  upon  his  arrival,  while  ]^.Iiddleton  with  his  force 
pursuing  his  course  through  Bergen,  soon  reached  the  bridge  also. 
After  a  short  delay  he  found  to  his  great  mortification  that  the 
sergeant  had  slipped  through  his  fingers.  Returning  up  the  road,  he 
enquired  of  the  villagers  of  Bergen  vrhether  a  dragoon  had  been  seen 
that  morning  ahead  of  his  party.  He  was  answered  affirmatively, 
but  could  learn  nothing  satisfactory  as  to  the  route  he  took.  While 
engaged  in  making  inquiries  himself,  he  spread  his  party  through 
the  village  to  search  for  the  trail  of  Champe 's  horse.  Some  of  his 
dragoons  spied  it  just  as  Champe  turned  in  the  road  to  the  point. 
Pursuit  was  renewed  Avith  vigor  and  again  he  was  discovered.  Fear- 
ing such  event,  he  had  prepared  liimself  for  it  by  lashing  his  be- 

312 


JOHN  CHAMPE 

longings  on  his  shoulders  and  holding  his  dra^\ni  sword  in  his  hand. 
He  tlms  made  ready  for  swimming  in  case  Middleton,  when  disap- 
pointed in  intercepting  him  at  the  bridge,  should  discover  the  route 
he  had  taken.  Champe's  delay  caused  by  his  preparations  enabled 
his  pursuers  to  draw  near,  and  the  pursuit  was  rapid  and  close,  and, 
dismounting,  he  ran  through  the  marsh  to  tlie  river  bank,  plunging  in 
and  calling  upon  the  vessels  for  help.  A  boat  was  sent  out  to  meet 
Champe,  while  his  pursuers  were  fired  upon.  He  was  taken  on  board 
the  vessel  and  carried  to  Xew  York,  bearing  a  letter  from  the  cap- 
tain of  the  vessel  detailing  the  circumstances  as  he  had  witnessed 
them. 

The  sergeant's  horse,  cloak  and  scabbard  were  recovered,  and 
the  crestfallen  pursuers  returned  with  these  as  their  only  capture. 
On  the  return  of  the  detachment  with  the  well  known  horse  led  by 
one  of  Middleton's  dragoons,  his  old  companions  made  the  air  re- 
sound with  acclamations  that  the  scoundrel  was  killed.  Major  Lee 
was  compelled  to  hide  the  agony  he  experienced  at  the  thought  of 
his  participation  in  the  death  of  his  brave  and  faithful  follower,  but 
his  relief  was  great  when  he  discovered  that  the  sergeant  had  made 
his  escape,  with  the  loss  of  his  accoutrements.  Ten  days  elapsed 
before  Champe  was  able  to  formulate  his  plans,  at  which  time  Lee 
received  from  him  a  detailed  statement  of  his  contemplated  move- 
ments. The  third  subsequent  night  Champe  had  arranged  to  deliv- 
er Arnold  to  a  detachment  of  Lee's  forces  at  Hoboken.  Champe  on 
his  arrival  in  New  York  enlisted  in  the  American  Legion,  as  Arn- 
old's command  was  called,  it  being  composed  almost  entirely  of  de- 
serters from  the  American  amiy,  and  hence  had  every  opportunity 
to  become  acquainted  with  the  habits  of  the  general.  Pie  discovered 
it  was  his  habit  to  return  home  about  twelve  o'clock  every  night,  and 
that  previous  to  retiring  he  always  visited  the  garden.  During  this 
visit  the  conspirators  were  to  seize  him  and,  being  i3reioared  with  a 
gag,  would  apply  it  immediately. 

Adjoining  the  house  in  which  Arnold  resided,  being  next  to  that 
in  which  it  was  designed  to  lodge  him  after  seizure,  several  palings 
had  been  taken  off  the  fence  between,  and  replaced  skilfully  so  that 
with  care  and  without  noise  the  way  into  the  adjoining  alley  could 
be  readily  opened.  Into  this  alleyway  Champe  was  to  have  conveyed 
his  prisoner,  aided  by  his  companion,  while  his  other  associate  was 
to  be  with  the  boat  lying  at  one  of  the  wharves  on  the  Hudson  to  re- 

313 


JOHN  CHAMPE 

ceive  tho  party,  who  would  then  be  conveyed  to  the  Jersey  shore. 
The  appointed  time  arrived,  and  Lee,  never  doubting  the  success  of 
the  enterprise,  with  a  party  of  dragoons  left  camp  late  in  the  even- 
ing with  three  led  horses  — one  for  Arnold,  one  for  the  sergeant,  and 
one  for  his  associate.  The  party  reached  Iloboken  about  midnight, 
where  they  concealed  themselves  in  an  adjoining  wood.  Lee,  with 
three  dragoons,  stationed  himself  near  the  river  shore,  but  hour 
after  hour  passed  without  any  indication  of  success.  At  length,  the 
increasing  light  indicating  the  approach  of  day,  the  major  and  his 
party  was  obliged  to  return  to  camp. 

A  few  days  after,  he  received  an  anonpnous  letter  from 
Champe's  patron  and  friciid,  inforiiiing  him  that  on  the  day  pre- 
vious to  the  night  fixed  for  the  execution  of  the  plot,  Arnold  had  re- 
moved his  quarters  to  another  part  of  the  town  to  superintend  the 
embarkation  of  troops  preparing,  as  was  rumored,  for  an  expeditioii 
commanded  by  himself,  and  that  the  American  Legion  had  been 
transferred  from  their  barracks  to  one  of  the  transports.  Thus  it 
happened  that  John  Cliampe,  instead  of  crossing  the  Hudson  that 
night,  was  safely  deposited  on  board  of  one  of  the  fleet  of  transports 
and  enrolled  among  the  enemies  of  his  country,  from  whom  he  was 
unable  to  escape  until  the  troops  under  Arnold  landed  in  Virginia. 
When  he  finally  escaped  and  returned  to  his  old  corps,  he  was  wel- 
comed most  cordially  by  Lee,  and  his  whole  story  made  public.  Thus 
the  stigma  heretofore  attached  to  his  name  was  completely  dissipa- 
ted, and  his  daring  and  arduous  attempt  received  universal  admira- 
tion. He  was  sent  to  General  AVashington,  who  magnificently  re- 
warded him  and  granted  him  an  honorable  discharge  from  the  army, 
lest  he  might  fall  into  the  enemy's  hand,  when  the  gibbet  would  be 
his  fate. 


314 


Highland  Scottish  Clans,  Sub=CIans  and  Families 
Represented  in  America,  with  Origin  of  Names 

By  Joel  X.  Exo,  A.  M. 


^^IIE  Eouiaii  orator  Eiimenius  is  the  first  in  whose  writ- 
ings appears,  in  297  A.  1).,  the  name  ''Picti,"  that  is, 
' '  painted, ' '  for  the  people  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland, 
or  that  portion  north  and  northeast  of  tlie  mouth  of  the 
Clyde.  In  the  annals  of  Tighernac  (1034  A.  D.)  and  of  Inisf alien  in 
the  thirteenth  century,  the  oldest  and  most  authentic  which  Ireland 
possesses,  they  mention  under  the  years  236  and  565  the  '*  Kings  of 
the  Cruithne"  in  the  present  eastern  Ulster,  and  so  St.  Adamnan 
(living  about  624-704)  of  the  event  at  the  latter  date,  which  was  the 
killing  of  Diarmat  of  Ulster  by  ''Aidus  nigrus  Cruithnicum  gente," 
i.  e.  Black  Hugh  of  the  race  of  Cruithne,  a  name  which  describes  the 
same  people  in  Scotland  which  the  Eomans  called  the  Picti,  and  sup- 
posed to  be  the  corresponding  Irish  word.  According  to  the  ^'Con- 
fessio"  of  St,  Patrick  (living  about  3S9-461)  the  groat  body  of  the 
people  of  Ireland  were  Hibernians  invaded  in  the  north  and  in  his 
time  dominated  by  a  tribe  called  in  Latin,  in  which  he  wrote,  but  not 
by  themselves  nor  by  the  Hibernians,  Scoti ;  the  native  name  being 
Gaedhel,  whence  the  English,  Gael. 

In  an  invasion  of  the  Strathclyde  Britons  they  took  St.  Patrick 
to  the  north  of  Ireland,  where  he  was  kept  as  a  slave.  Ossian  cor- 
roborates St.  Patrick  except  that  he  calls  the  Hibernians  of  southern 
Ireland  Firbolgs,  who  in  the  second  century  crowded  the  Gaels  of 
the  north  until  Conor,  brother  of  the  King  of  Scotland  (whence  came 
the  Gaels),  came  to  their  aid,  founding  a  race  of  kings  who  ruled  at 
Tara  in  :\Ieath;  but  in  the  third  century  the  Firbolgs  again  got  the 
upper  hand ;  hence  probably  Gael  incursions  into  Alban  and  Strath- 
clyde, as  it  is  only  about  fourteen  miles  from  Antrim,  Ireland,  across 
the  North  Channel  to  Kintyre,  Scotland.  About  503  A.  D.  a  general 
migration  took  place  from  Ireland  into  southwestern  Scotland, 
where  they  settled  tlic  territory  which  was  afterwards  called  Airer 

V5 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLAXS,    SUB-CLANS    AND    FAMILIES 

Gaedhel,  the  Land  of  the  Gaels ;  Englished  as  Argyll,  the  name  Scotia 
disappeared  from  Ireland's  history. 

The  Picts,  who  occupied  the  rest  of  the  Highland  region,  were, 
according  to  the  best  authorities,  related  more  nearly  to  the  Britons 
than  to  the  Scots,  with  whom  they  made  alliance,  but  had  absorbed 
an  aboriginal  people  similar  to  those  along  the  north  coast  of  the 
Mediterranean  sea  and  hence  called  the  Mediterranean  race;  they 
were  short,  dark,  and  long-shulled.  From  795  A.  D.  the  Xorse  sea- 
rovers  harried  both  the  west  coast  of  Scotland  and  the  east  coast  of 
Ireland,  and  at  lengih  Norwegians  settled  on  the  islands  west  of- 
Scotland,  and  Danes  at  AVaterford,  AVexford,  and  Dublin,  Ireland. 
During  this  period  up  to  about  1000  A.  D.,  communication  between 
the  Gaels  of  these  countries  was  difficult  and  dangerous ;  and  from 
795  the  development  of  the  Gaels  of  Scotland  and  of  their  clans  has 
been  almost  entirely  independent  of  Ireland.  (See  William  P. 
Skene,  ''Celtic  Scotland".) 

The  Picts  meanwhile  adopted  the  Gaelic  language.  As  to  the 
professed  genealogies  of  the  chiefs  of  the  clans  up  to  1000  A.  D.,  the 
Highlands  have  none  contemporarily  written,  and  have  adopted 
those  set  down  by  the  Irish  sennachies  who,  from  lack  of  facts,  in 
Professor  Skene 's  judgment  can  produce  only  vague  and  late  tradi- 
tion and  mythical  personages.  In  this  connection  note  that  the  pre- 
fix ''Mac,"  meaning  son,  is  the  distinctive  characteristic  of  the  clan 
names  of  Scotland;  and  "Va,"  grandson,  the  characteristic  of  Irish 
clan  names;  evidently  neither  became  permanent  fixtures  until  after 
the  separation  of  Scottish  Gaels  from  Irish  in  which  Mac,  with  a  few 
exceptions,  is  a  separate  word,  a  common  noun,  until  modern  times. 
Clan  names  by  the  use  of  these  prefixes  have  developed  from  per- 
sonal names  into  patronymics,  the  father's  name  naturally  falling 
into  the  genitive  case  which  involves  phonetic  change  in  all  Celtic 
languages ;  as  to  which  it  particularly  needs  to  be  noticed  here  that 
Scottish  Gaelic  (like  its  nearly  related  languages,  Manx,  Irish,  Gae- 
lic and  Welsh),  is  subject  to  aspiration,  represented  in  Scottish  Gae- 
lic by  the  addition  of  "h"  to  a  consonant,  a  tendency  especially  pro- 
nounced at  the  beginning  of  the  father's  name  in  the  genitive,  fol- 
lowing the  "c"  in  Mac,  whose  strength  dominates  or  softens  the 
first  consonant  follo^\'ing  it.  "When  such  consonant  is  b,  c,  d,  f,  g,  p, 
s  or  t,  bh  and  mh,  then  sound  as  v ;  dh  and  gh  as  y ;  c  becomes  ch, 
sounding  Hke  the  German  ch;  fh  is  silent;  ph  sounds  as  f ;  sh  and  th 

316 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLANS,    SUB-CLANS    AND    FAMILIES        ; 

as  h.  Examples  of  each.  Englished:  ]\[acVeagh,  for  MacBheatha; 
]\[acViTrricli  for  MaelMlmirieh;  ]\IacConnachie  for  MacDhonnchaidh; 
Macilwrailh  for  MacGhillebhraith;  MacChoiter,  son  of  Cotter;  Mac 
Kinlay  for  Mac  Fhionnlaigh;  MacFall  for  MacPhail  (son  of  Paul) ; 
MacKimmie  for  ]\[acShimi;  MacComas  for  MacThomas.  (See  xVlex 
MacBain,  ''Et^inologieal  Dictionary  of  the  Gaelic  Language";  also 
Dwelly,  "Gaelic  Dictionary".) 

Johnson's  map  of  the  Clans  and  Highland  proprietors  of  Scot- 
land according  to  Acts  of  Parliament  1587  to  1594,  draws  the  line 
of  separation  betwreen  Highlands  and  Lowlands  from  Dm^ibarton 
northeast  to  Drummond  Castle;  thence  to  Blairgowrie,  to  Airlie  o 
Castle,  then  north;  thence  northwest  through  Ballater  and  Aber-  h 
geldie  to  the  Spey ;  then  westward,  excluding  County  Elgin  and  most 
of  County  Aberdeen  from  the  Highlands;  also  Caithness,  the  He- 
brides, Orkneys  and  Shetland  Islands,  which  are  mainly  Norse. 
There  is  Norse  mixture  in  the  blood  of  the  northwestern  clans,  and 
Norse  influence  in  the  language.  (See  Henderson's  ''Norse  Influ- 
ence on  Celtic  Scotland,"  1910.)  For  example,  the  northern  Clan 
Gunn  has  more  names  with  the  Norse  sufSx,  **son,"  than  with  the 
Gaelic ''Mac." 

Mistaken  attempts  have  been  made  to  compare  the  clan  system 
with  the  village  community  system  of  India,  Eussia,  etc.,  the  sim- 
plest form  of  civil  and  civilized  organization ;  but  the  village  com-  ■ 
munity  is  a  farming  community,  necessarily  and  permanently  at- 
tached to  a  definite  tract  of  land  from  which  it  draws  its  subsistence. 
Some  of  the  effects  of  the  feudal  system  are  similar  or  identical 
with  those  of  the  clan  system ;  but  the  feudal  system  is  based  upon 
land  tenure,  since  its  community  draws  its  chief  subsistence  from  u 
tillage  of  the  land;  while  the  property  of  the  clan  is  mainly  in  flocks 
and  herds,  from  which  it  obtains  most  of  its  subsistence.  The  feudal  f 
lord,  being  the  hereditary  proprietor  of  a  tract  of  land,  is  entitled  to 
service  and  obedience  of  all  who  dwell  on  the  land.  The  fundamen- 
tal principle  which  held  together  the  clan  is  kinship  to  the  hereditary 
successors  to  the  fouiider  of  the  clan,  a  patriarchal  system;  the 
land  being  grazed  as  conmions,  though  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
chief. 

The  pasturage  of  the  Llighlands  being  separated  into  limited 
sections  by  mountains,  resulted  in  much  division  of  clans,  so  that  the 
sub-clan,  with  its  chief  the  head  of  a  branch  of  the  high  chief's  fam- 

317 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLAXS,    SUB-CLANS    AND    FAT^HLIES 

ily,  bocrune  nt  length  of  an  importance  which  was  almost  wanting 
under  the  less  urgent  conditions  of  Ireland.  Succession  to  chief- 
tainshi]:*  of  the  clan  was  the  highest  honor,  and  derived  from  lineal 
descent  from  the  founder,  not  from  the  last  chief;  brothers,  as  near- 
er in  degree  of  kinship,  invariably  succeeded  before  sons  of  the  last 
chief,  the  succession,  by  the  laws  of  tanistry,  being  strictly  in  the 
male  line.  If  the  son  of  the  deceased  chief  v\-as  under  fourteen  years 
of  age  (the  Highland  age  of  majority),  the  nearest  of  blood  to  the 
chief  vras  chosen ;  but  after  his  death  the  son  succeeded.  The  law  of 
gavel  divided  the  property  of  the  deceased  among  all  the  male 
branches  of  his  family,  females  being  excluded  from  succession  to 
either  chieftainship  or  property,  the  chieftain's  aim  being  to  attach 
to  himself  as  many  war  men  as  possible. 

Feudalism  aimed  not  only  to  furnish  men,  but  also  their  sup- 
port. The  clan  in  war  aimed  to  live  off  the  enemy.  The  written  his- 
tory of  Scotland  up  to  the  sixteenth  century  is  that  of  conflict  be- 
tween clans,  the  minor;  and  between  clan  and  feudal  authority,  the 
major  struggle.  The  supreme  virtue  of  the  clansmen  was  loyalty 
and  unhesitating  obedience  to  their  chief,  whose  deadly  feuds  they 
warmly  espoused ;  and  there  was  rarely  perfect  cordiality  between 
clans.  The  clans  were  distinguished  from  each  other  by  the  colors 
of  their  tartan,  a  woolen  cloth,  checkered  or  cross-barred  with  nar- 
row bands  of  various  colors;  the  plaid  about  two  yards  wide  and 
four  yards  long,  worn  outside,  being  the  most  important,  the  kilt  or 
skirt;  and  the  truis  (or  long  trousers  reaching  from  waist  to  toe, 
worn  in  full  dress)  were  of  tartan  and  the  stockings  usually  of  the 
same  material.  A  plant-badge  was  worn  on  the  bonnet  (cap).  A 
clan  war-cry  was  used  (James  Logan,  "The  Clans  of  the  Scottish 
Highlands;"  plates  in  colors,  by  M'lan). 

The  powder  of  the  Highland  clans  was  reduced  by  the  Kings  of 
Scotland  and  broken  by  the  Act  of  1748,  abolishing  heritable  juris- 
diction of  the  chiefs  on  account  of  their  rebellion  in  1745  in  favor  of 
Prince  Charles  Edward  Stuart ;  and  the  clan  and  sub-clan  names  be- 
came family  names.  Under  the  clan  system  the  only  genealogy  was 
that  of  the  ruling  family  and  its  branches,  the  heads  of  the  sub- 
clans.  Chiefs  who  accepted  feudal  offices  used  the  feudal  laws  of 
inheritance.  William  Pitt,  when  chancellor  had  the  wit  to  utilize  and 
at  the  same  time  to  honor  the  bravery  and  fighting  ability  of  the 
clans  by  organizing  them  into  the  Highland  regiments  of  the  British 

318 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLANS,   SUB-CLANS    AND    FAMILIES 

army.    (See  Frank  Adam,  "The  Clans,  Septs,  and  Kegiments  of  the 
Scottish  Highlands,"  1909.) 

There  was  a  large  immigration  of  people  of  Scottish  blood  into 
the  American  colonies  during  the  half  century  preceding  the  Revolu- 
tion, especially  from  those  settled  in  Ulster  province,  Ireland,  dur- 
ing the  century  preceding  the  immigration;  and  in  the  lievolution 
they  formed  the  major  element  in  Pennsylvania  v\-est  of  the  Blue 
Eidge  ]\Iountains,  Western  Virginia,  North  and  South  Carolina, 
which  later  became  the  States  of  West  Virginia,  Kentucky  and  Ten- 
nessee, besides  smaller  settlements  elsewhere.  Hanna,  in  ''The 
Scotch-Irish,"  estimates  the  element  called  by  that  name  as  410,000 
at  the  Eevolutionary  period.  MacLean  in  his  "Historical  Account 
of  the  Settlement  of  Scotch  Highlanders  in  America"  estimates  that 
20,000  went  directly  from  the  Highlands  to  AxJiierica  between  1763 
and  1775.  The  number  of  Scottish  origin  now  within  the  boundaries 
of  the  nation  is  in  the  millions.  ,     ^, 

THE   CL.4.NS 

Brodie  —  The  name  originally  was  "DeBrothie"  and  its  first 
record  was  in  1311  in  an  Elginshire  charter.  Shaw  in  his  ''History 
of  Moray,"  says  the  name  is  manifestly  local,  taken  from  the 
lands  of  Brodie,  and  probably  they  were  originally  of  the  ancient 
Moravienses  and  were  one  of  those  loyal  tribes  to  whom  Malcolm 
IV  gave  land  about  the  year  1160  when  he  transplanted  the  Moray 
rebels.  At  the  time  of  the  burning  of  Brodie  House  by  Lord  Lewis 
Gordon  in  1645,  the  old  writings  of  the  family  were  destroyed. 

From  Malcolm,  Thane  of  Brodie,  living  in  the  reign  of  Alexan- 
der III,  descended  Alexander  Brodie,  styled  Lord  Brodie,  born  July 
25, 1617.  He  was  a  senator  of  the  College  of  Justice ;  his  son,  James 
Brodie,  of  Brodie,  born  September  15,  1637,  was  his  successor.  The 
latter  married  in  1659,  Lady  Mary  Ker,  daughter  of  William,  third 
Earl  of  Lothian.  The  issue  of  this  union  was  nine  daughters  but  no 
son,  and  he  was  succeeded  by  his  cousin,  George  Brodie,  son  of  Jo- 
seph Brodie  of  Aslisk,  and  grandson  of  David  Brodie  of  Brodie, 
brother  of  Lord  Brodie.  He  married  in  1692  his  cousin  Emily,  fifth 
daughter  of  his  predecessor,  and  died  in  1716,  leaving  three  sons  and 
two  daughters.  The  eldest  son  and  heir  of  George  Brodie  was  James 
Brodie,  who  died  young,  in  1720,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  brother 
Alexander,  born  August  17,  1697.    He  was  appointed  Lord  Lyon  of 

319 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLANS,    SUB-CLANS    AND    FA^^HLIES 

Scotland  in  1727,  and  died  1754,  By  his  wife,  Mary  Sleigh,  he  had  a 
son  Alexander,  and  one  danghter  Emilia.  The  son  and  heir,  born 
May  29,  1741,  died  at  an  early  age  and  was  succeeded  by  his  second 
cousin,  James  Brodie,  son  of  James  Brodie  of  Spynie.  This  gentle- 
man. Lord  Lieutenant  of  the  County  of  Nairn,  was  born  August  31, 
1744,  and  married  Lady  Margaret,  the  youngest  daughter  of  "\Yil- 
liam,  first  Earl  of  Fife;  this  lady  was  burned  to  death  at  Brodie 
Hall,  April  24,  1786.  The  death  of  the  head  of  the  family  occurred 
January  17,  1824,  leaving  two  sons  and  three  daughters.  The  eld- 
est son,  James,  was  drowned  in  his  father's  lifetime,  leaving  by  Ann 
his  wife,  daughter  of  Colonel  Story  of  Ascot,  two  sons  and  five 
daughters.  The  eldest  son,  AVilliam  Brodie,  Escp,  of  Brodie,  in 
Morayshire,  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Nairnshire,  born  July  2,  1799,  suc- 
ceeded his  grandfather,  January,  1824,  married,  November  27,  1838, 
Elizabeth,  third  daughter  of  Colonel  Hugh  Baillie,  M.  P.,  of  Bed 
Castle.  Their  son,  Hugh  Fife  Ashley,  K.  A.,  born  September  8, 
1840,  died  1889,  leaving  Ian  Ashley  as  his  successor. 

There  were  no  sub-clans ;  the  other  branches  of  family  are,  Bro- 
die of  Lethen,  and  Brodie  of  Eastbourne,  Sussex. 

Buchanan  — The  clan  was  founded  by  Auselan,  and  some  his- 
torians claim  it  is  of  ecclesiastical  origin.  It  was  designated  by  the 
name  of  the  ancient  Celtic  race  of  MacAuslan.  In  Gaelic  the  name  is 
usually  Mac-a-Channonaicli  (the  son  of  the  Canon),  therefore  it 
would  seem  to  be  of  Celtic  ecclesiastical  origin.  The  second  genera- 
tion of  the  clan  of  Auselan  was  John  MacAuselan,  and  he  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Auselan  (2nd),  and  his  son  AValter  was  the  fourth  chief- 
tain of  the  clan.  His  successor  was  his  son  Bernard,  who  in  turn 
gave  way  to  his  son  MacBeath.  Tradition  gives  the  foregoing  six 
lairds  as  possessors  of  an  estate  in  the  parish  of  Buchanan  in  Stirl- 
ingshire. 

The  seventh  chieftain,  Auselan  (3d),  son  of  MacBeath,  received 
in  1225  a  charter  of  the  island  of  Clar  in  Loch  Lomond:  this  is  the 
earliest  record.  It  was  towards  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century 
that  Gilbert,  the  son  of  Auselan  (3d),  a  seneschal  of  the  Earl  of 
Lennox,  obtained  from  him  a  part  of  the  lands  of  Buchanan  in  Stirl- 
ingshire and  adopted  the  name  de  Buchanan.  Donald,  sixth  earl  of 
Lennox  renewed  to  Sir  ]\[aurice  (or  Muredach)  the  son  of  Gilbert, 
the  grant  the  former  Earl  had  conferred  upon  his  ancestor.  The 
King  granted  to  his  successor.  Sir  Maurice   (2nd),  a  son  of  Sir 

320 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLAXS,    SUB-CLAXS    AND    FArvHLIES 

Maurice,  a  charter  of  confirmation  of  the  hinds  called  Bouchannane, 
together  with  Sallachy,  these  lands  to  be  held  by  the  delivery  of  a 
cheese  out  of  each  house  in  which  a  cheese  is  made  on  said  lands. 

Through  the  marriage  with  a  daughter  of  Menteith  of  Husky, 
Sir  Walter,  the  son  of  Sir  Maurice  (2nd),  became  connected  with  the 
Eoyal  house.  John,  the  only  son  of  Sir  Walter,  married  the  sole 
heiress  of  the  ancient  family  of  Lennie  or  Leny.  He  died  before  his 
father  and  left  three  sons  — Six  Alexander, who  was  slain  at  the  battle 
of  Verneuil;  AValter,  who  succeeded  to  Buchanan;  and  John, 
who  came  into  possession  of  Lennie.  "Walter  married  Isabel,  daugh- 
ter of  Murdoch,  Duke  of  Albany.  Their  son  Patrick  married  the 
heiress  of  Killearn  and  Auchrech.  Their  youngest  son,  Thomas, 
founded  the  House  of  Drumihill.  The  line  of  succession  became 
extinct  in  16S2,  and  the  estate  was  acquired  by  the  Duke  of  Montrose 
of  the  Graham  clan.  This  estate  extended  along  the  north  and  east 
of  Loch  Lomond,  eighteen  miles,  it  is  said,  at  its  fullest  extent.  The 
headship  of  the  clan  then  went  to  the  Buchanans  of  Lennie,  who  with 
Auchmar,  Carbeth  and  Drumihill  branches  still  survive.  The  Bu- 
chanans, being  at  the  southern  border  of  the  Highlands,  had  the  duty 
of  starting  the  ''Fiery  Cross,"  a  small  wooden  one  with  the  ends  on 
fire  or  charred,  which  was  the  signal  of  warning  sent  from  one  clan 
or  sub-clan  to  the  next,  and  so  on  by  s^"ift  messengers.  One  branch 
of  MacMillan  is  from  Methlen,  the  son  of  Auselan  (2d).  The  clan 
badge  is  a  sprig  of  birch;  its  war-cry,  "Clar  Innis,"  for  an  island 
in  Loch  Lomond. 

Sub-Clans  and  derivation  of  their  names : 

Colman,  from  Colman  (3d),  son  of  Auselan  (2d),  who  was 
named  from  St.  Columbanus;  in  Norman,  Colman. 

Donleavy,  from  the  Gaelic  Duinn-shleibhe,  man  of  the  mountain. 

Dove  or  Dowe,  the  English  translation  of  Colman,  which  is 
from  cohimha,  dove. 

Gibb,  Gibson,  Gilbert,  Gilbertson,  from  Gilbert,  the  eighth 
Laird. 

Harper,  Harperson,  from  a  Buchanan  who  was  an  official  har- 
per. 

Lennie,  from  the  Lennie  estate. 

MacAldonich,  from  the  Gaelic  Mac^Ihuldonich,  from  Muldon- 
ich,  a  man  of  the  Lennie  branch. 

MacAndeoir,  son  of  the  stranger  (deoradh). 

MacAslan  or  McAuslan;  MacCalman  (MacCalmont,  MacCam- 
mond)  MacColraan. 

321 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLANS,    SUB-CLANS    AND    FAMILIES 

MacChruilGi',  i.  e.,  a  son  of  a  harper,  from  the  Gaelic  word  emit, 
harp. 

MacCoraiack,  from  the  Gaelic  MacCormaig;  from  cormac,  a 
bre^'er. 

!MacDonleavy;  MacGibbon,  Mac-Gilbert,  MacGreusich  from  the 
Gaelic  word  grcusaich,  a  shoemaker. 

Maciiially,  (for  MacKiiilay). 

Maclndeor,  ]\IacIndoe,-r,  MacTndie,  MacKindeor,  Mackinder, 
for  MacAndeoir. 

MacKinlay,  Gaelic  MacFhiomilaigh,  from  fiionu,  vrhite,  and 
laocli,  hero;  ]^IacMaurice. 

MacMaster,  from  the  Gaelic  MacMaighister,  and  from  Latin 
maglster,  a  master. 

MacMnrchie,  from  the  Gaelic  MacMurchaidh. 

MacNuyer,  MacXuir. 

jNIacAVattie,  son  of  Watt,  i  e.  Walter,  a  name  among  the  Bu- 
chanans of  Lennie,  derived  from  Sir  Walter,  the  eleventh  Laird  of 
Buchanan.  . 

MacWhirter.  ''^^   ''"'-'     ""     '  '    •••'-^"  .^^:/"n. 

jMasterson. 

Murchie,  Murchison. 
"  Eisk,  Ruskin,  from  Gaelic  narusgaiu  of  the  bark,  i.  e.  a  tanner; 
a  branch  of  MacColman. 

Spittal,  from  Spitalfield,  in  Perthshire.     ^-^_,,  , 

Watson,  Watt. 

Yuill  or  Yule,  born  upon  Yule,  or  Christmas. 

Cameron — This  name  is  from  the  Gaelic  camsliron,  meaning 
wry-nose,  or  crooked  nose.  The  first  Cameron  of  whom  there  is 
any  record  is  Angus,  who  married  Marion,  daughter  of  Kenneth  of 
Lochaber,  and  sister  of  Bancho,  governor  of  Lochaber.  The  Camer- 
ons  held  their  possessions  east  of  the  Lochy  river,  from  the  Lord 
of  the  Isles,  as  superior.  Lochiel  and  Loch-Arkaig  lands  west  of 
Lochy  river  and  Loch  were  granted  to  and  long  held  by  ^MacDonald, 
of  the  clan  Eanald,  before  it  came  into  the  hands  of  the  Camerons. 
Gillespie  or  Archibald,  the  oldest  son  of  Angus,  succeeded  him ;  and 
John,  his  son,  was  the  third  laird.  The  latter 's  son  Robert  was  a 
wdtness  on  record  before  1200  in  the  reign  of  William  the  Lion.  The 
next  laird,  John,  the  son  of  Robert,  had  two  sons ;  Robert  and  Hugo 
are  mentioned  in  1219.  The  next  in  succession  was  Robert,  men- 
tioned above,  who  was  succeeded  by  his  son  John,  who  was  a  prom- 
inent figure  in  the  time  of  Robert  Bruce.  The  next  laird  in  regular 
succession  was  John,  the  son  of  John,  who  was  succeeded  by  Allan, 

322 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLANS,   SUB-CLANS    AND    FAMILIES 

in  whose  time  began  the  feud  between  the  Camerons  and  the  Mac-       ^ 
Intoshes  which  was  not  settled  until  late  in  the  seventeenth  century,       • 
the  Camerons  having  occupied  lands  formerly  held  by  the  ^lac- 
Intoshes.     The  Camerons  were  a  part  of  Clan  Chattan  of  Moray, 
and  followed  its  chief.    A  battle  was  fought  between  them  in  1380; 
and  in  1396,  on  account  of  the  success  of  the  Macintoshes  at  the       "' 
battle  of  North  Inch  in  Perth,  which  gave  them  the  leadership  of 
the  clan,  the  Camerons  withdrew  and  became  a  separate  clan. 

It  was  under  Ewan,  the  tenth  laird  and  oldest  son  of  Allan,  was       ' ' 
fought  the  famous  combat  between  thirty  picked  warriors  of  Cam-       '' 
eron  and  a  like  number  of  Macintosh.     His  brother,  Donald  Dii,       " 
in  1411  was  the  first  assured  chief  of  the  clan,  and  at  the  battle  of 
llarlaw  in  that  year  lost  many  of  his  followers.     He  married  the 
heiress  of  MacMartin  of  Letterfinlay  and  succeeded  to  her  prop- 
erty, thus  uniting  the  Camerons  and  the  MacMartins  under  one 
chief,  the  followers  of  the  latter  adopting  the  name  of  Cameron. 
There  were  at  this  time,  four  branches  of  the  Camerons,  namely, 
Gillonie,  Sorley,  MacMartin  aiid  the  Camerons  of  Lochicl.     ^Vhen       "' 
the  royal  forces  in  1492  attacked  Alexander,  Lord  of  the  Isles, 
Lochiel  adhered  to  him,  and  the  other  three,  with  Clan  Chattan,  went 
over  to  the  King's  forces.     Donald  Du  left  two  sons — Allan,  who      ■"> 
succeeded  him ;  and  Ewen,  the  progenitor  of  the  latter  MacGillonie, 
Camerons  of  Strone.    A.llan  left  two  sons — Ewen,  his  heir ;  and  John, 
from  whom  descended  the  Camerons  of  Callart. 

The  line  of  the  Camerons  of  Lochiel  is  as  follows:  Ewen,  the 
son  of  Allan,  outlived  his  heir  Donald,  who  died  between  1536-1539 ; 
his  son  Ewen  was  the  progenitor  of  the  family  of  Errach,  and  an- 
other son  of  the  Camerons  of  Kin-Lochiel.  The  successor  of  Ewen 
was  his  grandson  Ewen,  known  also  as  ^'Eoghan  Beag,"  who  was  ^^ 
the  father  of  the  famous  w^arrior  Taillear  dubh  na  Tuaighe,  the 
Black  Tailor  of  the  Axe.  His  successor  was  Donald,  recorded  in  a 
grant  of  land  in  1564;  his  nephew  Allan  succeeded  to  chieftainship 
at  the  age  of  fifteen  years,  and  died  about  1647.  When  an  act  of 
Parliament  was  passed  commanding  all  chiefs  and  proprietors  of 
estates  to  appear  in  the  Court  of  Exchequer  before  May  15, 1597,  and 
to  exhibit  charters  and  find  bail  or  security  to  pay  cro^\^l  revenues 
and  to  live  peaceably  in  all  coming  time,  the  clans  were  brought  into 
line  with  the  rest  of  the  kingdom. 

The  next  hereditary  chieftain  was  Sir  Ewen,  a  grandson  of 

3^3 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLANS,    SUB-CLANS    AND    FA.MILIES 

Allan  by  his  oldest  son  John.  lie  was  boru  in  1C29,  in  the  castle  of 
Kilchiirn,  the  residence  of  his  mother's  family,  the  Campbells  of 
Glenorchy.  Sir  Evren  died  in  1719  at  advanced  age,  having  com- 
pleted his  ninetieth  year.  He  was  sncceeded  by  his  son,  John,  who 
died  in  exile  at  Xe\\iDort,  Flanders,  in  17-17  or  17-48,  at  a  very  ad- 
vanced age.  His  eldest  son  Donald,  kno^^^l  as  "The  Gentle  Lochiel," 
was  his  successor.  Like  his  father,  he  joined  in  the  uprisings  of 
1715  and  1715  in  favor  of  Charles  Stuart;  he  was  present  at  the 
battle  of  Falkirk,  also  at  Culloden,  where  he  was  severely  wounded; 
he  escaped  to  France,  where  he  died  October  26,  1748,  having  been 
chief  of  the  clan  less  than  a  year.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son 
John,  who  died  unmarried  in  1762,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  brother 
Charles.  The  latter  died  in  1776,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son 
Donald,  who  was  only  seven  years  of  age.  He  had  the  family 
estates  restored,  subject  to  a  fine  of  £3192  under  the  Indemnity  Act 
of  1784.  He  died  in  1S32,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  oldest  surviving 
son,  Donald,  a  captain  in  the  Grenadier  Guards  who  was  present  at 
the  battle  of  "Waterloo.  His  death  occurred  in  1859,  and  his  eldest 
son  Donald,  born  in  1S35,  became  the  head  of  the  family.  His  death 
took  place  November  30,  1905,  and  he  was  succeeded  by  his  son 
Donald  Walter.  The  badge  of  the  clan  is  crowberry,  and  its  war  cry 
''Sons  of  the  hounds,  come  here  and  get  flesh!" 

Sub-Clans: 

Chalmers. 

Clark,  Clarkson,  Clerk,  MacChlerich,  MacChlery,  all  five  from 
clericus,  a  learned  man.  ,•         ,    , 

Kennedy,  fvom  G'delic  Ceanaid each. 

MacGillonie,  from  Gaelic  Gill-an-fhaigh   (for  fhaidh),  servant 
of  the  prophet. 

]\Iacildowie  from  the  Gaelic  patronymic  of  the  11th  chief  Mac 
Dliomli'uill  duibh. 

MacKail,  for  MacVail.  .  ,        - .     ,.    r< 

I\laclerie,  usually  MacChlerich.  '       .     -:  - . 

Mac]\Iartin,  same  as  called  in  manuscript  of  1167,  Gilla  iNlartain, 
servant  of  St.  ^'-lartin;  later,  Gaelic  MacMhartain. 

MacOnie.  for  MacGillonie.  ! 

]\IacOurlic,  for  MacUlric. 

MacPhail,  a  sen  of  Paul,  head  of  a  branch  of  Cameron. 

MacSorley,  from  Gaelic  Soiuhairle,  a  name  borrowed  from  the 
Lords  of  the  Isles,  descendar.ts  of  Somerled,  Norse,  Sumarlidhi. 

MacUlric,  son  of  Ualrig  Kennedy. 

324  ■    >■-    •  I =  ■•' 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLANS,    SUB-CLANS    AND    FA^HLIES 

Mac  Vail,  for  MacPhail. 

MacWalrick,  variation  of  MaeUlric ;  Martiu. 
Paul;  Sorley. 
Taylor. 

The  main  branches  are  ]\IacGillonie,  MacMartin  and  MacSorley. 
(See  xVlexander  Mackenzie,  "History  of  Cameron"). 

Comphell  of  Argyll — The  Campbells  take  their  surname  from  a 
facial  deformity,  from  the  Gaelic  words  cam,  wry,  and  hruel,  mouth 
— cam-hruel,  wry  mouth.  The  earliest  record  of  the  clan  is  in  12G6, 
when  Gillespie,  or  Gillespie  Cambell  was  a  witness  on  the  charter 
of  Newburgh  in  Fife.  His  name  however  appeared  on  the  Exchequer 
Koll  in  1216,  when  he  returned  as  holding  lands  of  Menstrie  and 
Sauchie  in  Stirling.  He  married  the  heiress  of  Lochaw.  The  war 
cry  of  the  Campbells  is  Cruaclian,  for  a  mountain  near  Loch  Awe; 
the  clan  pipe  music  for  salute,  Failte  Mharcuis,  the  "Marquis  Sa- 
lute;" for  march,  Bail-Ionaraora,  the  Campbells  are  coming;  for 
lament,  Cumha  Mharcuis,  "the  Marquis  Lament."  The  badge  is 
Bold,  wild  myrtle,  or  Garbhag  an  f-sleibhe,  Fir  Club  Moss. 

The  successor  of  Sir  Gillespie  Cambell  was  his  son  Colin 
(Calean),  who  was  reckoned  as  seventh  from  the  founder.  At  this 
same  period  Dugald  Cambell  was  connected  with  Dumbarton  Castle 
about  the  year  1289.  Arthur  and  Thomas  Cambell  in  1296  are  men- 
tioned as  King's  tenants  in  Perthshire,  and  Duncan  Cambell  "of  the 
Isles"  in  the  same  year  swears  fealty  to  Edward  I.  About  the  same 
time  Xeil  Cambell  was  made  King  Edward's  bailie  over  the  lands 
from  Lochfyne  to  Kilmartin  in  Argyll. 

From  Calean  'Mov,  the  prefix  signifying  great,  mentioned  above, 
the  house  of  Argyll  gets  its  patronymic  MacCalean  Mor.  He  was 
knighted  by  King  Alexander  III  in  1280,  and  supported  the  claim 
of  Bruce  to  the  throne  of  Scotland  in  1292,  and  is  entered  on  a  docu- 
ment as  connected  with  Argyll.  Sir  Colin  had  a  quarrel  with  the 
MacDougalls  of  Lorn,  and  in  1294,  at  a  battle  called  "Ath  Doarg" 
(Red  Ford),  sometimes  called  string  of  Lorn,  he  was  slain.  These 
feuds  continued  for  a  series  of  years  between  the  houses  of  Lochin 
and  Lorn,  but  at  last  terminated  by  the  marriage  of  the  first  Earl  of 
Argyll  with  the  heiress  of  Lorn.  Sir  Gillespie,  the  gran.dson  of  the 
first  Sir  Gilespic,  was  a  witness  to  a  charter  in  1266,  and  his  eldest 
son,  Sir  Xigel  or  Neil,  married  :\Iary,  the  sister  of  Robert  Bruce; 
his  name  appears  on  the  Ragman  Roll  of  1299.  The  second  son  of 
Sir  Gillespie,  Sir  Duncan,  founded  the  house  of  the  Campbell  of 

325 


HIGHLAND    SCOTTISH    CLAXS.    SUB-CLANS    AND    FAMILIES 

Londoun.  The  next  chieftain  of  the  clan,  Sir  Colin,  was  a  son  of  Sir 
Nigel ;  he  c